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Forwarded herewith to the Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Univesity, Nagpur, and the dissertation


Submitted by- Sandeep P. Ajmire , in partial fulfillment of the award of the degree of Master of Technology in Environmental Engineering.

Prof. A. L. Nashine Head of department Dept. of Civil Engg. MIET , Gondia

Prof. Dr.S.S. Rathor Principal MIET Gondia


This is to certify that dissertation entitled


Submitted by Sandip P.Ajmire , in practical fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Master of Technology in Environmental Engineering to The Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj University, Nagpur , is bonafide research work carried out under my supervision and guidance. The work embodied in this dissertation has not submitted previously for the award of any degree or diploma.

Prof . A.M. Deshpande Supervisor Dept. Of Civil Engineering MIET GONDIA

Prof.AL Nashine Head Of Department Dept. Of Civil Engineering MIET GONDIA

I express my profound gratitude towards Prof. A.M. Deshpande ,Lecturer , Department of Civil Engineering. MIET Gondia, for this able guidance. I am extremely Grateful to Hon President Mr. Choudhari & CEO A.V. Dhoke, Municipal Council Gadchiroli . Mr .M.G. Nisal , Lab Asst . Environmental Engineering Lab MITE ,Gondia , without whose help the project might have been completed. Mr. S.P. Waghmare, Executive Engineer Jeewan Pradhikarn Gadchiroli & his technical and non technical staff , without whose help the project might have been completed. I express heartfelt thankful to Prof. Dr. S.S. Rathod , Principal & Prof .A.L.Nashine, H.O.D., Civil Engineering & Prof. P.E.Mishra Coordinate, PG Deptt. Of Environmentel Engg.,MIET, Gondia, for providing necessary facilities in the completion of this work and for his constant encouragement.

Sandeep P. Ajmire

1.1. General 1.2 . Polution Problem 1.3 . Standards of Disposal 1.4. Treatment methodology 1.5. Objective and scope of study

2.1. General 2.2. Characteristics of domestic waste water 2.3. Tretment Processes 2.4. Process selection criteria for treatment of various domestic waste water 2.5. Application of Phytoremedation to domestic waste water

3.1. History & back round 3.2. Definition & types of Phytoremedation 3.3.Introduction of Phytoremedation by Lemna 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7 3.3.8 3.3.9 3.4. 3.5

PLANTS AND METHOD 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5 4.9.6 4.9.7 4.10


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7



The population of glob is increasing, the problem of municipal & industrial waste tedious day by day. The legacy of rapid urbanization , industrialization ,fertilizer & pesticide use has resulted in major pollution problems in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. In developing countries is major problem to treat the polluted water from above sources. Chemical & mechanical menace are used for this purpose is expensive. In response , conventital, remediation systems based on high physical and chemical engineering approaches have been developed and applied to avert or restore polluted sites. Much as these conventional remediation systems are efficient, they are sparsely adopted because of some economical and technical limitations. Generally, the cost of establishment and running deter their use and meeting the demand particularly in countries with week economy. Logical this high cost technology can neither be applied justifiably where 1. The discharge is abruptly high for short time but the entire average load is relatively small.
2. The discharge is very low but long term (entire load is medium). 3. The discharge is continuously decreasing over a long duration.

Thus conventional remediation approaches are best for circumstances of high pollutants discharge like in industrial mining and domestic waste water. Recently , it is evident that durability restoration and long term contamination control in conventional remediation is questionable because

in the long run the pollution problem is only is suspended or transferring from one site to another. The efficiency of duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) as an alternative cost effective natural biological tool in wastewater treatment in general and eliminating concentrations of both nutrients and soluble salts was examined in an outdoor aquatic systems. Duckweed plants were inoculated into primary treated sewage water systems (from the collector tank) for aquatic treatment over eight days retention time period under local outdoor natural conditions. Samples were taken below duckweed cover after every two days to assess the plants efficiency in purifying sewage water from different pollutants and to examine its effect on both phytoplankton and total and fecal coliform bacteria. The Lemnaceae family consists of four genera to most other plants, does (Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia & Wolffiella) and 37 species have been identified so far. Compared duckweed has low fiber content (about 5%), since it these, wastewater treatment was not require structural tissue to support leaves and stems. Of

