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1 "Without stress, there would be no life. Hans Selye Stress is an unavoidable consequence of life.

As Hans Selye (who coined the term as it is currently used) noted, "Without stress, there would be no life". However, just as distress can cause disease, it seems plausible that there are good stresses that promote wellness. Stress is not always necessarily harmful. Winning a race or election can be just stressful as losing, or more so, but may trigger very different biological responses. Increased stress results in increased productivity -- up to a point. However, this level differs for each of us. It's very much like the stress on a violin string. Not enough produces a dull, raspy sound. Too much tension makes a shrill, annoying noise or snaps the string. However, just the right degree can create a magnificent tone. Similarly, we all need to find the proper level of stress that allows us to perform optimally and make melodious music as we go through life. The body may contain its own best pharmacy. The American Institute of Stress is committed to developing a better understanding of how to tap into the vast innate potential that resides in each of us for preventing disease and promoting health. Good health is more than just the absence of illness. Rather, it is a very robust state of physical and emotional well-being, that acknowledges the importance and inseparability of mind/body relationships. We welcome your joining us in the pursuit of learning how to harness stress, so that it can work for you, and make you more productive, rather than self-destructive. .Always fight for your highest attainable aim but never put up resistance in vain. - Hans Selye REMINISCENCES OF HANS SELYE, AND THE BIRTH OF "STRESS" Paul J. Rosch, M.D., F.A.C.P. Stress has become such an ingrained part of our vocabulary and daily existence, that it is difficult to believe that our current use of the term originated only a little more than 50 years ago, when it was essentially "coined" by Hans Selye. How this came to pass because of a serendipitous laboratory accident is interesting, but not nearly as fascinating as the story of its discoverer, Hans Selye, who would easily qualify for the Reader's Digest "Most Unforgettable Character I Ever Met" classification. Because of our long and close personal and professional relationship, I was privy to a considerable amount of information not available to others. Some personal reminiscences follow: The Physiology and Pathology Of Exposure To STRESS Hans Selye, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.. (1950)

This book is dedicated to those who suffer from stress. TO THOSE WHO - IN THEIR EFFORTS FOR GOOD OR EVIL, FOR PEACE OR WAR HAVE SUSTAINED WOUNDS, LOSS OF BLOOD OR EXPOSURE TO EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE HUNGER, FATIGUE, WANT OF AIR, INFECTIONS, POISONS OR DEADLY RAYS. TO THOSE WHO ARE UNDER THE EXHAUSTING NERVOUS STRAIN OF PURSUING THEIR IDEAL - WHATEVER IT MAY BE TO THE MARTYRS WHO SACRIFICE THEMSELVES FOR OTHERS, AS WELL AS TO THOSE HOUNDED BY SELFISH AMBITION, (From a wood engraving "The Light" by Fritz FEAR, JEALOUSY, Eichenberg.) AND WORST OF ALL BY HATE. RELIEF FROM STRESS FOR MY STRESS STEMS FROM THE URGE TO HELP AND NOT TO JUDGE. BUT MOST PERSONALLY, THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO MY WIFE, WHO HELPED SO MUCH TO WRITE IT, FOR SHE UNDERSTOOD THAT I CANNOT, AND SHOULD NOT, BE CURED OF MY STRESS BUT MERELY TAUGHT TO ENJOY IT.

FRONTISPIECE AND DEDICATION This is from Hans Selye's Dedication to his magnum opus Stress, with over 1,000 pages and more than 5,000 references that was published in 1950. The frontispiece on the left, which occupied a full page, is from an engraving by Fritz Eichenberg, a German artist who was forced to flee to the United States because of his cartoons and caricatures depicting Adolph Hitler as the devil incarnate. Eichenberg later illustrated many books and is best known for his ability to

3 capture emotion by his portrayal of facial expressions.

Photographs of Hans Selye at work in 1951, during my Fellowship at his International Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery at the University of Montreal

The publication of Stress stimulated scientists all over the world and precipitated an avalanche of studies to reproduce and extend Selye's observations. Selye had a fetish about retrieving each one and classifying it using his own symbolic shorthand system so that it could be immediately retrieved via various key words for his enormous library. These were all carefully collated and discussed under appropriate headings in his subsequent Annual Reports on Stress. This photograph shows us celebrating with some champagne following the completion of the 1951 Annual Report on Stress two days ahead of schedule. I was the only American among the 28 Fellows to whom this volume was dedicated. Roger Guillemin, whose office was next to mine, later came to the United States and was awarded a Nobel Prize for his discovery of the endorphins. Our conferences were all held in French, but for those who were not fluent, Selye would provide a translation in Greek, Spanish, Portuguese, German, English, Italian, or Slavish.

Let us never forget that although it works Everything in Life, even its seemingly through a complicated system involving fundamental dissimilarity from the hormones, enzymes, the electric action Inanimate, is a matter of degree ---potentials of nerves . . . . that is why no other generalization about This is how STRESS cries out for help through human eyes Life can be wholly true.

ANNUAL REPORT ON STRESS

by Pleading women of Devdhar village in North India during the famine of 1951. Hans Selye M.D., Ph.D. (Prague), D.Sc. (Mcgill), F.R.S. (Canada) Professor and Director of the Institute de Mdecine et de Chirurgie exprimentales Universit de Montral. 1951

Photographs taken during the meeting at the Tarrytown Conference Center in Tarrytown, New York in 1978 at which The American Institute of Stress was formally established as a not for profit educational organization designed to serve as a clearing house for information on all stress related topics. In addition, we hoped to function as an ombudsman in this rapidly expanding field where a plethora of extravagantly claims for worthless devices and approaches threatened to drown out legitimate research efforts and advances. The meeting was attended by numerous dignitaries and founding Members of the Board of Trustees. Joel Elkes, Distinguished Service Professor and former Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine was the first President of The American Institute of Stress. I succeeded Joel and have served in this post for over two decades.

