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42 visualizzazioni28 pagineA Magazine for math enthusiasts and math olympiad aspirants

Jul 07, 2012

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A Magazine for math enthusiasts and math olympiad aspirants

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

42 visualizzazioni28 pagineA Magazine for math enthusiasts and math olympiad aspirants

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Curious?

,

May, 2012 Ashani Dasgupta Editor Calcutta, India Phone: +91 9804005499 Sudip Mondal Co-Editor Santa Clara, CA Phone: +001 4084767585 Arkabrata Das Co-Editor Calcutta, India Phone: +91 8984655870 Content Development Pratyush Kumar Mishra Niran Meher

Year 1, Issue 1

Mostly mathematics... sprinkled with a little bit of computer science and physics

REACH US

Cheenta Ganit Kendra, center of mathematics, strives to bring out the mathematical talent in middle school and high school students. Math Olympiads and challenging Math Entrances of Indian Statistical Institute, Chennai Mathematical Institute, Institute of Mathematics and Applications (in India) and STEP or Sixth Term Examination Paper (in Cambridge, UK) act as motivation of our course work. Our offline activities (classes, summer camps etc.) are mostly implemented in Calcutta (India) and San Francisco, Bay Area (USA). We try to reach out to as many as possible through our online courses, online math forum and blog and pages in facebook and twitter.

E-Mail: helpdesk@cheenta.com Address: B-37, C.I.T. Buildings, Calcutta 700007, West Bengal, India

A few words

No mathematician should ever allow himself to forget that mathematics, more than any other art or science, is a young man's game. G.H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology 'Reason, Debate and Story' is a journal of mathematics. High School level math is sufficient for accessing most of it's contents. A considerable portion of the journal require much less sophistication in formal math. However, that does not mean the mathematics presented here is 'easy'. Elementary ideas can actually motivate deceivingly simple looking challenging problems. Cheenta Ganit Kendra (literally meaning 'center of mathematical thoughts' in Bengali) engages with bright mathematically inclined students every year in and outside classroom. We have math olympiad courses and other advanced mathematics programs for high school and middle school students. Young men and women join us from diverse backgrounds and nationality (we have online as well as offline courses). Although our work is mostly concentrated around Calcutta, we are always looking out to communicate with mathematically inclined students; currently, we are working with students from USA too. While engaging with the students, we have realized that there is a serious lack of popular math literature in India. We do have more than one widely distributed math magazines here; unfortunately they mostly publish questions and solutions from engineering entrances. Journal on school level mathematics can generate considerable amount of interest among young students. The celebrated journals like Komal (Hungary) and Kvant (Russia) have been extremely successful in motivating innovation in the young mind. The other magazines of similar scope include Crux Mathematicoram (Canadian Mathematical Society), Plus Magazine (University of Cambridge), Die Wurzel (Germany) etc. We are inspired by these initiatives. Apart from publishing interesting and motivating articles on mathematics (and allied sciences) , problems and discussions from challenging math contests, we wish to use this journal as a vehicle of communication with our student community and evolve it as their first step towards mathematical exploration. We are sharing the beauty of truth through mathematics. The motivation is to appreciate the Eureka moments of knowledge and try and experience some of them. Ashani Dasgupta

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA subtends an angle of 1350 at the center of the circle. Find the maximum possible area of ABCD.

Cheenta Awardees

Krishnendu (Class XI) for excellent performance in I.S.I. Entrance Model Test 10 . The story of Astronomy (Lloyd Motz ) 2. Abhra Abir (Class XII, external canditate) for scoring maximum points in I.S.I. Entrance Model Test 9. Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume I (Richard Feynman). 3. Shobhan (Class XII) for being the most interactive student of the week. One two three Infinity (George Gamow). 4. Shubhojit (High School Graduate) for scoring maximum points in I.S.I. Entrance Model Test 10. Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol I (Richard Feynman) ______________ 1.

2. NUMBER THEORY

Let p1<p2< p3< p4 and q1<q2<q3<q4 be two sets of prime numbers such that p4 p1=8 and q4q1=8 . Suppose p1>5 and q1>5 . Prove that 30 divides p1q1.

3. FUNCTIONAL EQUATION

Define a sequence fn(x) n0 of functions as f0(x )=1, f1(x )=x, (f n(x))2 -1= f n1(x ) f n+1( x) , for n1 . Prove that each f n(x ) is a polynomial with integer coefficients.

4. COMBINATORICS

Let ABC be a triangle. An interior point P of ABC is said to be good if we can find exactly 27 rays emanating from P intersecting the sides of the triangle ABC such that the triangle is divided by these rays into 27 smaller triangles of equal area. Determine the number of good points for a given triangle ABC.

Problems

INDIAN NATIONAL MATH OLYMPIAD 2012 (INMO 2012) 1. GEOMETRY

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. Suppose AB = 2+ 2 and it

5. GEOMETRY

Let ABC be an acute angled triangle. Let D, E, F be points on BC, CA, AB such that AD is the median, BE is the internal bisector and CF is the altitude. Suppose that FDE = C and DEF = A and EFD = B. Show that ABC is equilateral

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA Note that any prime is of the form 6k + 1 or 6k -1 (the converse is not true).

Since p1 and q1 are both of the form 6k 1 their difference is divisible by 6. Check for the possible last digits of k and k' where p1 =6k -1 and q1=6k' 1 and conclude that they

6. FUNCTIONAL EQUATION

Let f : be a function satisfying f (0)0 , f (1)=0 and 1. f(xy) + f(x)f(y) = f(x) + f(y) 2. (f(x-y) f(0)) f(x)f(y) = 0 for all x , y simultaneously. 1. Find the set of all possible values of the function f. 2. If f (10)0 and f(2) = 0, find the set of all integers n such that f (n)0 .

