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THESIS PROPOSAL TITLE A STUDY ON THE PERCEIVED LEVELS OF STRESS AND COPING STRATEGIES OF STUDENTS OF T HE FEBIAS COLLEGE OF BIBLE

S.Y. 2009-2010: IMPLICATIONS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PRACTICE By Mrs. Remilinda B. Banzuelo

CHAPTER I- INTRODUCTION College students face great deal of challenges that may bring stress and distress. Academic success is not a single entity. How one hand les the pressures and stress that go with school work should be considered. Gend er is a variable to better understand and assist guidance clients individually.

CHAPTER I- INTRODUCTION Studies reveal that gender influences the choice of coping strategies (Smith and Renk Ki 2007; Kariv and Heiman 2005; Rao, Moudad and Subbakrishna 2000; and Hobfoll et al. 199 4). Females tend to use distress-reducing coping strategies such as emotion-focused coping and securing social support while males were found to prefer behavioral m ethods of coping (Rao et.al 2000). Males tend to use avoidant coping (Kariv and Heiman 2005) Studies reveal that females prefer pro-social coping while males pr efer aggressive and anti-social strategies in coping according to Hobfoll et al. 1994.

CHAPTER I- INTRODUCTION * Shield (2001) found out that certain coping strategies lead to better adjustme nt. Hobfoll et al. 1994 reported that Active coping is related to lowered levels of psychological distress. * Active coping predicted academic success and perso nalemotional adjustment among a sample freshmen students (Shields 2001 in Leong, Bonz, and Zachar 1997).

CHAPTER I- INTRODUCTION A. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Cognitive Theory of Psychologic al Stress Proponents: Richard Lazarus Psychological Stress- Relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exc eeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984)

Relationship between: elements of the person + elements of the environment Psych ological Stress

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress A. Cognitive Appraisal B. Coping

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress A. Cognitive Appraisal Inform ation-processing and evaluative in nature. Aims to find meaning and significance in tough times. determine why and to what extent a particular transaction or series of transacti ons between the person and environment is stressful (Lazarus and Folkman 1984, 19)

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress A. Cognitive Appraisal 2 components of Cognitive Appraisal: Primary Appraisal-Assesses if there is a potential stressor. Secondary Appraisal - Deals with what can be done to manage the appraised situation.

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress A. Cognitive Appraisal 1.Prim ary Appraisal-Assessed situation can be identified as: a) Irrelevant appraisalnothing can be gained or lost in the situation. b) Benign appraisal- situation i nvolves positive result on the person s well-being. c) Stress appraisal- situati on involves possible harm, threat or challenge.

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress A. Cognitive Appraisal 2 Components of Cognitive Appraisal: 1) Primary Appraisal2) Secondary Appraisal- Deals with what can be done to manag e the appraised situation. - cognitive process that determines possible coping o ptions.

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress A. Cognitive Appraisal B. Coping- refers to the constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and intern al demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person .(Lazarus and Folkman 1984, 141)

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress B. Coping process-oriented than trait-like

Emphasizes action and excludes Automized behavior and thought that do not requir e effort. Efforts may include all forms whether it works or not.

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress B. Coping Major Forms of Coping Strategies: 1) Problem-focused Copinga) directed at the en vironment b) directed at self 2) Emotion-focused copingDirected at the emotions that result as a response to t he problem and finding ways to regulate or handle it. (Lazarus and Folkman 1984, 150) can either increase or lessen emotional distress. It can also

2 Major Concepts of Cognitive Psychological Stress B. Coping Major Forms of Coping Strategies: 2) Emotion-focused copingDirected at the emoti ons that result as a response to the problem and finding ways to regulate or han dle it. (Lazarus and Folkman 1984, 150) * It can either increase or lessen emotional distress. It can also mean to chang e the meaning of how the person sees the stressful situation.

STRESS, COPING & ADAPTATION EFFECTS Man s adaptation- refers to how he successfu lly adjust and survive in life on a day-to-day and long-term basis. Areas where Adaptation outcome may be seen: 1) Social functioning- how one fulfills his role 2) Morale-how person feels about himself and his conditions in life. 3) Somatic Health- related to physical wellbeing, absence and presence of diseases.