applications of Lemna gibba L (duckweed) in

found to be very effective in the removal of nutrients, soluble salts, organic matter, heavy metals and in eliminating suspended solids, algal abundance and total and fecal coliform densities. macrophyte belonging Outdoor Duckweed is a floating aquatic to the botanical family Lemnaceae, which can be

found world-wide on the surface of nutrient rich fresh and brackish waters. experiments to evaluate the performance of the duckweed as a purifier of domestic wastewater in shallow mini-ponds (20 & 30 cm deep) showed that quality of resultant secondary effluents met irrigation reuse criteria. Wastewater ammonia was converted into a protein rich biomass, which could be used for animal feed or as soil fertilizer. The economic

benefit of the biomass by-product reduced wastewater expenditures to approx. US$ 0.05 per treated m3 of wastewater, which was in the range of conventional treatment in oxidation ponds. The present study was concerned with decreasing pollution of municipal waste waster up to degree Standards of Disposal as per

National pollution control board.

1.2 . Pollution Problem Municipal wastewater is producing in a huge quantity in most the cities of the country that contain a diverse range of pollutants including The quality of municipal wastewater of stagnant/ slow velocity may create problem of high epidemics of malaria & other water born diseases. Heavy Metals ,Oil and Grease ,Phenols, Sulphide, Sulphate ,Nitrate ,Phospate, Dissolved Solids, Suspended Solids, COD, BOD, which Its disposal and treatment has become a challenge for the municipalities; Many of the municipalities in growing cities neither have proper disposal system nor have any treatment facility due to higher cost and in such a situation municipal wastewater is discharge in to aquatic bodies like river, ponds and lakes, where it is posing a serious threat to the water quality and become a big environmental problem.

1.3 . Standards of Disposal

In order to protect the environmental Govt. of India established pollution control boards. Tolerance limit for the industrial effluent as per the environmental protection act 1986 of Govt. of India shown in table 1.1 governs the check for the pollution effect. In addition to these standards

Maharashtra Pollution Control Board has introduced tolerance limit for the dissolved oxygen as 5 mg/l, the minimum should be maintained in the river course, 15 m from the discharge point of the effluent in the river.

1.4. Treatment methodology

Preparation steps. Primary treated sewage water were transferred to the laboratory from the tertiary sewage water treatment plant after the preliminary sieving step to get rid of large suspended solids. The transferred water was immediately collected into two opaque tanks (as replicates) to prevent light entering except at the top (Parr et al., 2002), each tank with dimensions of 50 cm long, 35 cm wide and 25 cm deep and was filled with 25 L primary treated sewage water. Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) plants ere collected from Ganabiet-Tersa drain (Fig. 1). The stock were cleaned by tap water then washed by distilled water inocula of Lemna plants were transferred to the water systems for aquatic treatment. The experiment was kept under outdoor local environmental conditions for eight days retention time. Water sampling. Subsurface (under duckweed mt) water samples for physico-chemical, biological and bacteriological parameters were collected in polyethylene bottles from all sides of each tank and then mixed. This procedure carried out every 2 days. Samples volume taken every two days for each of phytoplankton count and chlorophyll a determination was 100 mL. Parameters measured. Physico-chemical analyses (Table I) were carried out according to standard methods for e examination of water and wastewater (APHA, 1992). Field parameters (pH, conductivity & dissolved oxygen) were measured in situ using the multi-probe system

(model Hydralab-Surveyor) and rechecked in laboratory using bench-top equipment to ensure data accuracy for biological parameters including total coliform count and fecal coliform. count, phytoplankton identification and counting andchlorophyll a determination. Determination of duckweed growth rate. This was determined for fresh and dry weights. Samples of 20 cm2 area of Lemna plants were harvested periodically at the designated time periods (every 2 days) and filtered using filter papers then fresh weights were determined. These samples were then dried at 60oC for 48 h to a constant weight and then dry weights were calculated. Protien content. Duckweed organic nitrogen content was estimated at the beginning of the experiment and after 8 days retention time by using MicroKjeldahl method, then the obtained values were multiplied by 6.25 to obtain protein content values.