2ND HINT:

3. FUNCTIONAL EQUATION

1ST HINT: Compute the first few terms to 'search' for a pattern. In the given recurrence relation we do not have fn(x) in an explicit form.

Check till n = 5 and 'guess' that fn(x) = xfn-1(x) fn-2(x). Complete the proof by induction.

1ST HINT: Find out radius by applying cosine rule in triangle AOB where O is the center. The radius is computed to be 1 unit. Apply sine rule of area1 to find the areas of rest of the 3 triangles. Apply Jensen's Inequality2.

Area of each of the other triangle comes out to be sin x1 ,sin x2 etc. where x1, x2, x3 are the angles AOD, COD, BOC. Apply Jensen's inequality to maximize the sum sinx1 + sin x2 + sin x3

2ND HINT:

2ND HINT:

4. COMBINATORICS

ANS: 325 1ST HINT: First we note that 3 of the 27 rays join P and the vertices of the triangle (otherwise we do not have small triangles; instead we have quadrilaterals near the vertices). Rest of the 24 rays 'impinge' on the three sides. For every position of P there is exactly one type of impingement.3

2. NUMBER THEORY

1ST HINT: First check for the possible remainders of p1 when divided by 6 and conclude that p1 must be of the form 6k 1. 1 See Trigonometry section for sine rule of the area of a triangle. 2 See Algebra section for Jensen's Inequality

are 2 or 7.

5

As postion of P determines how many rays fall on each side on the triangle on the other hand the number of rays falling on each side uniquely determines the position of P. Say x, y, z number of rays fall on AB, BC, CA respectively. Then each nonnegative integer solution of x+y+z=24 determines exactly one 'good point'.

4

Put y = 0 to conclude that if f(x) is not 1 it must be 0. Use f(10) not equal to 0 and f(2) equal to 0 to conclude f(5) = 1 and hence f(5m)=1 for all integer m. Use Bezout's theorem to prove that these are the only numbers for which f(x) = 1.

2ND HINT:

5. GEOMETRY

1ST HINT: Use property of nine point circle to conclude that D and F are on that circle. Trigonometry The circle passing through DEF could be the nine point circle provided it's radius should be equal to the radius of the nine point circle which happens to be half the circum radius of a triangle. Also it should cut or touch AC at at least one point in order to be the nine point circle (which it does). 2ND HINT:

BD=DC=DF as they are the radii of triangle BFC (as angle BFC is right and D is the midpoint of hypotenuse making D the center of the circumcircle of BFC). Use sine rule to establish radius of circumcircle of DEF equals half of the radius of circumcircle of ABC. Hence E is either foot of perpendicular or midpoint of AC. Take cases.

Area of a triangle = 1 a b sin C where A, B, C 2 denote the three angles and a, b, c denote the sides opposite to the three angles respectively. You may remember this as half of the product of (any two sides) and (sine of the angle between them). Algebra Jensen's Inequality Let f be a convex function on an interval I and let w1, ... , wn, be n be non negative real numbers whose sum be 1. Then for all x1 , ... , x n I , w 1 f ( x1 )+ w2 f ( x2 )+...+ wn f ( xn ) f ( w1 x 1+...+ wn x n) Combinatorics The number of non-negative integer solutions

6. FUNCTIONAL EQUATION

1ST HINT: Put x=y=0 to conclude f(0) = 1. By assuming f(x) = 1 and replacing y by m conclude that if f(x) = 1 so is f(mx) for all integer m. Use Bezout's Theorem5 to establish the case of f(x) = 1. 4 See Geometry for nine point circle theorem 5 See Number Theory section for Bezout's Theorem.

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA nonzero integers (a,b). In addition d > 0 is their greatest common divisor and the smallest positive integer that can be written, in this form, for any integers x,y. This value of d is therefore uniquely determined by a and b, but the Bzout coefficients are not unique.

Geometry The nine-point circle is a circle that can be constructed for any given triangle. It is so named because it passes through nine significant points defined from the triangle. These nine points are: The midpoint of each side of the triangle The foot of each altitude The midpoint of the line segment from each vertex of the triangle to the orthocenter (where the three altitudes meet; ).

Computer science

At Cheenta, we are trying to integrate concepts from computer science into our early bird (middle school) math Olympiad course. This article is prepared by Sudip Mondal. It forms the basis of our effort in computer science.

The nine-point circle is also known as Feuerbach's circle, Euler's circle, Terquem's circle, the six-points circle, the twelve-points circle, the n-point circle, the medioscribed circle, the mid circle or the circum-midcircle. Number Theory Bezout's Theorem In number theory, Bzout's identity for two integers a, b is an expression: ax+by=d , where x and y are integers (called Bzout coefficients for (a,b)), such that d is a common divisor of a and b. Bzout's lemma states that such coefficients exist for every pair of

What is a computer

Sudip Mondal It is a system which has the following important properties: a) It can accept inputs. b) It can deliver outputs. c) It can follow instructions to generate the outputs from the inputs. What are inputs? Anything that can be measured and defined unambiguously (A piece of text can be measured; by its number of words, numerical value of each word, position of each word in the text, etc etc).