6 The Closest Chinese Word to Signify Stress Is Written As Two Characters As Illustrated Below And Can Be Translated As

The Upper Character Connotes DANGER The Lower Character Represents OPPORTUNITY Although Selye was fluent in at least eight languages, including English, and could converse in another half dozen, his choice of "stress" to describe the nonspecific response syndrome he discovered, was unfortunate. He had used "stress" in his initial letter to the Editor of Nature in 1936, who suggested that it be deleted since this implied nervous strain and substituted alarm reaction. He was also unaware that stress had been used for centuries in physics to explain elasticity, the property of a material that allows it to resume its original size and shape after having been compressed or stretched by an external force. As expressed in Hooke's Law of 1658, the magnitude of an external force, or stress, produces a proportional amount of deformation, or strain, in a malleable metal. Selye several time complained to me that had his knowledge of English been more precise, he would gave gone down in history as the father of the "strain" concept. This created considerable confusion when his research had to be translated into foreign languages. There was no suitable word or phrase that could convey what he meant, since he was really describing strain. In 1946, when he was asked to give an address at the prestigious Collge de France, where Bernard and Pasteur had been friendly rivals, the academicians responsible for maintaining the purity of the French language struggled with this problem for several days, and subsequently decided that a new word would have to be created. Apparently, the male chauvinists prevailed, and le stress was born, quickly followed by el stress, il stress, lo stress, der stress in other European languages, and similar neologisms in Russian, Japanese, Chinese and Arabic. Stress is one of the very few words that are preserved in English in languages that do not use the Roman alphabet. Finding an acceptable definition of stress was a problem that haunted Selye his entire life and he would occasionally send me cards from all over the world such as the one above or notes containing tidbits of information. As usual, "The Greeks had a word for it." Twenty-four centuries previously, Hippocrates had written that disease was not only pathos (suffering), but also ponos (toil), as the body fought to restore normalcy. While ponos might have sufficed, the Greeks settled for stress. The Japanese subsequently came up with their own version.

7 Because it was clear that most people viewed stress as some unpleasant threat, Selye had to create a new word, "stressor", in order to distinguish between stimulus and response. Even Selye had difficulties when he tried to extrapolate his laboratory research to humans. In helping to prepare the First Annual Report on Stress in 1951, I included the comments of one critic, who, using verbatim citations from Selye's own writings concluded, "Stress, in addition to being itself, was also the cause of itself, and the result of itself."

Selye was fond of sending colleagues and friends cards containing his advice on how to conduct their professional and personal lives, as illustrated below:

In addition, he commissioned art work for special items such as the Claude Bernard Medal he bestowed on visiting dignitaries and the painting below that was created for him by Salvador Dali to commemorate the 2nd International Symposium on the Management of Stress held in Monaco, Monte Carlo - November 18-22, 1979.

Click to view larger image

Circular logo of the Stress of Life Conference Circular pattern: Presentation at the Stress of Life decoration of an 1100 Conference in Budapest, Hungary years old Hungarian silver bag-plate found in Bezdd, Hungary. Center: Drawing of a Hungarian arc from the IXth century. Stamp of Hans Selye issued on the first day of the Conference.

I was invited to deliver a keynote address at the Stress of Life Conference subtitled "Stress and Adaptation from Molecules to Man" (sponsored by the International Congress of Stress) which had been specifically organized to commemorate the 90th anniversary of Hans Selye's birth. The Conference was held in Budapest, Hungary - July 1-5, 1997. Selye would have been astounded by the diversity and quality of the presentations, and deeply appreciative of the accolades he received, and the reverential awe that was evident in every reference to him. Hans Selye (Selye Jnos in Hungarian), was born in Komarno, Slovakia (at that time Komrom, Hungary) in 1907. Selye attended school at a Benedictine monastery, and since his family had produced four generations of physicians, entered the German Medical School in Prague at the age of 17, where he graduated first in his class, and later earned a doctorate in organic chemistry. As a medical student, Selye observed that patients suffering from different diseases, often exhibited identical signs and symptoms. They just "looked sick". This observation may have been the first step in his recognition of "stress". He later discovered and described the General Adaptation Syndrome, a response of the body to demands placed upon it. The Syndrome details how stress induces hormonal autonomic responses and, over time, these hormonal changes can lead to ulcers, high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, arthritis, kidney disease, and allergic reactions. His seminal work "A Syndrome Produced by Diverse Nocuous Agents" was published in 1936 in Nature. Selye's multi-faceted work and concepts have been utilized in medicine and in almost all biological disciplines

9 from endocrinology to animal breeding and social-psychology. Selye spent a significant time of his life in Hungary, in Czechoslovakia, in the USA and in Canada. I first met Selye in 1949, when he was writing his monumental tome "Stress". He was already internationally regarded as one of the world's leading authorities on endocrinology, steroid chemistry, experimental surgery and pathology. Selye once told me that he never felt he really had any nationality of his own but also confided that he was most proud of his Magyar Hungarian heritage. When I was at his Institute, Selye's average workday was 10 to 14 hours, including weekends and holidays. He habitually got up around 5:00 A.M. or earlier, took a dip in the small pool in the basement of his house, and then rode his bicycle six miles to work. We continued to keep in close contact while I was at Johns Hopkins, and later when I headed the Endocrine section at Walter Reed. He wrote to me frequently, often sending me amusing notes from all over the world, and periodically commissioned me to write articles, or review his own, even after I entered private practice. He had numerous requests for consultations, but to the best of my knowledge never saw a patient although he regularly referred many to me. Selye probably received more awards than any other physician (including the highest order of Canada), but not the Nobel Prize, although he was nominated for it several times. Many of his 40 books and over 1700 publications became bestsellers all over the world. Selye died in 1982 in Montreal, Canada; his influence on the scientific community is unabating and his work contributed to a better scientific and popular understanding of disease and its causes. Advances in stress research have always been a function of the level of our knowledge of biochemistry and physiology. Much of what Selye believed and proposed was not entirely correct. He was unaware of a host of other components that were subsequently demonstrated to be important instruments in the stress orchestra. His real legacy can be summed up by what he often reminded me: theories don't have to be correct - only facts do. Many theories are of value simply because of their heuristic value, i.e., they encourage others to discover new facts, which then lead to better theories.

Selye's one and only poem, or prayer - Selye didn't know which, "perhaps both, perhaps neither" - was written at a time in his life when he reached an important crossroad between "the safe but by now commonplace and the hazardous but still excitingly new." Almighty Drive who, through the ages, Have kept men trying to master Nature by understanding, Give me faith-for that is what I need most now. This is a rare and solemn moment in my life: I stumbled across what seems to be A new path into the unknown. A road that promises to lead me closer to You: The law behind the unknown. I think I have the instinctive feeling, And patiently, through the years, I have acquired the kind of knowledge Needed to explore Your laws.

