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Principles and Practices of Management

Q: Organization was described principally as a cooperative system by? (page 267)


Ans: Chester Bernard
He said that “there is a physical & biological limitation which make an individual to
cooperate”.
[Pareto: imagined an organization as a social system tying to set equilibrium when
disturbed by internal or external factors]

Q: A budget that considers circumstances as being new each time and reworks total
income and revenue in the light of expectations for the future is: (page 232)
Ans: Zero based budget
[Flexible budget: where one of the project methods is to work out pessimistic, optimistic
and realistic budget…. to verify which way business is moving
Complementary budgeting: prepared for allied activities which require detailed follow up
Supplementary budget: Work out this to meet changes in situation. ]

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Q: by creating goals around each employee, the manager can control performance. This is
known as
Ans: MBO (Peter Ducker has instituted the concept)

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Part II
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Q: Statistical database control may include: (page 234 Control technique)


Ans: Trends graph
Surveys
Charts

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Q: Describe the steps in planning: (page 124, not exactly got ans.)
Ans: Specific

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Rigid
Non-flexible

Q: Public Administration is a _________?


Ans: Publicly governed body

Q: Family works in the principle of [Not found in book, check]


(i) Division of labor (ii) Unity of command (iii) Delegation of authority and
responsibility (iv) Equality
Ans: (iii) Delegation of authority and responsibility

Q: Authority can be delegated but Power can only be supported by [Not found in book,
check]
(i) Giving Positions (ii) Adding Knowledge (iii) Increasing responsibility (iv) Controlling
Ans: i, ii, iii

Q: Deciding minimum performance with a given time & effort is known as [Not found
in book, check]
(i) Standard (ii) Goal (iii) Performance (iv) Objective
Ans: (i) Standard

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Q. Type of controls can me named as: (page 228)


Ans: Direct
Feed forward
Feed backward
Preventive
Real time
Automation

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Q. The human resource is an unpredictable resource because (page 104)


(1) He is moods (ii) He works with the help of tools (iii) He lacks information (iv) He
ignore direction
Ans: (i) He has moods

Q. Management by Objective has been replaced by: (MBO – is a planning technique)


Ans: Appraisal by traits and replacing by performance. (page 131 & 235)
Q: Full form of MBO?
Ans: Management by Objective

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Ans: Zero based budgeting

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