7 Example 2: What are outputs? Anything that can be measured and defined unambiguously. Thats same as inputs! Yes, it is. We use computers to convert inputs to outputs. Think: The instructions which the computer follows to convert the inputs to the outputs are also inputs to the computers. Example 1:

Computer = You Input 1: Look up your math book to find an integer. (This is an instruction). Input 2: An integer P. (this is the actual integer you looked up from the book). Input 3: Look up your math book to find an integer. (This is another instruction). Input 4: An integer Q. (this is the second integer you looked up from the book). Input 5: Add them (this is another What does a computer need to have? instruction). Input 6: Write the sum into your exercise 1. It must have a way to accept inputs (A copy (yet another instruction) blind person cannot look up an integer Output 1: Sum (This is the sum that you in the math book). wrote in the exercise copy). 2. It must have a memory (If you forget Input 7: Take 5. (This is an input, with a fixed the integers after looking them up, you value). cannot add them). Input 8: Add that to the sum (Another 3. It must KNOW how to add, or find the instruction). GCD (else, it simply cannot carry out Input 9: Write the result into the exercise the instruction). Actually, it must also copy (another instruction). KNOW how to look up an integer in a Output 2: Sum + 5 (The result you wrote in math book. Try to make a 3 year old the exercise copy). look up an integer in a math book.

Computer = You Input 1: Look up your math book to find an integer. (This is an instruction). Input 2: An integer P. (this is the actual integer you looked up from the book). Input 3: Look up your math book to find an integer. (This is another instruction). Input 4: An integer Q. (this is the second integer you looked up from the book). Input 5: Find GCD of P and Q (this is another instruction) Input 6: Write the GCD into your exercise copy (yet another instruction) Output 1: GCD (This is the GCD that you wrote in the exercise copy). So you see that in a sense, input consists of both data and instructions. Same data and different instructions will generally result in different outputs; so will same instructions and different data.

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA Someone must have prepared those inputs and kept it somewhere (like written in a piece of paper) for you to see. The box INPUT in the figure is that piece of paper. Only, for a computer, the piece of paper must be a bunch of electronic circuits storing the information. It may be a keyboard with instructions being given with keystrokes, or may be a USB stick containing the instructions, or may be a hard disk, CDROM (long list). What is the big block called PROCESS with the smaller blocks MEMORY and CPU inside? Well, this is the guy in example 1, who was actually following all those instructions; thus it is you. Now we have already explained MEMORY; you need it to remember the numbers you looked up (maybe this is another piece of paper where you write down the two integers you looked up from your maths book). But what is this CPU? Well, this is a bunch of those electronic circuits, which can be forced to add two numbers etc. This is also the guy, which actually follows the instructions given to it. Thus, CPU is the one which adds the two numbers or computes their GCD, or even look up a place called Maths Book to get an integer. Finally, OUTPUT is the place where the result is shown. This is the exercise copy in the examples. It may be a printer or a monitor or a USB stick or a Hard Disk or anything (another long list) where the result can be written/dumped in some electronic form. Now let us think about this block called

Believe it or not, computers KNOW nothing. Computer designers design electronic circuits, which can do certain things. It means those electronic circuits are bound to do those things according to the laws of physics, they cannot choose to do anything else. Think: If I throw a stone at a window pane with enough force, it will hit the pane and will break it. Now think: A stone thrown with enough force can break a window pane. Actually, the stone has no choice but to break the window pane. Similarly, electronic circuits can be designed which have no choice but to add the two numbers given to them. Now, let us draw a computer with the blocks that we discussed. It will look like something in Figure 1.

PROCESS INPUT MEMORY

CPU

OUTPUT

Figure 1: A computer with its parts INPUT: This is the place where all the inputs exist. Think of the inputs in Example 1.

9 PROCESS for a while. Someone prepared an INPUT (a list of instructions and data) and stored it in the box called INPUT. If the PROCESS block has to process these inputs, it has to be able to connect with the INPUT block. (You cannot follow instructions unless the instruction booklet is given to you). So, we need to establish a connection between the INPUT and the PROCESS block. How do we establish connection? We use something called a BUS. Similarly we need a BUS to connect to the output. Let us add these two buses to the figure.

PROCESS INPUT MEMORY

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA integer you looked up from the book). Input 3: Look up your math book to find an integer. (This is another instruction). Input 4: An integer Q. (this is the second integer you looked up from the book). Input 5: Add them (this is another instruction). Input 6: Write the sum into your exercise copy (yet another instruction) Output 1: Sum (This is the sum that you wrote in the exercise copy). Input 7: Take 5. (This is an input, with a fixed value). Input 8: Add that to the sum (Another instruction). Input 9: Write the result into the exercise copy (another instruction). Output 2: Sum + 5 (The result you wrote in the exercise copy).

Think of yourself as the PROCESS block, (your mind being the CPU, and a small piece of CPU OUTPUT scratch paper as the memory). Suppose the BUS 1 BUS 2 instructions above are written on a piece of paper titled GENERAL APTITUDE TEST. As long as you do not have this piece of paper Figure 2: Better picture of a computer you cannot do anything. Suppose the GENERAL APTITUDE TEST is now given to So, now we have a way for the PROCESS block you. So now you can see the instructions (i.e. to access the INPUTs and to write to the the BUS 1 is established). What will you do? OUTPUTs. Now, for a moment, think about Example 1 again. It is repeated below: Obviously, you will start reading into your mind Input 1. If your mind is distracted by Computer = You something else, you will not be able to read it Input 1: Look up your math book to find an into your mind. What does reading into your integer. (This is an instruction). mind mean? It means converting the piece of Input 2: An integer P. (this is the actual text into known sequence of actions.