10 But my faith was weakened by this apprenticeship. No longer can it steer me steadily towards my goal. For I have come to distrust faith and overvalue proof. So, let reverence for the unfailing power of all Your known laws Be the source of my faith in the worth of discovering the next commandment. Sometimes I feel lonesome, uncertain on my new trail, For where I go no one has been before And there is no one with whom to share the things I see-or think I see. Still, to succeed, I must convince others to follow me and help; For I also need their faith in me to reinforce my own Which has so little evidence to lean on now, For now is the beginning. A long and hazardous course lies between me and my goal, How could I travel alone? How could I force this fog of half-understanding, That confuses my sense of direction? The other shore is not in sight-alas, there may be none: Yet I-like all those who, before me, Have succumbed to the lure of the vast unknown Must take this risk in exchange For each chance to experience the thrill of discovery. And that thrill I need, or my mind will perish, For-thanks to You-it was not built to stand The stale security of well-charted shore waters. I cannot know whether You listen, But I do know that I must pray: Almighty Drive who, through the ages, Have kept men trying to master Nature by understanding. Give me faith now-for that is what I need most. Hans Selye From Dream to Discovery p 41 The Stress of My Life Second Edition pp. 230-231

Putting Stress in Life Hans Selye and the Making of Stress Theory Russell Viner Institute of Child Health, University of London, Great Ormond Street Childrens' Hospital, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK; fax: +44 171 242 9789; R.Viner@academic.uclh.nhs.uk R.Viner@ich.ucl.ac.uk

11 Hans Selye discovered Stress in 1935 as a syndrome occurring in laboratory rats. In the modern world, Stress has become a universal explanation for human behaviour in industrial society. Selye's discovery arose out of widespread interest in the stability of bodily systems in 1930s' physiology; however, his findings were rejected by physiologists until the 1970s. This analysis is framed in terms of Latour's actor-network theories, and traces the translation of Stress from the animal laboratory into the narratives of modern life experience. This mapping reveals that translation was brought about by Selye's recruitment of a broadly based constituency outside of academic physiology, whose members each saw in Stress a validation of their pre-existing ideas of the relationship of the human mind and body in industrial civilization. While Selye was successful in realizing Stress as a scientific fact, he was unable to make his institute the obligatory passage point for Stress research. Selye's notion of a universal non-specific reaction has become accepted in almost all forms of human discourse about life and health, and physiologists in the 1990s use Stress as a unifying concept to understand the interaction of organic life with the environment. However, this modern use of Stress contains none of the physiological postulates of Selye's original findings. Exploring Psychologys Low Epistemological Profile in Psychology Textbooks Are Stress and Stress Disorders Made within Disciplinary Boundaries? Mary M. Smyth Lancaster University, m.smyth@lancaster.ac.uk Unlike biology textbooks, psychology textbooks do not present autonomous facts of psychology but introduce students to the need for evidence in accounts of psychological knowledge. This paper concerns the range of ways in which textbooks deal with areas where there is knowledge in many sites in addition to academic psychology, using four examples from stress and health. Type A behaviour pattern is presented in detail in textbooks but not as established psychology; coping and health in students are dealt with by a change of genre which allows the readers concerns and knowledge to be placed outside science; stress is given origins in the psychological laboratory with other origins diminished, and then treated as an established entity; only post-traumatic stress disorder is taken for granted and not questioned, that is, it is given entity status without origins being provided and has no history of making within the textbooks themselves. STRESS Definition Hans Selye, M.D., a recognized expert in the field, has defined stress as a "nonspecific response of the body to a demand." Description Without stress, life would be dull and unexciting. Stress adds flavor, challenge and opportunity to life. Too much stress, however, can seriously affect your physical and mental well-being. A major challenge in today's stress-filled world is to make the stress in your life work for you instead of against you. During a stressful situation, the brain signals the release of stress hormones. These chemical substances trigger a series of responses that gives the body extra energy: blood-sugar levels rise, the heartbeat speeds up and blood pressure increases. The muscles tense for action. The blood supply is diverted away from the gut to the extremities to help the body deal with the situation at hand. Stress is

12 with us all the time. It comes from mental or emotional activity, as well as physical activity. It is unique and personal to each of us. So personal, in fact, that what may be relaxing to one person may be stressful to another. For example, if you are an executive who likes to keep busy all the time, "taking it easy" at the beach on a beautiful day may feel extremely frustrating, nonproductive and upsetting. You may be emotionally distressed from "doing nothing." Too much emotional stress can cause physical illness, such as high blood pressure, ulcers or even heart disease. Physical stress from work or exercise is not likely to cause such ailments. The important issue is learning how our bodies respond to these demands. When stress becomes prolonged or particularly frustrating, it can become harmful - causing distress or "bad stress." Recognizing the early signs of distress and then doing something about them can make an important difference in the quality of your life and may actually influence your survival. Stress and Disease Because the stress response couples physiological and emotional responses, it seems probable that stress can translate frustration into physical illness, but the precise mechanisms by which this occurs are not known. In some situations, as with tension headaches or upset stomachs, the connections appear fairly clear. On the other hand, both headaches and bellyaches can occur with no emotional provocation whatsoever. The chain of causation is even less clear when it comes to more chronic and serious conditions, such as heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer. The list of diseases linked to stress is almost endless, and includes asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcers, ulcerative colitis and migraine headaches, among many others. An important distinction that needs to be made. Any of these chronic illnesses can be made harder to bear by a stress-laden situation or an emotionally inadequate response on the part of the patient. On the other hand, it is no longer possible to credit older theories that specific emotional experiences or reactions actually cause these various diseases. On the whole, it seems most likely that stress plays a non-specific role in disease by throwing off the body's natural ability to heal itself. Self Care When stress occurs, it is important to recognize and deal with it. Here are some suggestions for ways to handle stress. As you begin to understand more about how stress affects you as an individual, you will come up with your own ideas on how to ease the tension. Try physical activity. When you are nervous, angry or upset, release the pressure through exercise or physical activity. Running, walking, playing tennis or working in your garden, are just some of the activities you might try. Physical exercise will relieve that "up tight" feeling, relax you, and turn the frowns into smiles. Remember, your body and your mind work together. Share your stress. It helps to talk to someone about your concerns and worries. Perhaps a friend, family member, teacher or counselor, can help you see your problem in a different light. If you feel your problem is serious, you might seek professional help from a psychologist, psychiatrist or social worker. Knowing when to ask for help may help to avoid more serious problems later. Know your limits. If a problem is beyond your control and cannot be changed at the moment, don't fight the situation. Learn to accept what is for now, until such time when you can change it. Take care of yourself. You are special. Get enough rest and eat well. If you are irritable and tense from lack of sleep, or if you are not eating correctly, you will have less ability to deal with stressful situations. If stress repeatedly keeps you from sleeping, you should ask your doctor for help. Make time for fun. Schedule time for both work and recreation. Play can be just as important to your well-being as work; you need a break from your daily routine to just relax and have fun. Be a participant. One way to keep from getting bored, sad, and lonely is to go where it's all happening. Sitting alone can make you feel frustrated. Instead of feeling sorry for yourself, get involved. Offer your services to a neighborhood or volunteer organizations. Help yourself by helping other people. Get involved in the world and the people around you, and you will find they will be attracted to you. You're on your

