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EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE Character: simplicity, massiveness, monumentality Material: stone and brick System: columnar and trabaeted Comparative

analysis: Plans- irregular and asymmetrical Wall- no windows (batter wall) Openings- doors are square headed Roof- flat roof Columns- interior only, 6d - bud & bell, palm, foliated, hatthor head, osiris, polygonal Mouldings- torus and gorge PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS: Egyptian Tombs: Mastaba- stairway, halfshrunk, elaborate structure elements: offering chapel w/ stele (slab) serdab (statue chamber) sarcophagus Pyramid- square in plan, oriented in cardinal sides elements: offering chapel mortuary chapel elevated causeway (passageway) valley building (embalmment) types: step (zoser) slope blunt (seneferu) Rock-cut- mountain side tombs elements: passages sepultural chamber Egyptian Temples: CULT TEMPLE- worship of the gods MORTUARY TEMPLE- to honor the pharos elements: pylon (entrance or gateway) hypaethral court (open to the sky court) hypostyle hall (pillard or columnar hall) sanctuary MINOR TEMPLE- mammisi temple (carved along mountain) OBELISK TEMPLE (monumental pillars, square in plan) Sphinx: (mythical monsters) Mastaba of Thi, SakkaraPyramid of Gizeh- Cheops, Chepren, Mykerinos Tombs of the Kings, Thebes The Great Temple of Arnak (greatest example of Egyptian temple) Great Sphinx at Gizeh (god horus) Egyptian Architects: Senusurets- built the earliest known obelisk at Heliopolis Amenemhat I- founded the great temple at Karnak Thothmes I- began the additions to the temple of Amnon Karnak Amenophis III- built the famous Colossi of Memnon Rameses I- began the hypostyle hall at Karnak Seti I- built the temple at Abu- Simber Ptolemy II- built the pharos of Light House Ptolemy III- founded the Great Seradeum at Alexandria

ASIASIASTIC ARCHITECTURE WEST ASIA BABYLONEAN AND ASSYRIAN Character: simplicity, massiveness, grandeur Material: brick System: arch and vault Comparative analysis: Plan - palaces are elevated on platforms w/ room covered by vaults Walls - are built with sun died bricks, battlement cresting ASSYRIA finished w/ chiseled alabaster slab Openings - doors are semicircular headed w/ sculptured monstrers Roof - externally appeared flat but covered by brick vaults internally Columns - no columns Mouldings- no mouldings Ornaments- chiseled alabaster slab Principal buildings: Ziggurat: holy mountains Archaic ziggurats- rectangular w/ upper temple Multi level ziggurats- 2 to 5 tiers Assyrian ziggurats- square in plan w/ continous ramp w/ fire altar Palace: usually built by Assyrian elements: seraglio- palace proper harem- private family apartments khan- service chamber Palace of Sarbon, Corsabat PERSIAN (architect of light and airy magnificence, open type plan) Material: stone for columns, brick for wall surface, timber for roof System: royal palace are built on platforms to achieve monumentality : columnar and trabaeted Comparative analysis: Plan - open widely spaced columns Wall - made of bricks covered w/ polychrome brickwork Openings - windows and doors are square headed Roof - flatroof made of timber Columns - tall & slender w/ flutted shafts, 15d & scroll, twin horse capital Mouldings- Greek & Egyptian Ornament - polychrome brickwork Palace Platform, Persopolis Propylaea, Xerxes Palace of Darius Palace of Cerces Hypostyle Hall of Cerces Hall of Hundred Columns