10 Once you have read it into your mind you will know that you are being asked to: 1. Open your maths book. 2. Look up an integer. 3. Write that integer in the scratch paper (so that you remember it). Thus, understanding the instruction, and actually following it are two different things. The first step of reading into your mind or understanding involves bringing the instruction from the GENERAL APTITUDE TEST into your mind (you do this by merely seeing it, a computer is stupid, it needs electronic circuits at every stage). Now, remember, your mind is the CPU. So, the first step is to read in the instruction into the CPU. This is called a Fetch, i.e. to bring an input into the CPU to decipher its meaning (or decode it). Once a Fetch is done, the instructions is deciphered or decoded (with the help of electronic circuits again). Now it is time to do the job (i.e. open the maths book, look up the integer). This part is called the Execute. Thus, following instruction 1 involves Fetching it, Understanding it or Decodeing it, and finally, Executing it. Once these are done, we can move to Input 2. This is how all operations on a computer is done, by following a Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle. In short, it is written as the FetchExecution cycle, with the decoding being implicitly implied. Think about Input 7. This instruction contains some information or data (the number 5). Thus, data can also be fetched (but data cannot be executed). Things to remember:

A computer needs a block called INPUT. A computer needs a block called OUTPUT. A computer needs a block called PROCESS (MEMORY + CPU) The CPU fetches the instructions and data from INPUT, and executes the instructions after decoding them. This is called the FetchExecution cycle. This is enough guys. Digest this information. Come up with questions (as many as you can). (...to be continued... send your comments and questions to sudip.mondal@cheenta.com)

More Problems

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA JUNIOR MATH OLYMPIAD 2012

1. Given a triangle ABC, let P and Q be the points on the segments AB and AC, respectively such that AP = AQ. Let S and R be distinct points on segment BC such that S lies between B and R, BPS = PRS, and CQR = QSR. Prove that P, Q, R and S are concyclic (in other words these four points lie on a circle). 2. Find all integers n3 such that among any n positive real numbers a1 , a 2 , ... , a n with max ( a1 , a 2 , ... , a n )n min ( a1 , a 2 , ... , a n ) there exist three that are the side lengths of an acute triangle.

11

3. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that 3 3 3 3 3 3 a +3b b +3c c +3a 2 2 2 2 + + (a +b + c ) . 5a+b 5b+c 5c+a 3 4. Let be an irrational number with 0<<1, and draw a circle in the plane whose circumference has length 1. Given any integer n3, define a sequence of points P 1 , P 2 ,... , P n as follows. First select any point P1 on the circle, and for 2kn define P k as the point on the circle for which the length of the arc P k1 P k is , when travelling counterclockwise around the circle from P k1 to P k . Suppose that P a and P b are the nearest adjacent points on either side of P n . Prove that a+bn. 5. For distinct positive integers a, b < 2012, define f(a, b) to be the number of integers k with 1k<2012 such that the remainder when ak divided by 2012 is greater than that of bk divided by 2012. Let S be the minimum value of f(a, b), where a and b range over all pairs of distinct positive integers less than 2012. Determine S. 6. Let P be a point in the plane of triangle ABC, and be a line passing through P. Let A', B', C' be the points where reflections of the lines PA, PB, PC with respect to intersect lines BC, AC, AB, respectively. Prove that A', B' and C' are collinear.

The Story

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14

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA Suppose further PQK, PLM, PNT are equilateral. Prove that: a) The radius of the circle is 2abc where S is the 2 2 2 a +b +c +4 3 S area. b) a.AP = b.BP = c.PC 2. Let the real numbers a, b, c, d satisfy the relations a+b+c+d = 6 and a2+b2+c2+d2 = 12. Prove that 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 364 (a +b +c +d )( a +b +c +d )48 3. A set of n distinct integer weights w 1 , w 2 ,... , wn is said to be balanced if after removing any one of weights, the remaining (n - 1) weights can be split into two subcollections (not necessarily with equal size) with equal sum. a) Prove that if there exist balanced sets of sizes k ; j then also a balanced set of size k + j 1. b) Prove that for all odd n7 there exist a balanced set of size n . DAY 2 1. Find all positive integers n satisfying the conditions 3 a) n2 =(a +1) a 3 . b) 2n + 119 a perfect square 2. Suppose a1 , ... , a n are non-integral real numbers for n 2 such that k k a1 +...+a n is an integer for all integers 1k n . Prove that none of a1 , ... , a n is rational. 3. Let T be a non-empty finite subset of positive integers greater than or equal

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INDIAN INTERNATIONAL MATH OLYMPIAD TRAINING CAMP 2011 DAY 1 1. Let ABC be a triangle each of whose angles is greater than 300. Suppose a circle centered with P cuts segments BC in T, Q; CA in K, L and AB in M, N such that they are on a circle in counterclockwise direction in that order.