Environmental Demands Individual Cognitive Process Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Choice of Coping Problem-focused Coping Emotion-focused Coping Social Functioning Figure 1. Researchers Proposed Framework Morale Somatic Health

TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF STRESS Environmental Demands Coping Behavior Cognitive Processes Primary appraisal Appraisal Secondary appraisal Appraisal Choice of Coping behav ior Distress Health SYMPTOMS Worry Dysfunction Social Problems Figure 2

B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM To identify and compare the perceived levels of stress and coping strategies of male and female students of FEBIAS College of Bible.

Specific Questions: 1. What is the perceived level of stress of students in the FEBIAS College of Bi ble? 1.1 Males 1.2 Females 2. What are the coping strategies of students in the FEBIAS College of Bible? 2.1 Males 2.2 Females

Specific Questions: 3. Is there a significant difference between the perceived level of stress betwe en male and female students of the FEBIAS College of Bible? 4. Is there a signif icant difference between the coping strategies between male and female students of the FEBIAS College of Bible?

Hypotheses 1. There is no significant difference between the perceived levels of stress of male and female students of the FEBIAS College of Bible. 2. There is no signific ant difference between the coping strategies of male and female students of the FEBIAS College of Bible.

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Stress and academic reform The idea of stress is confusing since it has no one d irect and clear cut definition. Definition of stress-17th century- It came from Latin word stringere - to draw tight. It is used to refer hardship or affliction . (Cooper 2003)

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Studies on stress 1920 - William Osler ( chest pain & hectic pace of life) 1939 - Walter B. Cannon (environmental forces & diseases) (resistances to forces resu lt to stress) 1936 - Hans Selye Popularized and explained stress syndrome produced by diverse noxious agents * Recently stress denotes a set of c hanges that people undergo in situation they appraise as threathening to their w ell-being.

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE The Biopsychosocial Approach to Stress by Bernard and Krupat (1994) - An approach that is an all inclusive that involves three components of stress from which many models of stress were based. 1) the external component 2) the internal component 3) the interaction bet. exte rnal and internal component

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Three components of Biopsychosocial Approach to Stress 1) the external component model The idea of Claude Bernard-emphasis is placed on the environmental stimulus that triggers one to become stressful. (Oxford companion to the Body 2003) Stressor- Event, condition, situation or stimulus that threate n the person s health and well-being, which is commonly known.

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE The Biopsychosocial Model of Stress by Bernard and Krupat (19 94) 1) the external component model Stoits (1995) 3 major stressors a. Life Even ts b.Chronic strains c. Daily hassles

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Three components of Biopsychosocial Approach to Stress 1) the external component model Other Types of stressors by Everly and Lating (2002) a . Psychosocial stressors b.Biogenic stressors

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Three components of Biopsychosocial Approach to Stress 2. The internal component model of Stress The idea of fight or flight by Walter Cannon (1939) - Emphasis is given on how an organism s internal biological and biochem ical resources defend itself against stressful attack.

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Three components of Biopsychosocial Approach to Stress 2. The internal component model of Stress A stress is manifested by a syndrome which consists of all the non-specifically induced changes in biologic system. (Hans Selye) The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) by Hans Selye Stimulus events are capable of producing common response pa ttern of systemic stress (GAS) with the following stages: 1) Alarm Stage 2) Resi stance Stage 3) Exhaustion Stage

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE Three components of Biopsychosocial Approach to Stress 3. The Interaction of External and Internal Component of Stress Proposed by Richard Lazarus (1966) The combination of internal and external fact or of stress, which he calls relationship or transaction between the environment and the person. Subjective evaluation of the person is given importance. Apprai sal and Coping as the major ideas.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) In 2006, Lawrence et al. Problem: gender differences with regards to choice of coping strategies of under graduate students and their impact on selfesteem and academic attainment. Instru ments: York Self-esteem Inventory, Emotional Control Questionnaire and Coping St yles Questionnaire Result: Males and females differ significantly in self-esteem , coping and academic success. None of the coping strategies were significant pr edictors of the final grade.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) In 2006, Lawrence et al. Result: Males and females differ significantly in self-esteem, coping and academic succe ss. None of the coping strategies were significant predictors of the final grade . Coping and Self Esteem higher the self-esteem the higher the tendency to perce ive the situation as controllable. The high Coping and attainment-not related