13 way to making new friends and enjoying new activities. Check off your tasks. Trying to take care of everything at once can seem overwhelming, and as a result, you may not accomplish anything. Instead, make a list of what tasks you have to do and do them one at a time, checking them off as they're completed. Give priority to the most important ones and do those first. Must you always be right? Do other people upset you - particularly when they don't do things your way? Try cooperation instead of confrontation; it's better than fighting and always being "right." A little give and take on both sides will reduce the strain and make you both feel more comfortable. It's OK to cry. A good cry can be a healthy way to bring relief to your anxiety, and it might even prevent a headache or other physical consequence. Take some deep breaths; they also release tension. Create a quiet scene. You can't always get away, but you can "dream the impossible dream." A quiet country scene, painted mentally or on canvas, can take you out of the turmoil of a stressful situation. Change the scene by reading a good book or playing beautiful music to create a sense of peace and tranquillity. Avoid self-medication. Although you can use drugs to relieve stress temporarily, drugs do not remove the conditions that caused the stress in the first place. Drugs, in fact, may be habit-forming and create more stress than they relieve. They should be taken only on the advice of your doctor. The best strategy for avoiding stress is to learn how to relax. Unfortunately, many people try to relax at the same pace that they lead the rest of their lives. For a while, tune out your worries about time, productivity, and "doing it right." You will find satisfaction in just being, without striving. Find activities that give you pleasure and that are good for your mental and physical well-being. Forget about always winning and focus on relaxation, enjoyment, and health. Be good to yourself. Questions Are there any tests to determine the cause of the stress? If untreated, could the stress cause a more serious condition to occur? Should a psychiatrist or psychologist be consulted? Could the stress be caused by a chemical imbalance? Would you recommend prescription drugs or therapy groups? Should stressful situations be avoided?

TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION (TM) The transcendental meditation technique, or TM, is popular form of meditation. Proponents have claimed it to be a simple, natural, easy-to-learn mental technique. History In 1957, at the end of a big "festival of spiritual luminaries" in remembrance of the previous Shankaracharya of the North, Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, his disciple Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (or simply "Maharishi") inaugurated a "movement to spiritually regenerate the world". That was the formal beginning of TM spreading all over the world. In the movement's initial stages, Maharishi emphasised the religious aspects of TM and operated under the auspices of an organisation named the 'Spiritual Regeneration Movement'. However, the requirements of the West made him adopt a more secular approach in the 1970s. He focussed on western science both to show theoretical parallels with his thinking and practical verification of the results of TM. The main emphasis was on relaxation, relief from stress, and improved personal effectiveness.

14 In the early 1970s, Maharishi launched "The World Plan" to have a TM teaching centre for each million of the world's population, which at that time would have meant 3,600 TM centres. Many such centres were established for a time, but not all are operational now. Today, there are TM-centers and facilities all around the world, and over five million people have learned the technique. Since 1990, Maharishi co-ordinates his global activities from the town of Vlodrop in the municipality of Roerdalen in Holland. Technique and procedures TM is to be practised fifteen to twenty minutes twice daily while sitting comfortably in a chair. In essence, the TM technique comprises the silent mental repetition of a simple sound known as a mantra, allowing the repetition to become quieter and quieter, until it disappears and one is left conscious, but without thoughts. This is the goal of the inward stroke of meditation and is called pure consciousness (in Sanskrit: turiya or samadhi; with Abraham Maslow: peak experience). Together with the mind, the body has come to rest too, and starts to clear out "stress". This means bodily activity, and therefore also mental activity in the form of thoughts: the outward stroke of meditation. After the purification has finished, the inward stroke starts again, etc. Stress In Hans Selye's definition, stress is a neutral concept, simply meaning "load". He distinguishes eustress and distress, roughly meaning "challenge" and "overload". According to Selye, the physical changes during TM are the opposite of the body's reaction to stress. (In common usage, the word stress has taken on a meaning close to Selye's distress.) In TM-lingo, stress is defined as "structural or material impurities resulting from overload on the physiology", which includes both body and mind. The assumption is that it is possible to purify the physiology completely, and that that is the goal of human life, equal to gaining enlightenment. The mantra According to the TM organisation the mantras comprise meaningless sounds specifically chosen to have a soothing effect upon the individual's nervous system. Examining the full list of mantras issued by sources disassociated from the TM movement over the years shows that each mantra names one of the Hindu gods. (It is also possible that the Hindu deities are named after mantras.) This may concern anyone who already committedly practises another religion. However, the TM organization maintains that TM does not constitute a religion and that its practice remains compatible with all faiths. There is some controversy as to whether or not TM actually is a religion. The primary argument for TM being a religion is that it involves spirituality, and the primary argument for TM not being a religion is that it does not involve faith. The TM organisation encourages practitioners to keep their mantra private and never to repeat it aloud, since it allegedly has the purpose of moving inwards into the 'refined' levels of the mind. The organisation has attempted to keep the precise method for choosing a mantra a secret, but ex-TM teachers have stated that mantra choice simply depends on the age of person at the time of initiation. They assert that if a student repeats the initiation at a later age at a different TM centre without mentioning the former initiation, the student will receive a different mantra.