15 to 1. A subset S of T is called good if for every integer t T there exists an s in S such that gcd(t,s) > 1. Let A = (X , Y ) | X T , Y T ; gcd x X , y Y . (x, y ) = 1 for all Prove that : a ) If X 0 is not go o d then the number of pairs (X 0 ; Y ) in A is even . b ) the number of good subsets of T is o dd . DAY 3 1. Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon such that BC || AE, AB = BC + AE, and ABC = CDE. Let M be the midpoint of CE and let O be the circumcenter of triangle BCD. Given that DMO = 900 prove that 2 BDA= CDE. 2. Prove that for no integer n is n7 + 7 is a perfect square. 3. Consider a nn grid which is divided into n2 unit squares (think of a chess board). The set of all unit squares intersecting the main diagonal of the square or lying under it is called an nstaircase. Find the number of ways in which an n-staircase can be partitioned into several rectangles, with sides along the grid lines, having mutually distinct areas. DAY 4 1. Let ABC be an acute angled triangle. Let AD, BE, CF be internal bisectors, with D, E, F on BC, CA, AB respectively. Prove that

EF DE DF r + + 1+ . BC AB AC R 2. Find all pairs (m, n) of nonnegative integers for which m2 + 2.3n = m(2n+1 1). 3. Let {a0 , a1 , ....} and {b0 , b1 , ....} be two infinite sequences of integers such that (a na n1 )( ana n2 )+( b nb n1)( bnbn2 )=0 for all integers n2 . Prove that there exist a positive integer k such that 2011 a k+2011=a k+2011 .

(Send the solutions of these questions to helpdesk@cheenta.com. You may also send them by post. )

Topic

For some of our students the month of May is special. There are three mathematics entrances coming up in this month which are relevant for Indian students: I.S.I. B.Stat and B.Math Entrance, C.M.I. B.Sc. Math & Comp. Sc and B.Sc. Math & Physics entrance,IoM.A., B.Sc. Math and Comp. Sc. Entrance. The following collection of results are useful for students appearing for these entrances. If you have not prepared for them over years, you won't find these results useful. They are NEITHER COMPREHENSIVE, NOR SELF SUFFICIENT. They can only act as a reminder of what you have learnt (or discovered) while doing intensive mathematics over years. ALL THE BEST!

NUMBER THEORY

1. Given the Well Ordering Principle (any

16 non-empty subset of non-negative integers has a smallest element) prove the Principles of Mathematical Induction: a) If a subset S of positive integers contains 1, and contains n+1 whenever it contains n, then S contains all the positive integers. b) (Strong form) If a subset S of positive integers contains 1 and contains n+1 whenever it contains 1, 2, 3, , n, then S contains all the positive integers. Let a, b, c, m, x, y be integers: a) If a | b then a | bc for any integer c b) If a|b and b|c then a|c. c) If a |b and a|c then a| bx + cy for any integers x and y. ab d) If a|b and b0 then e) If a|b and b|a then a=b . f) If m0 then a|b if and only if ma|mb. (Division Algorithm) Given any integer a and b with a0 there exists unique integers q and r such that b = qa + r, 0r . If ab then r satisfies a a the stronger inequality 0<r< . (Bezout's Theorem) If a, b are any integers, not both zero, then gcd(a,b) exists and there exists integers x 0 , y 0 such that gcd(a,b)= a x 0+b y 0 . Let a,b be integers, not both zero. Then a, b are coprime if and only if there are integers x, y such that ax + by = 1. If a, b are coprime integers then every

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA integer n can be expressed as n = ax + by for some integers x and y. 7. If d= gcd(a,b), then gcd

a b ( , ) = 1. d d

8. (Euclidean Algorithm) Given integers b and c, c>0, we make a repeated application of division algorithm to obtain a series of equations:

2.

3.

4.

Then the gcd(b,c) of b and c is r j , the last non-zero remainder of the division process. Moreover if (b, c) = b x 0+c y 0 then the values of x 0 , y 0 can be obtained by eliminating r j 1 , ..., r 2 , r 1 from the above set of equations. 9. (Euclid's Lemma) If (a, m) = 1 and m | ab then m| b. 10. If p is a prime and p|ab then p| a or p|b. 11. If p is a prime such that p | a1 a2 ... an , then p divides at least one of the factor ai of the product. 12. If a|m and b|m and (a,b)=1, then ab|m. 13. Every integer n> 1 can be

b=c q+r 1 , 0<r 1<c , c=r 1 q1+r 2 , 0<r 2<r 1 , r 1=r 2 q2+r 3 , 0<r 3<r 2 , . . . r j2 =r j1 q j1+r j , 0<r j<r j1 , r j1 =r j q j .

5. 6.

17 expressed as a product of primes (with perhaps only one factor). 14. (The fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every positive integer n > 1 can be expressed as a product of primes in a unique way except for the order of the prime factors. 15. If a, b are positive integers such that ab=c 2 and (a, b) =1, then a and b are both perfect squares. 16. Prove that there are infinitely many primes. 17. Prove that given any positive integer n, there exist n consecutive composite integers. 18. Let a, b, c, d, x, y denote integers then: a)

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA b) If a xa y (mod m) and (a, m) = 1 then 21. The following holds a) aa( mod m) (reflexive) b) If ab (mod m) , bc(mod m) then ac(mod m) (transitive) c) If ab (mod m) then ba (mod m) . d) If ab (mod m) , then for any integer k, ka kb (mod m) . e) If ab (mod m) and cd (mod m) , then acbd ( mod m) . In general , if a ibi (mod m) , i = 1, 2, 3, ..., k, then a 1 ... a k b1 ...b k (mod m) . In particular, if ab (mod m) , then for any positive integer k, a k b k (mod m) .