GREEK ARCHITECTURE Character: Simplicity & harmony Purity of line Perfection of proportions Refinement of details Material: marble System: columnar and trabaeted Early Period/ Minoan or Mycenaean Principal buildings: Megaron: domestic unit elements: enclosed porch megaron proper thalamussleeping room Walls: 1. cyclopean 2. polygonal 3. rectangular 4. inclined blocks Tombs: Rock -Cut- rectangular chamber cut deep into the mountainside Tholos- is a subterranean vault, circular in shape - dromos- passageway Palaces: Palace King Minos, Knossos Helenic Period- religious structures Comparative Analysis: (Greek Temples) Simple & balance, symmetrical Rectangular Principal buildings: Temples: elements: front portico crepidomastylobate, steriobate pronaos naos epinaos/ posticum w/ or w/o opisthodomos peroma- space bet the naos wall and columns

Prostyle, Amphi-prostyle Peripteral, Pseudo-peropteral Edipteral, Pseudo-dipteral Comparative analysis: Wall- solidly constructed of blocks or stones, use of dowels or clamps Openings- doors, windows & colonnade are square headed Roof- w/ sloping rafters covered w/ thin marble slab to permit light - lacunaria (coffer) Column- principal external feature Orders Introduced by Greeks: Doric Order Ionic order Corinthian Order Parts: Entablature- cornice frieze architrade Column- capital shaft base Proportion of Greek Orders Doric Order- favored by Greeks Column- 4-6 D Tablature- height of order Ionic Order Column- 9D Tablature- 1/5 height of order Corinthian Order Column- 10D Tablature- 1/5 height of order Doric Order: Abachus Echinus Trachelion Hypotrachelion Entasis Ionic Order: Abachus Echinus- volute Attic base if 2 torus Torus Plinth Corinthian Order: Abachus Cauli-coli Acanthus leaves Intercolumnation Spaces: Hypnostyle- 1 d Systyle- space bet col 2d Eustyle- space 2 1/4d Diastyle- 3d Areostyle- 3 d Principal buildings: Temples: elements: acroterion pediment tympanum entablature metope triglyph raking cornice crepidoma

Number of columns: Henostyle Dinostyle Tristyle Tetrastyle Pentastyle Hexastyle Hectastyle Octostyle Ennastyle Decastyle Dodestyle Arrangement of Columns: Antis, Amphi-antis

- holds the statue of Athena Theater of Dionysius Temple of Nike Apteros- archt Callicrates - Ionic temple Temple of Zeus, Agrigentum- 2nd largest - archt Theron - 3 naos Entablature spacing: Monotriglyph Ditriglyph Polytriglyph Mouldingsparabola hyperbola elipse Basis of Shape of MouldingsCyma riversa/ olgee- Waterleaf & tongue Cyma recta- Antheneon or honey suckle Ovolo- Egg & dart or egg & tongue Atragal/ bead- Bead & reel Torus- Guilloche or plait Corona- Fret Fillet cavetto escocia- Plain Sculptured reliefs- free standing statuary- single or group figures Types: bigas- 2 horse chariot Quadbigas- 4 horse chariot Themenos- sacred enclosure Acropolis, Athens Propelea- gateway Pinacothecapaintings Glyptothecasculptures Statue of Athena Promochos Erechtheon- unusual because of carriage porch Old Temple of Athena Parthenon- largest geatest example of greek architecture - archt. Ictinus master sculptorCallicrates - Doric temple - naosmade of gold and ivory - Atlantes figure Temple of Artemis- archt Deinocrates - master sculptor- Scopas Greek Theater- hallow out of hillside - 2/3 of circle elements: cavea orchestra- complete circle at center skene- proscenia (oration) - paracenia- width of orchestra - epiceniumbackground Theater of Dionysus, Athens- prototype - largest for 30,000 people Theater of Epidauror- most beautiful & preserved - archt Polycletos Helenistic Period- civic structure Principal buildings: Agora- town square, center of social & business life Stoa- shed, long colonnade Prytaneion- senate building Bouleuterion- council palace Audeion- smaller scale theater, used for musical Stadium- foot race course Hipodrome- hose chariot racing, prototype of roman circus Palaestra- resting school Gymnasium- place for all types of physical exercises Tomb- mosoleum elements: pediment podium