15 TM and religion With regard to religion, Maharishi states that: Religion and meditation are both necessary -- "One without the other will not survive." Everyone should follow their own religion. At its beginning, every religion included transcendental meditation. Now that religions have forgotten the technique, they are "like bodies from which the soul has departed". Effects and claims The TM movement has referenced many medical and sociological studies to strengthen the scientific acceptability of its claims, although critics have questioned the independence and methodological fitness of many of the studies. More recent research has documented certain harmful effects in a minority of long-term practitioners, including troubling physical tics, emotional volatility and inability to concentrate. The more basic claims of lowering blood pressure, decreasing cholesterol and strengthening the immune system do seem to be more robustly confirmed. Hans Selye has examined the changes measured in TM-practitioners, and found that the therapeutic effect was clearest in conditions caused by wrong ways of adapting and reacting to stress. According to the proponents of TM, the practice helps in attaining "higher consciousness", which every human being allegedly possesses in common, and which allegedly interacts with one's daily choices. Proponents also assume that in daily existence, humans of flesh and blood do not stand as close to this higher consciousness as they could do. TM therefore basically aims to get closer to this consciousness. Since the higher consciousness allegedly equates to the good, people approaching this higher consciousness should more readily understand, intuitively, what 'good' means and will thus more likely behave well. This leans on a belief that it is desirable to act well, and undesirable to act badly, in line with arguments proposed by Plato's Socrates in Meno and in The Republic. In the late 1970s the claims for the TM technique and associated advanced "Siddhi Techniques" became more radical and increasingly targeted at existing adherents. Propounded benefits include a measurable decreased crime rate in cities with 1% of the population practising TM, or the square root of that number practising the TM-Sidhis program (this phenomenon being called "the Maharishi Effect"), and extraordinary effects including metaphysical levitation. The more recent interpretations of TM's significance mostly examine its health claims, such as reduced blood pressure and better concentration. In these areas its supporters can view TM as simply the most effective form of waking relaxation. Some of the contemporary proponents of meditation claim that it can lead to reductions in stress, hostility, illusions and attachments, and can help in treating mental illness. On the other hand, evidence exists that meditation can lead to more mental problems in psychiatric patients. Criticism

16 Critics of TM assert that transcendental meditation consists simply of standard meditation as practised by many religions, and that absolutely no basis exists for anyone to claim that they invented it or spread it. Many cult researchers consider TM a cult, according to them one of the largest of the present day. An organization called ex-TM exists for people who formerly practised transcendental meditation. This organization has the general agenda of denouncing transcendental meditation as a dangerous cult. The organization also describes the effects of TM as hypnotic. See also The Transcendental Meditation (TM) Program - Official website

http://www.tm.org/
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Transcendental Meditation". (Below) Transcendental Meditation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Transcendental meditation) Transcendental Meditation, or TM, is the trademarked name of a meditation technique introduced in 1958 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1917-2008). The technique, practiced for twenty minutes twice a day while sitting with one's eyes closed,[1] does not involve concentration or contemplation.[2] Contents [hide]

1 Teaching procedure 2 Principles of the technique 3 Origin 4 Research o 4.1 Effect on the physiology o 4.2 Range of studies o 4.3 Medical research o 4.4 Research on cognitive function o 4.5 Research funding from the NIH 5 Reception o 5.1 Relationship to religion and spirituality o 5.2 Cult issues 6 Lawsuits 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

17 Teaching procedure The technique is taught by certified TM instructors to new practitioners in a standardized, seven-step procedure, consisting of two introductory lectures, and a personal interview, offered as introductory without charge; a two-hour instruction session given on each of four consecutive days follows for those interested in learning the technique. The first instruction begins with a short ceremony performed by and for the teacher, after which the student learns the technique and begins to practice at home twice per day. Subsequent sessions provide further clarification of correct practice, as well as more information about the technique.[3][4] According to the official web sites, the Transcendental Meditation technique can only be learned from an authorized teacher; the fee provides for the course of seven lessons, and lifetime checking of the technique for correct practice.[5] Principles of the technique The Transcendental Meditation technique is described as a mental procedure that allows the mind to quiet itself. During the initial instruction session the practitioner is given a specific sound, mantra that is personally selected by the instructor. The sound that is given has no meaning assigned to it and is utilized as a thought in the meditation process. In The Science of Being and Art of Living Maharishi Mahesh Yogi writes that this allows the individuals attention to be directed naturally from an active style of functioning to a less active or quieter style of mental activity. As the mind quiets down, the practitioner can become aware that the thought itself is transcended, and have the experience of what Maharishi calls the 'source of the thought', transcendental Being. Maharishi states in his book that the practice of allowing the mind to experience its deeper levels, over time, brings these levels within the capacity of the conscious mind. Maharishi goes on to describe the TM technique as one which requires no preparation, is simple to do, and can be learned by anyone.[6] Origin In 1955, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Prasad Varma), an Indian ascetic[7], began teaching a meditation technique that he said was derived from the Vedic tradition[8] and which came to be called Transcendental Meditation. Prior to this, Maharishi had studied with Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, serving as his secretary from 1941 until Brahmananda Saraswati's death in 1953. In 1957, Maharishi began the Spiritual Regeneration Movement in Madras, India, on the concluding day of a festival held in remembrance of his deceased teacher. In 1958 he began the first of a number of worldwide tours promoting and disseminating his technique. In the early 1970s, Maharishi undertook to establish one Transcendental Meditation teaching center for each million of the world's population, which at that time would have meant 3,600 Transcendental Meditation centers throughout the world. In 1990, Maharishi began the coordination of the teaching of the Transcendental Meditation technique from the town of Vlodrop, the Netherlands, through an organization he called the Global Country of World Peace. This group reports that more than 6 million people worldwide have learned the Transcendental Meditation technique since its introduction.[9] Research

18 Effect on the physiology Research studies have described specific physiological effects that occur during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. The first of these studies was published in the early 1970s, in Science[10], American Journal of Physiology,[11] and Scientific American[12]. This research found that the Transcendental Meditation technique produced a physiological state that the researchers called a "wakeful hypometabolic state." During the practice of the technique the researchers found significant reductions in respiration, minute ventilation, tidal volume, blood lactate, and significant increases in basal skin resistance, while EEG measurements showed increased coherence and integration of brain functioning,[13]. In 1987 researchers at Maharishi University of Management, Dillbeck, M.C., and D.W. Orme-Johnson, concluded that the physiology was alert rather than asleep during TM practice.[14] Range of studies Studies have suggested a positive correlation between the Transcendental Meditation technique and possible health-related physiological states, including improvement in lung function for patients with asthma, [15] reduction of high blood pressure,[16] an effect the researchers termed "younger biological age",[17] decreased insomnia,[18] reduction of high cholesterol,[19] reduced illness and medical expenditures,[20] decreased outpatient visits,[21] decreased cigarette smoking,[22] decreased alcohol use,[23]. and decreased anxiety.[24]. Medical research In a 1975 study published in the journal Respiration, twenty one patients with bronchial asthma (who were excluded for significant emphysema by single breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) were studied in a six month RCT designed study, (with the researchers but not the patients blind to the treatment modality) using the Transcendental Meditation technique and employing a crossover trial format using reading as a crossover control. The researchers concluded that based on the marked reduction in asthma symptom-severity duration, a statistically significant improvement of pulmonary function test abnormalities (in raw measured values of cm/H2O/liter/sec determined using spirometry and body plethysmography), and from subject and physician evaluations, that the practice of the TM is a useful adjunct in the treatment of asthma. [25] In a 1976 study published in The Lancet, seven hypertensive patients learned the Transcendental Meditation technique with six patients showing significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) during the first three months of meditation practice. During the second three months of the six month study, three of the patients continued to show reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [26] Another study published in the Lancet in 1977 which involved 20 hypertensive patients, found that the Transcendental Meditation technique was associated with a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure and pulse rate in the first 3 months of practice, but that this effect did not continue for most of the patients during the second three months of the six month study, which on average showed no significant change of BP from baseline values during that second three month time period. [27] In 2005, the American Journal of Cardiology published a review of two studies that looked at stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and mortality among patients receiving treatment for high blood pressure.[28] This study was a long-term, randomized trial. It evaluated the death rates of 202 men and women, average age 71,