19. Let f(x) denote a polynomial with integral coefficients. If ab(mod m), then

20. Let a, b, x, y, m, m 1 , ..., mr be integers. Then, a) a xa y (mod m) if and only if

x y ( mod

m ) . (a , m)

only if ab (mod m 1 m 2 ... m k ) 22. Only a perfect square has an odd number of divisors. 23. The even and odd numbers have the following properties: a) an odd number is of the form 2k + 1, for some integer k; b) an even number is of the form 2m, for some integer m;

18 c) the sum of two odd numbers is an even number; d) the sum of two even numbers is an even number; e) the sum of odd and even number is an odd number; f) the product of two odd numbers is an odd number; g) the product of integers is even if and only if atleast one of its factors is even. 24. If n is a composite integer, then it has a prime divisor p not exceeding n . 25. or any given integer m, there is no polynomial p(x) with integer coefficients such that p(n) is prime for all integers n with nm . 26. The following holds: a) if p is a prime, then gcd (p, m) = p or gcd (p, m) = 1. b) If d = gcd(m,n), m = dm' , n = dn', then gcd(m',n') = 1. c) If d = gcd(m,n), m=d'm'', n=d'n'', gcd(m'',n'')=1, then d'=d. d) If d' is a common divisor of m and n, then d' divides gcd(m,n). x y e) If p m and p n , then min x , y p gcd x , y . Further more, if k m= p1 ... p k and n= p1 ... pk , i , i0 , i=1,2, ... , k then min , min , ... pk gcd(m,n) = p1 f) If m = nq + r, then gcd(m,n) = gcd(n,r) g) gcd((m,n),p) = gcd(m, (n,p)) = gcd(m,n,p).

1 1 k 1 1 k k

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA h) If d| ai , i = 1, ... , s , then d|gcd( a1 , ... as ) i) If ai = p 1 ... pk ,i =1,... , s , then min , ... , min , ... , gcd a1 , ... , a s = p1 ... pk 27. The following holds a) If lcm(s,t) = m , m = ss' = tt', then gcd (s', t') =1 b) If m' is a common multiple of s and t and m' = ss' = tt', gcd(s',t')=1, then m=m'. c) If m' is a common multiple of s and t, then m|m'. d) If m|s and n|s, then lcm(m,n) | s. e) If n is an integer, n lcm(s,t) = lcm(ns, nt). k f) If s= p1 ... pk and t= p1 ... p k , i , i 0 , i=1, 2,... , k then max , max , ... pk lcm(s,t) = p1 28. For any integer m and n the following relation holds: mn = gcd(m,n)*lcm(m,n) a a a 29. If n = p1 p 2 ... pk is a prime decomposition of n, the number of divisors of n, that is taon=a 11 a21...ak 1 a a a 30. If n = p 1 p 2 ... pk is a prime decomposition of n, then there are 2 a 112 a2 1...2 ak 1 distinct pairs of ordered positive integers (a, b) with lcm (a, b) = n. 31. For any positive integer n

1i ki 11 1k k1 kk 1 1 k 1 1 k k 1 2 k 1 2 k

d =n

dn

tao n 2

19 33. If n = p1 p2 ... pk is a prime decomposition of n, then +1 +1 p1 1 pk 1 (n)= d= ... . p11 pk 1 dn 34. Let m be a positive integer. Let a be an integer relatively prime to m, and let b be an integer. Assume that S is a complete set of residue classes modulo m. The set T = aS + b = { aS + b | sS } is also a complete set of residue classes modulo n. 35. Let m be a positive integer. Let a be an integer relatively prime to m, and let b be an integer. There exists integers x such that axb(mod m) and all these integers form exactly one ersidue class modulo m. 36. For any prime p, ( p1)!1( mod p) . 37. Let m be a positive integer. Let a be an integer relatively prime to m. Assume that S is a reduced complete set of residue classes modulo m. Set T = aS = { as | s S } is also a reduced complete set of residue classes modulo m. 38. (Euler's Theorem) Let a and m be relatively prime positive integers. Then a (m)1(mod m) 39. (Fermat's Little Theorem) Let a be a positive integer and let p be a prime then a p a ( mod p) . 40. Let p be a prime and let a be a positive integer. Then ( pa )= pa p a1 .

1 k

a1 a2 ak

41. Let a and b be two relatively prime positive integers. Then (ab)=(a )(b) . 42. If n= p 1 1 ... pk k is the prime factorization of n>1, then

( n)=n(1

43.

(d )=n .

d n

1 1 1 )(1 ) ...(1 ) p1 p2 pk

44. Let n=a h a h1 ... a 0 be a positive integer. a) Let s(n) = a 0+...+a h denote the sum of it's digits then ns( n)( mod 3) . In particular, n is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum S(n) of its digits is divisible by 3. b) We can replace 3 by 9 in (1) ; that is ns (n)(mod 9) . In particular, n is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum S(n) of its digits is divisible by 3. h c) Let s'(n) = a 0a1 +...+(1) a h (alternating sum). Then n is divisible by 11 if and only if s'(n) is divisible by 11. d) n is divisible by 7, 11, or 13 if and a h a h1 ... a3a 2 a1 a 0 has only if this property. e) N is divisible by 27 or 37 if and only if a h a h1 ... a3+a 2 a1 a 0 has this property. 45. N is divisible by 2 k or 5k