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) In 2005, Wang and Yeh Problem: examined the stress perception, sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behavior. Instruments: The authors used the Stress Perceived Scale, C oping Behavior Inventory and Chinese Health Questionnaire Result: Results identi fied the top five sources of college stress as: test-taking, learning tasks, stu dents own aspirations, parents aspirations and teachers aspirations. To cope, th e college students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including op timistic action and seeking social support.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) In 2005, Wang and Yeh Result: Students tend to cope using emotion-focused coping as the perceived leve l of stress and emotional disturbance increased. Scores from the tests revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect on alleviating psychologi cal health. The interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially more adaptive in relation to psychological health at the lower and moderate stress levels than at the extreme stress levels

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) Smith and Dust (2006) Problem: a correlational study that examined the effect of coping on the students appraisal and dispositional traits. Instruments: The COP E inventory, Rosenberg s Self-esteem Scale, Campbell Self-concept Clarity, Perso nal Problem-Solving Inventory, Emotional Control Questionnaire and Hopkins Check list were used to assess the respondents dispositional qualities. For stress app raisal, the Perceived Stress Scale was utilized.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) Smith and Dust (2006) Results: Cognitive coping whether preferred (trait) or sit uational (state) were related. Cognitive strategies as preferred coping was rela ted to a set of dispositional factors. Results showed that self-esteem and probl em-solving confidence had positively predicted the use of cognitive coping style . Subjects appraisal of the situation was seen as related to their use of specif ic coping strategies.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) 2001 by Shield Problem : studied college students who persisted and did not pers ist in completing their course, the relationship among stress, active coping and academic performance was examined. Instruments: telephone survey, questions inc lude: Conducted a telephone survey and evaluated the students objective academic performance. Respondents were asked what attempts they made to seek information and help for 21 different school-related needs over the past academic year. 10point scale, students were asked to rate how stressful they found their experien ces as college students.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) 2001 by Shield Results: persistent students experienced significantly higher stress levels than those wh o were non-persistent. They also scored high on coping. Older students persisted longer than young students. That stress was related to increased coping efforts Higher levels of stress were related to lower GPAs among persisting students. N o significant relationship was found between perceived stress and active coping. Men were twice as likely than women to persist in their college studies.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) In 2005, Kariv and Heiman Problem: conducted a study among 283 college students to explore the effect of stress perception and coping behavior on their academic s. Instruments: Subjective questions about how they felt about their academic lo ad. Using a 4-point Likert scale, they were asked to rate the level of stress th ey felt about their academic load. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was used.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Foreign Studies) Results: The higher the objective load of the students, the higher their scores on perceived academic stress. Academic stress perception significantly contribut ed towards predicting coping behaviour. Students tend to use task-oriented copin g as they perceived task under their control, eventually they used emotion-orien ted coping as the academic stress level increase. Age and gender were significan t variables

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) Sollano (2008) Problem: to determine the stressors and coping styles of nursing students. Findings: Students stressors are varied Male stressors more of interpe rsonal; females-more of intrapersonal Student economic status influence kind of stressors middle & high SES-more of intrapersonal stressors low SES- academic st ressors Generally most students use coping such as Religion, positive reinterpre tation, active coping and planning. Males tend to use independent coping and les s of coping using emotions; Female resort to coping by associating with others a nd emotional coping.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) 2006, Elenita Roxas Problem: perceived stress and academic performance of senior college students of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa to determine the st ressors and coping styles of nursing students. Findings: Factors that generally affected the college students were: getting enough sleep, finances, social activ ities and the influence of peers, teachers and school administrators. Perceived stress and general grade point average had no significant relationship.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) 2004, Salvacion Problem: define out the stress profile of students of the Colleg e of Dentistry of the University of the Philippines. Instruments: Personal Stres s Profile Questionnaire, Modified Dental Environment Findings: Results showed th at academic and clinical requirements were top stressors among the U.P. College of Dentistry students. examinations and grades heavy academic load difficulty in completing clinical requirements fear of getting delayed