19 who had mildly elevated blood pressure. The study tracked subjects for up to 18 years and found that the group practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique had death rates that were reduced by 23%. Also in 2005, the American Journal of Hypertension published the results of a study that found the Transcendental Meditation technique may be useful as an adjunct in the long-term treatment of hypertension among African-Americans.[29] In 2006, a study involving 103 subjects published in the American Medical Association's Archives of Internal Medicine found that coronary heart disease patients who practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique for 16 weeks showed improvements in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and autonomic nervous system tone, compared with a control group of patients who received health education.[30] The American Heart Association has published two studies on the Transcendental Meditation technique. In 2000, the association's journal, Stroke, published a study involving 127 subjects that found that, on average, the hypertensive, adult subjects who practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique daily experienced reduced thickening of coronary arteries, thereby decreasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. After six to nine months, carotid intima-media thickness decreased in the group that was practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique as compared with matched control subjects.[31] Also, in 1995 the association's journal Hypertension published the results of a randomized, controlled trial in which a group of older African-Americans practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure.[32] Also in 2006, a functional MRI study of 24 patients conducted at the University of California at Irvine and published in the journal NeuroReport found that the long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique may reduce the affective/motivational dimension of the brain's response to pain..[33] In 2008, researchers at the University of Kentucky conducted a meta-analysis of nine qualifying RCT published studies which used Transcendental Meditation to address patients with hypertension, and found that on average across all nine studies, the practice of TM was associated with approximate reductions of 4.7 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and 3.2 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure. The researchers concluded that "...Sustained blood pressure reductions of this magnitude are likely to significantly reduce risk for cardiovascular disease.". The study was published in the March, 2008, issue of the American Journal of Hypertension.[34] Research on cognitive function A paper published in the Journal of Applied Psychology in 1978 found no effect on school grades.[35] A 1985 study in the British Journal of Educational Psychology, and a 1989 study in Education showed improved academic performance.[36] [37] A paper published in 2001 in the journal, Intelligence, reported the effects on 362 Taiwanese students of three randomized, controlled trials that used seven standardized tests. The trials measured the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique, a contemplative meditative technique from the Chinese tradition, and napping, on a wide range of cognitive, emotional and perceptual functions. The three studies ranged in time from six months to one year. Results indicated that taken together the Transcendental Meditation group had significant improvement on all seven measurements compared to the non-treatment and napping control groups. Contemplative meditation showed a significant result in two categories, and napping had no effect. The results included an increase in IQ, creativity, fluid intelligence, field independence, and practical intelligence.[38]

20 In 2003 a study in the journal, Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, reviewed ten randomized, controlled trials that looked at the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognitive function. Four trials showed a significant effect on cognitive function, while the remaining trials showed mixed results. Study authors, Canter and Ernst, noted that the four positive trials used subjects who had already intended to learn the Transcendental Meditation technique, and attributed the significant positive results to an expectation effect.
[39]

A 1971 survey by Leon Otis found that a significant percentage of those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique also report feeling anxiety, confusion, and depression.[40] A 1977 study in the Journal of Clinical Psychology showed reduced anxiety in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared to controls who relaxed passively.[41] A 1989 meta-analysis published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology compared 146 independent studies on the effect of different meditation and relaxation techniques in reducing trait anxiety. Transcendental Meditation was found to produce a larger effect than other forms of meditation and relaxation in the reduction of trait anxiety. Additionally it was concluded that the difference between Transcendental Meditation and the other meditation and relaxation techniques appeared too large to be accounted for by the expectation effect.[42] A 1990 study published in the Japanese Journal of Industrial Health, conducted at Sumitomo Heavy Industries by the Japanese Ministry of Labour and others. looked at Transcendental Meditation and its effect on mental health and industrial workers. In the study 447 employees learnt the Transcendental Meditation technique and 321 employees served as controls. After a 5-month period, the researchers found significant decreases in major physical complaints, impulsiveness, emotional instability, and anxiety amongst the meditators compared to controls. The meditators also showed significant decreases in digestive problems, depression, and tendency toward psychosomatic disease, insomnia, and smoking.[43] Research funding from the NIH As of 2004, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) had spent more than $20 million funding research on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on heart disease[1]. In 1999, the NIH awarded a grant of nearly $8 million to Maharishi University of Management to establish the first research center specializing in natural preventive medicine for minorities in the U.S.[44] The research institute, called the Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, was inaugurated on October 11, 1999, at the University's Department of Physiology and Health in Fairfield, Iowa.[45] Reception Relationship to religion and spirituality Official Transcendental Meditation websites state that the Transcendental Meditation technique is a mental technique for deep rest that is associated with specific effects on mind and body. These sites state that the Transcendental Meditation technique does not require faith, belief, or a change in lifestyle to be effective as a relaxation technique.[46] Maharishi called the Transcendental Meditation technique "a path to God,"[47] and the TM technique has been described as "spiritual" but not religious, and as a coping strategy for life.[48]

