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Condoms are sheathes that trap the sperm when a man climaxes ('comes').

Wearing them greatly reduces the chances of pregnancy. They also provide some protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. But this protection is not 100 per cent. Condoms have long been used to prevent disease and pregnancy. Many people, but not all, support ending the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and a significant reduction in unwanted pregnancy rates. Condom opponents dispute the extent to which condoms are the solution to these two problems. As other more effective forms of birth control are widely used, the debate over condoms has shifted to their effectiveness in preventing disease. Condoms are the only method, apart from abstinence, that may prevent transmission of certain STDs. Unprotected sexual intercourse places a substantial number of adolescents at risk for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While the most effective means of preventing STD/ HIV infection among sexually active adolescents is consistent condom use, little is known about the factors that influence their consistent use among adolescents. Both for contraceptive purposes, and for the avoidance of infection, it's important to wear the condom throughout the sexual act and not just at the end of it. Condom use has become widespread throughout the world, though there are whole areas of the globe where these devices are difficult to obtain. Religious opposition toward them has played a part in restricting their availability. However, in late 2010 the Pope appeared to modify the Catholic Church's view on condom use. In an interview published in a new book, he seems to have said that it might be permissible to use a condom in order to prevent the transmission of infection. Various translations of this interview have appeared. The Vatican has recently tried to clarify Benedict XVI's comments, saying he meant that the use of a condom by a man or a woman to prevent HIV transfer 'could be an act of responsibility', if intended to protect life. What types of condom are there? There are now two types of condom: male and female. However, in 2012, male condoms still remain far more commonly used than female ones, which have not 'caught on' in the way that was widely expected in the 1990s.

The male condom The male condom is also known as a sheath, a prophylactic, a rubber or a johnny. It's usually about 7 inches (18 to 19cm) long, but various other sizes are available. A condom that's too small for you can be quite uncomfortable. So a new type of male condom, which varies in length and girth, has recently (December 2011) been marketed. There are 95 different sizes and you buy the one that fits your penis, much as you would buy the correct-sized shoe for your foot! The new type is called 'TheyFit'. The idea is that you measure the length and the circumference of your erect penis, using a downloadable template which the distributing company provides. Most male condoms are made of thin latex a form of rubber. A polyurethane type is also available, which can be used by those who are allergic to latex. There is also a sheath made from animal intestine, but it is not easily obtainable. Some brands of condom contain spermicides, but these chemicals can occasionally cause allergies. How effective are male condoms in preventing pregnancy? A condom's effectiveness largely depends on the person who uses it. If a man pulls it on roughly, lets his partner snag it with her teeth, or only puts it on halfway through intercourse, this will greatly reduce the protection it offers.

When used correctly, a male condom is about 98 per cent effective. This means that only about 2 in every 100 women would get pregnant in the course of a year. This is more effective than several other forms of contraception, such aswithdrawal or using spermicides (chemicals) alone. And it's far better than using nothing! Warning! Pregnancy may occur if: you don't put the condom on before intercourse starts the condom splits unlikely if you handle it gently and avoid snagging it with rings, etc you use an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline, body oils, creams or lotions these can make holes in latex condoms. How do you put them on? Most packs of reliable male condoms come with step-by-step instructions, which you should follow carefully. Try not to get so carried away with passion that you rush things. Use this guide to help you. 1. Take the fresh condom out of the packet carefully. Avoid 'catching' it on your nails. 2. Do not blow it up, because this can weaken it. 3. There's usually a 'teat' at the end. Squeeze the air out of it. 4. Now roll the condom onto the erect penis. (Don't try putting it on before you're hard.) 5. Roll it all the way down to the base of your penis. 6. Some men lose their erection through nerves while rolling the condom on. This is now known as 'condom collapse'. If this sometimes happens to you, get your partner to put it on for you rubbing you at the same time. 7. As soon as you've climaxed, hold the condom firmly onto your penis with your fingers, and withdraw from the vagina. Take care not to spill any fluid. 8. Now, take off the condom, wrap it in paper or tissue, and dispose of it in a bin. 9. If you're going to have sex again that day, wash your penis and put on a new condom. 10. Never try to reuse a condom.

II. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES AND SCIENTIFIC UNDERPINNINGS: THE EARLY YEARS Egyptian art dating back to 1350 B.C. depicts males who have barriers covering the tip of the penis.[2] In actuality, however, such barriers were used, not as contraceptives, but as protection against tropical diseases or insect bites, as insignia of rank or status, as decorations or for clothing.[3] It was a small step from these penis-specific coverings to modifying them for use to prevent pregnancy or STDs.[4] As early as the 16th century, condoms were used for the prevention of infection,[5] providing evidence non-marital promiscuous sexual activities were key facilitators of this innovation. The first written description of the condom and its utility is found in De morbo gallico , written by the great Italian anatomist and syphilis expert Fallopius.[6] Fallopious described the condom as a linen sheath that is cut to cover the head of the penis and worn to prevent against French Caries or syphilis infection. [7] Fallopius explained that he had tried the experiment on eleven hundred men, and ... call[ed] immortal God to witness that not one of them was infected.[8] While Fallopius noted its convenience (men could carry sheaths in their pocket), an early 18th century physician noted its disadvantages: ... the Condum being the best, if not the only Preservative our Libertines have found out at present; and yet by reason of its blunting the Sensation, I have heard some of them acknowledge, that they had often chose to risk a Clap , rather than engage cum Hastis sic clypeatis . [With spears thus sheathed.][9] Condoms were not used for contraception until as late as the 18th century.[10] Condom merchants in 18th century England printed bill board advertising condoms as implements of