1.5. Objective and scope of study

Physical, chemical, and biological technologies have been developed to treat waste water and restore environmental quality; However their costs are high and most of them are difficult to use under field conditions, hence in such a condition there is an urgent need to study natural, simple, and costeffective techniques for control pollution from municipal & industrial effluents and treating such wastewater, such as phytoremedation . Viewing this fact Phytoremediation was assumed to be very useful, as it is an innovative, eco-friendly and efficient technology in which natural properties of plant is used in engineered system to remediate hazardous wastes through physical, chemical, and biological processes from wastewater and sewage.

Phytoremedation is the utilization of plants accumulation capabilities to remove contamination from water, soil and air, the capacity of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from water is well documented. The recent application of phytoremediation technology by duckweed in wastewater treatment and management is quite interesting and revealing. Phytoremediation systems by duckweed are one of the options that have been widely applied for combined handling of wastewater with the nutrients used for poultry and aqua-cultural projects. Lemna minor L. known as common duckweed is a small, free floating aquatic plant fast growing, adapt easily to various aquatic conditions and play an important role in extraction and accumulation of pollutants from waters [8]. In particular, species of Lemna are reported to accumulate toxic metals and therefore are being used as experimental model systems to investigate heavy metal induced responses, Bioavaibility and bioaccumulation of various heavy metals in aquatic and wetland ecosystems is gaining tremendous significance globally. This study aimed to assessing the efficiency of duckweed (Lemna minor) in phytoremediate the pollutants of wastewater. This natural accumulation is related with the resistance which represents response of plants to metal stress conditions. Duckweed commonly refers to a group of floating, flowering plants of the family Lemnaceae. The different species (Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolfiella) are worldwide distributed in freshwater and wetlands, ponds and some effluents are the most common sites to find duckweed. The plants are fast growing and adapt easily to various aquatic conditions. They are able to grow across a wide range of pH, from pH 3.5 to10.5 but survive best between pH 4.5 to 8.3. The plants are found in

temperate climates and serve as an important food source for various water birds and fish. Each plant species has different resistance and tolerance levels to different contaminants . Therefore, several studies have been performed to elucidate heavy metal toxicity to plants.

TABLE 1.1 STANDRADS FOR WASTEB WATER DISPOSAL Sr.No. Parameters Inland water 1 2 Colour & odour SS(mg/l) Standards Public Land for sewers irrigation Marine & costal area

surface All efforts should be made to remove it as fact as possible 100 500 200 i)100 for process w.w. ii) 10% above for cooling water effect.

3 4 5 6 7 8
2.1. General

pH Temperature Oil & grease (mg/l) Total Nitrogen BOD COD

5.5 to 9.0 40 10 100 30 250 45 20 -350 --10 -100 -45 At discharge 20 100 100 250

The literature of Phytoremediation by lemna was collected from the studies previously done by various persons. Their finding and suggestions are listed hear . Various treatment

method are also discussed for the treatment of municipal waste water with comparison of aerobic and anaerobic treatments. An application of phytoremadation for waste water done by different persons and their findings are also metioned. 2.2. Characteristics of domestic waste water Characteristic of waste water depend upon the raw material , process and product made.

2.3. Treatment Processes 2.4. Process selection criteria for treatment of various domestic waste water 2.5. Application of Phytoremedation to domestic waste water