20

this property. 46. Let n be a positive integer, and let S(n) denote the sum of its digits. Then a) 9|S(n) n; b) S ( n1+n 2)S (n 1)+S ( n 2) (subaddi tivity property) c) S ( n1 n2 )min (n1 S ( n2 ), n 2 S ( n1)) ; d) S ( n1 n2 )S (n1)S (n2 ) (submultipli cativity property) ...(to be continued)

a k 1 ... a 0 has

hopelessly simple. Shankar: There were a couple of nice questions though. The seventh question was like this: Consider two circles with radii a, and b and centers at (b, 0), (a, 0) respectively with b<a. Let the crescent shaped region M has a third circle which at any position is tangential to both the inner circle and the outer circle. Find the locus of center c of the third circle as it traverses through the region M (remaining tangential to both circles.) Dhanshiri: Yes, this was a descent one. When I first looked at it, I thought the locus is a circle. Shankar: Same here (grin). A circle with a a+b center at . Actually this is how I 2 started solving the problem: the midpoint of AB (let us call it D) be joined with C. Also join AC and BC. AC passes through T 1 , the point of tangency of the smaller circle with the circle with center at (a, 0) and BC when extended touches T 2 which is the other point of the tangency. Tintin: How can we be sure that AC passes through T 1 and BC meets the outer circle at T 2 . They may pass through any other point. Why specifically through the point of tangency? Dhansiri: Well.. that is a result from geometry. The proof is also simple. Join AT1 and CT1. Both are perpendicular to the tangent

Debate

This is a discussion on I.S.I. B.Stat and B.Math entrance paper, 2012. I.S.I. or Indian Statistical Institute is one of the most prestigious institutes in India. It's mathematics and statistics courses at the undergraduate level are held at high esteem throughout the world. Along with Chennai Mathematical Institute and Institute of Mathematics and Applications, Bhubaneswar, it offers a world class mathematics course to selected few students.

Tintin: How was the paper this year? Dhanshiri: It was easier than any I.S.I. Entrance paper I have ever encountered. The Subjective section (8 questions, 2 hours) was

21 passing through T1 (tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangency). Hence AT1 and CT1 make 1800 with each other making AC a straight line. For BCT1 you can argue in a similar manner. wrong.

b a . This 2 makes DC dependent on r and r (or radius of the moving circle) is visibly changing it's length during the travel.

( )

Dhansiri: The actual solution is basically a one liner. As you have already observed that AC = a+r and BC = b-r then AC+BC = a+b which is a constant for any position of C. Hence C is a point whose sum of distances from two fixed points at any instant is a constant. This is the locus definition of an ellipse with foci at (a, 0) and (b, 0). Shankar: Yes, I figured that out as soon as I looked into a+r and b-r. It was quite a simple problem put in a beautiful style :) Tintin: I did not understand the part of Shankar: Absolutely. Now I assumed the Apollonious Theorem. radius of the moving (and growing circle) to be r at a particular instance. Then AC = a+r and Shankar: Apollonious Theorem gives the BC = b-r. measure of a median of any triangle (line joining any vertex and midpoint of the Dhansiri: So you tried to use Apollonious' opposite side). The statement of the theorem Theorem to measure DC which is a median to is : in any triangle ABC, if AD is a median, the triangle ACB? then AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + BD2). Shankar: Yes. Since I know AC (a+r), BC (ba+b ba a= r) and AD ( ) , and as I 2 2 guessed that the locus is a circle, I tried to a+b prove DC = . Of course the guess was 2 (discussion will continue in the next issue. The rest of the questions from I.S.I. Subjective Paper follows)

22

Subjective Questions

1. If x, y, z are the angles of a triangle prove that: x y y z z x a) tan tan +tan tan +tan tan =1 2 2 2 2 2 2 b) Using part (a) or otherwise prove that

6. a) Let a be the base of a triangle and a+b be it's perimeter. Prove that the area of the triangle is maximized if the other two sides are equal. b) Using part (a) or otherwise prove that the among all quadrilaterals with fixed perimeter square has the greatest area. 7. Consider two circles with radii a, and b and centers at (b, 0), (a, 0) respectively with b<a. Let the crescent shaped region M has a third circle which at any position is tangential to both the inner circle and the outer circle. Find the locus of center c of the third circle as it traverses through the region M (remaining tangential to both the circles).

tan

x y z 1 tan tan 2 2 2 3 3

(+x) e

2 (5x)2

a) is continuous for what value of ? b) is differentiable for what value of ? 3. Consider that number array

In this array the position of 8 is in the 3rd row and 2nd coloumn. What is the position of 20096? 4. Prove that the polynomial 8 7 2 x x +x x+15 has no real root. 5. Let 'm' be a number all of whose digits are either 6 or 0. Prove that 'm' cannot be a perfect square.

1 3 6 .. 2 5 9 .. 4 8 13 .. 7 12 .. .. .. .. .. ..

f 1 , f 2 ,... 8. Let S = {1, 2, ... , n}. Let be functions from S to S (one-one and onto). For any function f, call D, subset of S, to be invariant if for all x in D, f(x) is also in D. Note that for any function the null set and the entire set are 'invariant' sets. Let deg(f) be the number of invariant subsets for a function.

a) Find a function with deg(f)=2. b) For a particular value of k find a k function with deg(f) = 2 .