safety.[11] The bills used the following blurb To guard yourself from shame or fear, Votaries to Venus, hasten here, None in our ware eer found a flaw, Self-preservations natures law.[12] Casanova, writing extensively about condoms,[13] called the devices The English Riding Coat, preservative sheaths and assurance caps.[14] He used condoms not only to prevent pregnancy, but also to avoid STDs.[15] For instance, before having sex with a public woman with whom he was concerned with the risk of acquiring a STD, he would insist that she offer him a condom.[16] Similar to modern testing techniques, Casanova would inflate his condoms with air to check whether it had any holes or weaknesses.[17] The key innovation in condom technology occurred when the Vulcanization of rubber was discovered by Goodyear and Hancock in 1843.[18] The use of vulcanized rubber, as opposed to animal tissue, lowered costs and increased condom quality. Literally hundreds of publications, treatises and handbills attested to the utility of this new invention.[19]Todays latex condom is a direct descendant of the vulcanized rubber condom that took the world by storm in the 19th century. A condom is the only reversible male contraceptive method. It is a thin sheath of latex, plastic or lambskin[20] that covers the penis during intercourse.[21] [22] Condoms work as contraceptives by collecting semen and other male secretions that may contain sperm and thus preventing the insemination of the woman.[23] For the condom to achieve its beneficial purpose it must not break, slip or otherwise allow sperm to pass the latex barrier. In order to achieve its maximum preventive capacity, the condom must also be used correctly and consistently.[24] Condoms, including the material they are made from, are engineered so as to be easily placed on the penis, to contain the collected fluid and to minimize breakage and slippage.[25] Rubber condoms have been mass-produced since the 19th century[26] and are widely used today both in the United States and internationally. In 1995, approximately 13% of women of reproductive age reported using condoms for contraception.[27] Young men aged fifteen through nineteen showed that only 9.5% had never used condoms.[28] However, despite being widely used, few people prefer using condoms as contraception.[29] For instance, only 5% of married women of reproductive age use condoms as contraception.[30] Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases Human Papillom HSV: a Virus Common Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Herpes (HPV) HIV/AIDS STDs Simplex and Genital Warts Vagina, cervix, Vagina, urethra, Vagina, Vagina, cervix, Blood, Genital anus, urethra, anus, semen, Where is it cervix, urethra, cervix, urethra, area and/or scrotum, throat and mouth, throat vaginal fluid, found? throat and on mouth mouth, anus anus and all breast milk throat and genital areas all genital areas May or may Vaginal or Painless Painful Few early No early not have early penile pain chancre blisters, symptoms symptoms, and discharge, (sore), fever, , may destroys What are symptoms, untreated swollen cause immune the possible discharge from chronic low stomach pain, it can glands, warts, can system, symptoms? penis and vagina, pelvic spread to symptoms cause multiple chronic low infection/fever the brain reoccur cancer of severe

stomach pain, pelvic infection/fever , infertility may result (mostly in women), can infect babies

, infertility may result (mostly in women), can infect babies

and/or throughout heart, can life, can cause birth infect babies defects and lesions on infants' skin and other problems with their organs

the cervix, anus and penis, can infect babies

infections, no known cure, fatal illness, can infect babies

Oral, anal and Oral, anal and Oral, anal and vaginal vaginal sex, sex, How can it vaginal sex, be spread? and mother to and mother to contact child child with sores, mother to child

Can Condom use is condoms associated help if with some always decreased risk. used (100% (Risk of the time reduction is and 50% or less.) correctly)?

Condom Condom use is use is associated associated with some with some decreased risk. decreased (Risk risk. (Risk reduction is reduction 50% or less.) is 50% or less.)

In 2002, 0.1 to 2.8% of there were 3-14% of women age about 350 women age 15-24 who cases of How many visited family primary infected 15-24 who and teens are visited family planning clinics (based secondary reported? planning clinics (2002) on reporting syphilis in states) 15-19 yr olds Antibiotics Antibiotics What are Antibiotics (permanen (permanent (permanent the t damage treatments damage may damage may may have have occurred) have occurred) ? occurred)

Anal and vaginal Oral, anal and sex, vaginal sex, contact contact with with infected skin, infected mother to skin, child mother to child (rare) No evidence that condom use Condom use reduces is associated risk of with some HPV decreased infection. risk. (Risk Some reduction is evidence 50% or that less.)* condoms reduce the risk of HPVassociated diseases. The most recent About 28 estimates to 46% of show that women depending on under 25 race/ethnicity are , 4.5% - 8.8% estimated of teens 12- to be 19 are infected infected with with HPV Herpes Monitor through Symptom pap control, but smears for no cure cancer changes,

Oral, anal and vaginal sex, IV drug use, mother to child

Condom use decreases the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by approximatel y 85%.

By the end of 2002, about 36,000 individuals age 13 to 24 had been diagnosed with AIDS Symptom control with AIDS Medicines (antiretroviral drugs)

Surgery No Cure for warts and cervical growths Notes: *This takes into account as yet unpublished data, which were presented at the 2002 National STD Conference, sponsored by the CDC. See below for citation.