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) 2004, Salvacion Problem: define the stress profile of students of the College of Dentistry of the University of the Philippines. Instruments: Personal Stress Pr ofile Questionnaire, Modified Dental Environment Findings: Crying, praying, watc hing movies, and listening to music were the top four strategies to cope with th e stress.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) 2004 Damalerio et. al Problem: investigate the levels of stress and the stressor s experienced by both male and female students of the De La Salle University Col lege of Business Economics. Findings: ( involve academics and interpersonal prob lems) Top five stressors were: Having trouble with a classmate Serious illness o r injury of family a member Failing a course or having a failing grade Having tr ouble with a brother or sister Losing a close friend

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) 2004 Damalerio et. al Problem: investigate the levels of stress and the stressor s experienced by both male and female students of the De La Salle University Col lege of Business Economics. Findings: Involve academics and students social life . Significant difference were found between levels of stress between males and f emales. To cope, students use verbal and motor manifestations this include: pray ing, going to a quiet place, releasing tension through joking and laughing, reev aluating goals, and obtaining the support of family and friends.

CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES (Local Studies) Stephen Tayo (1999) Problem: the correlation of stress and coping of four protes tant theological schools in Region IV in the Philippines. Findings: Stressors an d levels of stress correlated Males showed higher level of stress than females S tudents tend to use Cognitive coping ( from the categories of cognitive, behavio ral and physical) was the top category used, followed by behavioral then physica l) Main categories of students stressors were academic and social stressors. Cor relation between stress and coping were not evident.

t CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH Results will give insight on in college students differ in their levels of stres s compared with other college students. Findings of this research will benefit o ther seminary institutions in helping address the levels of stress encountered d ue to different environment, academic programs and trainings that these institut ions offer. Findings will add to the research on College stress studies, since t here are limited number or recent studies done particularly in Philippine settin g. Findings will also validate the results of earlier studies on stress and copi ng between males and females.

t CHAPTER III Research Design Descriptive survey research design The problem will try collect information from the target population and describe their levels of stress and c oping strategies.

t CHAPTER III Research Setting : FEBIAS COLLEGE OF BIBLE FEBIAS is an acronym for Far Eastern Bible Institute and Seminary. Founded in 1948 by American World War II soldiers for religious leadership train ing purposes.

Research Setting : FEBIAS COLLEGE OF BIBLE t Location map

t Courses Offered: Basic Bible Course ( non-degree course) Bachelor of Arts in Theology (degree cours e) Major in: -Pastoral Studies (ABTh-PS) -Missions (ABTh-M) -Christian Education (ABTh-CE) -Church Music Education (ABTh-CME) -Church Music Conducting (ABTh-CMC ) -Christian Ministries Bachelor of Arts in Pre-Elementary Missionary Aviation

t Dorm Life Chapel Time Discipline & character Development Social Life

t RESEARCH SUBJECTS: FEBIAS COLLEGE OF BIBLE COLLEGE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 2ND SE MESTER S.Y.2009-10 TABLE 1 Classification Basic Bible Course Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors TOTAL Male 70 22 20 19 18 149 Female 35 25 22 15 14 111 Total 105 47 42 34 32 260

t RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: A) Perceived Levels of Stress 10 (PSSP10) The Perceived Stress Scale is a psychological instrument that measures the degree to which a r ecent life situation is appraised as stressful. It was developed and validated b y Cohen, Kamark and Mermeilstein (Cohen et al. 1983).

t RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: A) Perceived Levels of Stress 10 (PSSP10) Empirically va lidated (Monroe and Kelley, 1995). Administration The scale of PSS10 asks the respondents to rate their thoughts and feelings abou t their life in the last month. Respondents indicate their response by encirclin g the value that corresponds to the frequency of the occurrence of a particular thought or feeling. PSS10 consist of 10 questions.

t RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: A) Perceived Levels of Stress 10 (PSSP10) Scoring: can b e obtained by reversing response (e.g. 0=4, 1=3, 2=2, 3=1 & 4=0) to the even positively stated sentences (items 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 13) and then summing across all scale items (Cohen 1988). Scores range fr om 10-40.

t RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: A) Perceived Levels of Stress 10 (PSSP10) TABLE 2 SCORES INTERPRETATION 36-40 26-35 16-25 6-15 5

Interpretation

Extremely high perception of stress High perception of stress Average perception of stress Low perception of stress Extremely low perception of stress

t RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: A) Perceived Levels of Stress 10 (PSSP10) Reliability Test (Cohen et.al.) The internal consistency approach was first appl ied to three groups of samples. A test-retest correlation was also done. Validit y Test Validity of the instrument was established from extensive normative data on 2,387 respondents. Other studies established validity by correlating perceive d stress as measured by PSS and a variety of relevant outcomes such as stress me asures, self-reported health, and help seekingbehavior (Cohen et. al. 1988)

t RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: B) Recent Stressful Event Questionnaire This is a subjective questionnaire patterned after the study done by Carver with the COPE instrument (Carver et al. 1989) The questionnaire asks the subject to describe a particular situation that caused him stress in the past month. This i s the particular situation where the subject will refer in answering the COPE qu estionnaire.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: t B) COPE (state-like form) (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub 1 989). Description- This questionnaire consists of 52 items, covering 13 dimensio ns. Instructions: Respondents indicate the extent which they did whatever each t he given statement says. Response choices are: - I did not do it at all - I did this a little bit - I did this a medium amount - I did this a lot

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: t B) COPE (state-like form) (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub 1 989). Scales ( please refer to table 3 p. 57) Scoring The total score per catego ry can be obtained by adding the raw scores for each scale under it. For Problem -focused and Emotion-focused categories, possible scores range from 5 to 80. las t category (referred as others) the possible scores can ranges from 3 to 12. Int erpretation

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: t B) COPE (state-like form) (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub 1 989). Interpretation COPING STRATEGIES Problem-focused Coping Emotion-Focused Coping Other Coping Str ategies INTERPRETATION LOW 5-26 AVERAGE 27-54 55-80 HIGH 5-26 27-54 55-80 3-6 7-8 11-12

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: t D) Demographic Questionnaire (pls. refer to appendix D)

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: Content Validators: t 1. Cornelia Sotto, Ph.D., Faculty member, Education Department, Ateneo de Manila University. 2. Consolacion J.Concepcion, MA, Director of the Ateneo Placement O ffice, Ateneo de Manila University. 3. Ma. Encarnacion L. Tan, MA, Testing and R esearch Director, Ateneo de Manila High School. . 4. Leila B. Vargas, MA, Test a nd Measurement College Professor, FEBIAS College of Bible. 5. Margaret Oiga, Eng lish Professor, FEBIAS College of Bible. 6. Genesis del Barrio, MA, Counseling C ollege Professor, FEBIAS College of Bible.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: Content Validators: t 7. Feliciano Espino Jr., Dean of Student Affairs, FEBIAS College of Bible. 8. Re ne Santillan, Director of Student Ministries, Febias College of Bible 9.Constant ino Togonon, Statistic College Instructor, FEBIAS College of Bible 10. Erlina de Gula , MA. College Registrar, FEBIAS College of Bible

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: t Pilot Testing All instruments will be pre-tested to 30 s tudents of Philippine Missionary Institute. The students here and the context of this institution have the same characteristics with the target population.

Data Gathering Procedure t Secure proper permission to the college president of FEBIAS College of Bible. Dates of Assessment will be determined. Assessment will be given in one shot. On the day of the assessment instruments will be distribu ted in the following order: Demographic Questionnaire PSS10 Recent Stressful Eve nt Questionnaire COPE Questionnaire Scores will be tallied according to gender

Data Gathering Procedure t Scores will be subjected to statistical treatment. Ttest for significant difference will be applied. Statistical Treatment For Mean and standard Deviation: fx X= ---------N = X2 n T-test for independent means