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE Character: Vastness & magnificence Olstentation & ornateness Material: pozzolana & lime System: columnar, trabaeted & arcuated Comparative analysis: Plan- assymetrical due to complexity of needs of romans Walls- made of stone & concrete Types:Opus quadratum Opus incertum Opus reticulatum Opus testaceum Opus mixtum - introduction of buttresses Types:Niche/ hemicycle- retaining wall, detached Spur buttress- attached to wall Pinnacle- similar to spur but more pronounced

Column- 9D Tablature- 21/4d Corinthian Order Column- 10D Tablature- 2 1/2D Mouldings- heavily decorated Ornament- mosaic- floor, wall ceiling (Tesserrae) types: opusteselatum- square for ceilings opusectile- tesserae cut into shapes for wall opuspilatum- inchevron for floor - mural paintings - accantus scroll- most popular Principal buildings: Forum- a central open shape used as a meeting place, market or rendevous for political demonstration. Forum Romanum- oldest & most important Forum of Trajan- largest forum Rectangular Temples Temple of Venus, Rome- Appolodorus of Damascus Pantheon Rome ( Sta. Maria Rotunda)Agripa (corinthian temple)

elements of arch: keystone extrados intrados string course impost abutment plinth archivault voussoir blocks stilting rise spring line span Roof- vaulting system types: semi circular/ wagon headed vault (made of bricks) cross vault dome/ cupula

ColumnComposite- Ionic volute w/ Corinthian Tuscan- similar to Greek Doric w/ base Column- 7D Tablature- 1 3/4D Doric OrderColumn- 8D Tablature- 2D Ionic Order

Basilica- hall of justice & commercial exchange Trajans Basilica, Rome- Appolodorus of Damascus Thermae- palatial public bath Balneum- private bath for family elements: 1. main building- tepidariumwarm lounge - calidariumhot water bath sudotorium- hottest room - frigidarium- cooling room w/ piscana or swimming bath unctoria- perfume & oil 2. xystus- large open space w/ landscaping ,stadium fro various types of athletic sports 3. outer ring of apartmentslecture room, exedrae, stores 4. hypocaust- furnace Thermae of Caracalla Thermae Of Diocletian Theaters- orchestra is used by important people - skene became the stage Theater of Marcellus, Rome- concrete Theater Orange- partly concrete

Amphitheatre- gladitoria contests Colloseum, Rome- vast ellipse ArchtsVespasian Domitian Circus- for horse & chariot racing elements: spina carceres Circus maximus, Rome- largest Tombs Classes: 1. Coemetera w/ Columbaria- a niche i n t h e

e s e a l e d w / a f r o n t

Loculi- recess for

s r l o a c b 2. Monumental tombs- similar to the Greek mousoleum in form & k plan c Mausoleum of o Agustus, Rome n Mausoleum of t Hadrian, Rome (Castle of Angelo) a 3. Pyramidal tombs i 4. Temple shaded tombs n 5. Sculptured memorials- minor i tombs of varied designs n 6. Cenotaphs- memorial g monum ents to a person s buried h elsewhe e re s Commemorative Monuments 1. Triumphal arch- 3 openings, for o emperors f Pilar of victory/ memorial columnrecord triumph of victorius generals t Trajans Columnh Doric column, arch e Titus 3. Rostral column- victorius campaigns d done in sea victories e Palaces a Palaces of Emeperors, Rome- by d emeperor Agustus Palace of Diocletian, Spalato- largest Roman Houses c Villa- country house o Insula- tenement house for workers r Domus- private house p elements: s 1. prothyrum e 2. atriumentrance court w open to the sky / impluviu c m- water cistern 3. tablium- open w saloon e r

peristyle- inner colonnaded court (open) 5. cubiculabedrooms 6. triclina- dining room 7. oecusreception room 8. alae- reception for conversation 9. kitchen & pantry Aqueduct- for water supply of towns & cities Aquaclaudia- Caligula & Claudius Pontgard, Nimes- mos manificent 25 miles long Pons- roman bridges Fountains Types: Locus/ Lacus- large basin of water Salientes- provide water

4.