21 Clergy have varying views when assessing the compatibility of the Transcendental Meditation technique with their religions. For example, Jaime Cardinal Sin, then Catholic Archbishop of Manila, said that some concepts taught by Maharishi conflict with Christianity.[49] Other clergy, including Catholic clergy, have found the Transcendental Meditation technique to be compatible with their religious teachings and beliefs. [50] [51] [52] In 1979 the Third Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that a curriculum in the Science of Creative Intelligence, which included the Transcendental Meditation technique, could not be taught in New Jersey public schools because it violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.[53][54] [55] The court ruled that although Transcendental Meditation/Science of Creative Intelligence is not a theistic religion it deals with issues of ultimate concern, truth, and other ideas analogous to those in well-recognized religions. Because the ruling centered around a curriculum in the Science of Creative Intelligence, and because the Wallace v. Jaffree decision in 1986 allows for quiet time/meditation with a secular purpose, instruction in the Transcendental Meditation technique has continued in public charter schools, despite comments like those of sociologist Barry Markovsky, who felt that teaching the Transcendental Meditation technique in the schools is stealth religion." [56] Cult issues In 1987, the Cult Awareness Network (CAN) held a press conference and demonstration in Washington, D.C., saying that the organization that teaches the Transcendental Meditation technique seeks to strip individuals of their ability to think and choose freely. Steve Hassan, author of several books on cults, and at one time a CAN deprogrammer, said in the same press conference that those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique display cult-like behaviors.[57] Cult-like tendencies are described in Michael A. Persinger's book, TM and Cult Mania, published in 1980.[58] David Orme-Johnson, former faculty member at Maharishi University of Management (at which all students and faculty practice the Transcendental Meditation technique daily) who has researched the Transcendental Meditation technique and the paranormal Maharishi Effect, cites studies by Schecter[59], Alexander [60], and Pelletier[61] showing greater autonomy, innovative thought, and increases in creativity, general intelligence and moral reasoning in those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique. According to OrmeJohnson cult followers are said to allegedly operate on blind faith and adherence to arbitrary rules and authority, while these studies would indicate the ability of those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique to make mature, independent, principlebased judgments.[62] Lawsuits Kropinski v. WPEC In a civil suit against the World Plan Executive Council filed in 1985,[63] Robert Kropinski claimed fraud, psychological, physical, and emotional harm as a result of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. The district court dismissed Kropinski's claims concerning intentional tort and negligent infliction of emotional distress, and referred the claims of fraud and negligent infliction of physical and psychological injuries to a jury trial. The jury awarded Robert Kropinski $137,890 in the fraud and negligence claims. The appellate court overturned the award and dismissed Kropinski's claim alleging psychological damage. The claim of fraud and the claim of a physical injury

22 related to his practice of the TM-Sidhi program were remanded to the lower court for retrial, and the parties then settled these remaining claims out of court.[64] Butler/Killian vs. MUM Two lawsuits were filed as a result of a stabbing at Maharishi University of Management in Fairfield, Iowa on March 1, 2004.[65] The families of the murdered student and a student who was assaulted earlier in the day have sued MUM and the Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation. Their separate suits, filed on February 24, 2006, allege that the twice-daily practice of Transcendental Meditation, which the university requires of all students, can be dangerous for people with psychiatric problems. They also charge the university with failing to call the police or take action to protect students from a mentally ill student.[66][67] References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ^ The Transcendental Meditation Program ^ Shear, Jonathan (2006). The Experience of Meditation, 25, 30-32, 43-44 ^ The Seven-Step Course ^ 7 Steps to Learn the TM ^ Must be learned from a qualified teacher ^ Mahesh Yogi, Maharishi (1995) The Science of Being and Art of Living. New York, Meridian. 7. ^ Coplin, J.R. (1990)Text and Context in the Communication of a Social Movement's Charisma, Ideology, and Consciousness: TM for India and the West. University of California, San Diego, p. 64 8. ^ http://www.mum.edu/tm 9. ^ The Transcendental Meditation Program 10. ^ Wallace RK. Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 1970;167:17511754 11. ^ Wallace RK, Benson H, Wilson AF. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 1971;221:795-799 12. ^ Wallace RK. The Physiology of Meditation. Scientific American 1972;226:84-90 13. ^ Dillbeck, M.C. and E.C. Bronson: 1981, "Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence", International Journal of Neuroscience 14, pp. 147-151 14. ^ Dillbeck, M.C., and D.W. Orme-Johnson: 1987, "Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest", American Psychologist 42, pp. 879881 15. ^ Wilson, AF., Honsberger, R., Chiu, JT., Novey, HS. "Transcendental meditation and asthma." Respiration, 1975, 74-80. 16. ^ Hypertension 26: 820827, 1995 17. ^ International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 5358, 1982 18. ^ Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212215, 1985 19. ^ Journal of Human Stress 5: 24-27, 1979 20. ^ The American Journal of Managed Care 3: 135144, 1997 21. ^ The American Journal of Managed Care 3: 135144, 1997 22. ^ Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 1387, 1994 23. ^ Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 1387, 1994 24. ^ Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957974, 1989 25. ^ Wilson, AF., Honsberger, R., Chiu, JT., Novey, HS. "Transcendental meditation and asthma." Respiration, 1975, 74-80.

23 26. ^ Blackwell, B., Bloomfield, S., Gartside, P., Robinson, A., Hanenson, I., Magenheim, H., Nidich, S., Zigler, R. "Transcendental meditation in hypertension. Individual response patterns." The Lancet, January 31, 1976, 223-6. 27. ^ Pollack, A. A., Weber, M. A., Case, D. B., Laragh, J. H. "Limitations of Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of essential hypertension." The Lancet, January 8, 1977, 71-73. 28. ^ Schneider RH et al.. "Long-Term Effects of Stress Reduction on Mortality in Persons >55 Years of Age With Systemic Hypertension" (PDF). http://161.58.228.161/TM_and_mortality.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-09-12. 29. ^ Schneider RH et al.. "A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year". http://www.ajhus.org/article/PIIS0895706104010088/abstract. Retrieved on 2006-09-12. 30. ^ Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects With Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Internal Medicine, Maura Paul-Labrador et al,, Vol. 166 No. 11, June 12, 2006 31. ^ Stroke. 2000 Mar;31(3):568-73. 32. ^ A Randomized Controlled Trial of Stress Reduction for Hypertension in Older African Americans, Robert H. Schneider et al, Hypertension, 1995, 26: 820-827 33. ^ Orme-Johnson DW et al.. "Neuroimaging of meditation's effect on brain reactivity to pain". http://www.neuroreport.com/pt/re/neuroreport/abstract.0000175620060821000026.htm;jsessionid=FG1JDGN8fXtCs1LW2Lcv51LdS2Pvz1D88ylnnGy9d5djbym vYPQS!1230047961!-949856144!8091!-1? index=1&database=ppvovft&results=1&count=10&searchid=1&nav=search. Retrieved on 2006-09-12. 34. ^ "My Blood Pressure". http://www.my-blood-pressure.com/transcendentalmeditation.html. 35. ^ Carsello, C. J. and Creaser, J. W. "Does Transcendental Meditation Training Affect Grades?" Journal of Applied Psychology, 1978, 63, 644-645. 36. ^ Nidich, S.I. and Nidich, R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302304, 1989. 37. ^ Kember, P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164166, 1985. 38. ^ Intelligence (September/October 2001), Vol. 29/5, pp. 419-440 39. ^ Canter, P., Ernst, E. (2003) The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive functiona systematic review of randomised controlled trials Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2003 November 28;115(21-22):758-766 40. ^ Deane H. Shapiro and Roger N. Walsh, editors, Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives (New York: Aldine Publishing Co., 1984), p. 207 41. ^ Dillbeck M. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977, 33: 1076-1078 42. ^ Eppley K, Abrams A, Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1989, 45: 957-74 43. ^ Haratani T, Henmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health, 1990, 32: 656 44. ^ Vedic Medicine, Meditation Receive Federal Funds, U.S. Medicine,Matt Pueschel, July 2000 45. ^ NIH Awards $8 Million Grant to Establish Research Center on Natural Medicine 46. ^ http://www.tm.org/discover/glance/what.html 47. ^ Meditations of Maharishi. p. 59