23

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA Mathematics and Physics Integrated course. Admission through Entrance Test Indian National Math Olympiad qualified students are exempted from Entrance Test. www.cmi.ac.in

PURSUING PURE SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS Institutions of Excellence in India after High School

Mathematics Indian Statistical Institute, Banglalore B.Math course (3 years) Admission through Entrance Test and Interview. Indian National Math Olympiad qualified students are exempted from Entrance Test. www.isical.ac.in Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata B.Stat Course (3 years) Admission through Entrance Test and Interview Indian National Math Olympiad qualified students are exempted from Entrance Test. Math Olympiad Scholars are preferred. Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai B.Sc. In Mathematics and Physics (integrated) or Mathematics and Computer Science (integrated) ,

Institute of Mathematics and Applications, Bhubaneswar B.Sc. In Mathematics and Computing (3 years) Admission through Entrance Test www.iomaorissa.ac.in Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore B.S. Course (4 years) Admission through IIT and AIEEE merit list. Separate application necessary www.iisc.ernet.in/

Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (Bhopal, Kolkata, Mohali, Pune, Thiruvananthapuram ) 5 year BS-MS dual degree with major in biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics. Admission through Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana (KVPY) : SX, SA, SB, SP , IIT-JEE 2012; Rank list, Central and State

24 board (CSB) : With high aggregate scores in board exam (XII) and IISER science aptitude test. http://www.iiser-admissions.in/

CHEENTA GANIT KENDRA resembling a sheet of paper. How would you appear to the inhabitants of such a world (if such a world exists).The 2-D creatures would only see cross-sections of you as you intersected their universe. Your finger would look like a flat disc or like a rectangular sheet of skin.They would just see irregular shapes with skin boundaries as you entered their world. Similarly, an object which belong to the fourth dimension would have a cross-section in our space that looked liked a bunch of skinny balls. A 4-D being would be a god to us. It would see everything in our world.We cannot hide anything from it.It could even look inside our stomach and remove our breakfast without cutting through our skin, just like we could remove a dot inside a circle by moving it up into the third dimension, perpendicular to the circle, without breaking the circle.Surgery would have been very simple then.

SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT 4th DIMENSION.... by Arkabrata Das

Have you ever imagined how a fourdimensional being would appear to you if it comes in front of you? I think they would look like some fleshy balloons constantly changing in size.Now as they are of four dimension and you being from three dimension,you could see (4C3) or 4 different shapes of it as you could see three dimensions one at a time. Let me elaborate it.

It can effortlessly remove things before your very eyes, giving you the impression that the objects simply disappeared.It can also see inside any 3-D object and if necessary remove anything from inside. The being can look inside our intestines, or remove a tumor from our brain without ever cutting through the skin. A pair of gloves can be easily transformed into two left or two right gloves.In the 4th As we are trying to think how will a 4 dimensional object look like with respect to the dimension hiding an object from us will very simple then.Many more new shapes can be 3 rd dimension, firstly let us think how we,the 3 rd dimensional formed then. So what do you think its just a superstition or can a 4-D universe exist in real? objects look like to the 2 dimensional objects.Consider a two-dimensional world

25

are: 1. d(x, y) must be postive for all x, y and 0 if only if x=y. 2. d(x, y) = d(y, x) that is distanc e from How do you 'define' a circle? It is the x to y must be the same as the collection of all points, equidistant from a fixed distance from y to x. point on the plane. We have played with the 3. The function must obey the triangular inequality, that for any three points x, y and z we have d ( x , y)+d ( y , z)d ( z , x)

Cover Story

Now let us define a 'different' distance function that will make the shape below a circle. Let d(x, y) = max{|x1 y1|, |x2 y2|} where the coordinates of x = (x1 , x2) and y =(y1,y 2). Now try to establish that d(x, y) is indeed a distance function (that is it satisfies all the properties that a distance function should satisfy) and the above square looking this is actually a circle (that is all the points on it has a constant distance from the point (0,0) according to the new definition of distance).

definition of 'distance' in our cover story. What is distance? How can we 'understand' in mathematical terms? Given two points on the plane we should be able to compute a positive real number which can act the 'distance' between those two points. Indeed 'distance' is nothing but a function or a rule of association which relates pair of points with a given number.

A Month @ Cheenta

A brief preview of our activities in coming month.

Offline Classes

This 'rule' can be anything that satisfies 2013 High School Graduation Classes certain simple properties. Let x, y be two Ellipse from Coordinate Geometry points and d(x, y) = D be the distance Questions from I.S.I. Entrance 2012, between those two points. Then the properties 2010, 2009

26

2014 High School Graduation Classes Differential Calculus (Limit, Continuity) Inequalities Questions from and Indian National Math Olympiad 2012, Regional Math Olympiad 2010, 2011

4 hours I.S.I. Standard full length test 3 hours C.M.I. Standard full length test

Other Activities

An excursion in mathematics (22nd May, 2012) A day-long program in Calcutta, India with Early Bird students. We plan to do mathematics on the bank of river Ganges, explore technological museums and planetariums, find some picnic spots where we can have good food and do some more mathematics (preferrably geometry). Cheenta Reunion (2nd June) A day-long program where Cheenta Alumni, students, teachers and friends come together. We will have movies, chess, mathematics and much more! Summer Camp in California (12th June to 12th July 2012) A month-long summer camp will be organized in Bay area, San Francisco, USA. This is the first overseas activity on our part. If you want to register for the program please visit www.cheenta.com/mathcamp

ONLINE CLASSES

Advance Interdisciplinary Mathematics Program, USA (online) Inequalities Calculus Mechanics

2013 - 14 Indian Math Entrance Program Number Theory (Congruency theory) Combinatorics

27

12th June to 12th July

Students of Class VI through XII who have a special interest in beautiful mathematics; from Calcutta, India or San Francisco, USA

TO REGISTER

Call us +91 9804005499 (INDIA) +1 4084767585 (USA) or Register at Cheenta.com/mathcamp

Published by Ashani Dasgupta on behalf of Cheenta Ganit Kendra; B 37, C.I.T. Buildings, Calcutta 700007, West Bengal India; Phone +91 9804005499; www.cheenta.com; helpdesk@cheenta.com;

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