24 48. ^ Zellers, Kelly L., Perrewe, Pamela. The Role of Spirituality in Occupational Stress and Well-Being, Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance, M.E. Sharp, December 2002. 49. ^ http://www.rcam.org/library/pastoral_statements/1981-1986/0025.htm 50. ^ Vesely,Carolin, Its All in Your Mind Winnipeg Free Press, March 21, 2006. 51. ^ Smith, Adrian B. A Key to the Kingdom of Heaven: A Christian Understanding of Transcendental Meditation. Temple House Books, 1993. 52. ^ Pennington, Basil. TM and Christian Prayer, Daily We Touch Him: Practical Religious Experiences. Doubleday, 1977:73 53. ^ Introduction to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment 54. ^ Malnak v. Yogi, 592 F.2d 197, 203 (3rd Cir., 1979) 55. ^ In his concurring opinion, Judge Adams said that the ceremony didn't violate the Establishment Clause because (a) the Puja was never performed in a school classroom, or even on government property; (b) it was never performed during school hours, but only on a Sunday; (c) it was performed only once in the case of each student; (d) it was entirely in Sanskrit with neither the student nor, apparently, the teacher who chanted it, knowing what the foreign words meant. Moreover, the elements of involuntariness present in Engel and Schempp are wholly absent here. Malnak v. Yogi, 592 F.2d 197, 203 (3rd Cir., 1979) 56. ^ Man Fails To Fly, Sues Camlot Owner, GTR News Online, Nancy K. Owens 57. ^ Group Says Movement a Cult, The Washington Post, Phil McCombs, July 2, 1987 58. ^ Michael A. Persinger et al, Christopher Pub House, May 1980, ISBN 0815803923 59. ^ Shecter, H. The Transcendental Meditation program in the classroom: A psychological evaluation. Doctoral thesis (summary), Graduate Department of Psychology, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada. Dissertation Abstracs International 38 (07) (1977): 3372B 60. ^ Alexander, C. N. Ego development, personality and behavioral change in inmates practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique or participating in other programs. Doctoral thesis, Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1982. Dissertation Abstracts International 43 (1982): 539B 61. ^ Pelletier, K. R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 10311034, 1974 62. ^ www.TruthAboutTM.org/truth/IndividualEffects/IsTMaCult/index.cfm 63. ^ United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Civil Suit #85-2848, 1986 64. ^ Kropinski v. WPEC, 853 F.2d 948 65. ^ Trouble in transcendental paradise as murder rocks the Maharishi University, The Observer, May 2, 2004 66. ^ Butler v. Maharishi University of Management, US District Court, Southern District of Iowa, Central Div., Case No. 06-cv-00072 67. ^ Kilian v. Maharishi University of Management, US District Court, Southern District of Iowa

Druckman, Daniel & Robert, editors, Bjork (NRC 1991), written at Washington, DC, In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance, National Academy Press, 122 Barnes, Vernon A.; Lynnette B. Bauza & Frank A. Treiber (2003), "Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents", Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (10), <http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-1-10> Barnes, Vernon A.; Frank A. Treiber & Harry Davis (2001), "Impact of Transcendental Meditation1 on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure", Journal of Psychosomatic Research 51 (4): 597-605, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00261-6>

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Hagelin, John S.; Maxwell V. Rainforth & David W. Orme-Johnson et al. (1999), "Effects of Group Practice of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Preventing Violent Crime in Washington, D.C.: Results of the National Demonstration Project, JuneJuly 1993", Social Indicators Research (Springer) 47 (2): 153-201, <http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/soci/1999/00000047/00000002/00198 917?> MacLean, Christopher R. K.; Kenneth G. Walton & Stig R. Wenneberg et al. (1997), "Effects of the Trancendentale Meditation program on adaptive mechanism: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice", Psychoneuroendocrinology 22 (4): 227-295, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S03064530(97)00003-6> Rabinoff, Robert A.; Michael C. Dillbeck & Robert Deissler (1981), "Effect of coherent collective consciousness on the weather", Scientific Research On Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme - Collected Papers 4, paper 324: 2564-2565, <http://www.mum.edu/tm_research/tm_biblio/socio_c.html> Randi, James (1982), "Chapter 5, "The Giggling Guru: A Matter of Levity"", written at Buffalo, New York, Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions; [introduction by Isaac Asimov], Prometheus Books, ISBN 0-87975-198-3, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0879751983> Paul-Labrador, Maura; Donna Polk & James Dwyer et al. (2006), "Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects With Coronary Heart Disease", Archives of Internal Medicine 166: 1218-1224, <http://archinte.amaassn.org/cgi/content/short/166/11/1218> Travis, Frederick; Alarik Arenander & David DuBois (2004), "Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed object-referral/self-referral continuum of self-awareness", Consciousness and Cognition 13: 401-420, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2004.03.001>

Further reading

Geoff Gilpin, The Maharishi Effect: A Personal Journey Through the Movement That Transformed American Spirituality, Tarcher-Penguin 2006, ISBN 1-58542-5079 Kropinski v. World Plan Executive Council, 853 F, 2d 948, 956 (D.C. Cir, 1988) Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita : A New Translation and Commentary, Chapters 1-6. ISBN 0140192476. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Science of Being and Art of Living : Transcendental Meditation ISBN 0452282667. Mason, Paul (2005), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: The Biography of the Man Who Gave Transcendental Meditation to the World, Evolution Publishing, 335 pages, ISBN 09550361-0-0 Persinger, Michael (1980), TM and Cult Mania, Christopher Pub House, 198 pages, ISBN 0-8158-0392-3

External links

Official site.

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