Etruscan Period Introduced radiating arch Tuscan column/ similar to Greek Doric w/ base Atrium in domestic planning

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE Character: Simplicity in design and treatment Coarseness in execution Material: savaged from pagan structures Basilican plan for churches (east oriented) System: trabaeted & arcuated Comparative analysis: Plan- evolved from roman basilica built on site of saints burial places elements: bell tower atrium- with fountain narthex nave- sude aisles choir- cancelli (low walls) high altar- baldochino, crypt/ confessio/ cimborium ambo apse- for bishops & cardinals Materials: Masonry & concrete Walls- exterior- concrete w/ plain plasters - interior- mosaic Openings- arcaded, doors & windows are span w/ semicircular arches lintels or entablature Roofs-Nave- timber trusses Side aisles- semicircular arches Apse- side dome Columns- 4 roman columns Mouldings- roman mouldings are adapted, very crude Ornament- linked to Christian religion 2 basic ornaments: mosaic mural paintings Example of Basilican Churches: Basilican Church of St. Peter, Rome Church of St. John Lateran BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE Removed the atrium Narthex became the entrance Covered by dome roof- external features Character: Simplicity in external design Richness in internal treatment Material: bricks used for walls & concrete for domes Marble for columns System: fusion of domical construction Classic columnar & trabaeted style Comparative analysis: Plan- Greek cross plan Walls- bricks Exterior- brick in various design Interior- mosaic & marble Openings- are spanned by semicircular arches or lintels Windows- 3 thick translucent marble Roof- dome Types: Simple- pendentives, dome Compound- supported by drum Melon shaped- with flutings Columns: dosseret block, soffit, capitals Mouldings: Billet moulding

Mosaic Mural paintings Ornaments: symbolism Peacock- symbol of eternal life Endless knot- eternity Chirho- Jesus Christ Sta. Soffia of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia- for emperor Justinian Arch. Arthemus of Tralles Isodorus of Miletus - now a muslim mosque St. Mark, Venice Italy- most important example of Byzantine ROMANESQUE- roman like art Character: Sober & Dignified Material: stone & brick for Germany System: arcuated principle of equilibrium through vaulting system made up of rib & panel vaulting Comparative analysis: Plan- Latin Cross plan (west oriented) External feature- towers on nave & transept, facades Walls- supported by pilaster strips

Windows- rose or wheel windows

Roof: Rib & panel Vaulting 1. quadripartite

2. Column:

sexpartite

Mouldings- are usually in horizontal courses, deviated from roman Ornamets- fresco paintings- principal - vegetable & animals forms Principal buildings: Monastery Elements: Monastery church Cloister court

Inner court Common court Countries that adapted Romanesque: ITALY Central Italy- ornamental faade- rising one from another North Italy- rose window Pizza Cathedral Pizza Campanile Cathedral Baptistery

Column- group column Mouldings- 45 deg from wall Ornaments- stained glass & figured sculpture Countries that adapted Gothic: FRENCH GOTHIC 1. Primary/ Lancet Period- pointed arches & geometric tracery windows 2. Rayonnant Period- circular windows w/ wheel tracery 3. Flamboyant Period- flame like or free flowing tracery Principal Buildings: Cathedrals Notre Dame, Paris- oldest Gothic Cathedral By bishop Maurice De Sully Finest & most characteristic French gothic Chartres Cathedral- 130 stained galss windows Profussion of sculptured figures in west front Rheims Cathedral- coronation church of kings of France 500 carved statues on west facades Ameins Cathedral- archt Robert de Luzarches Typical French cathedral Carved woodwork on choir stalls Beauvais Cathedral- tallest in Europe, 157 to the vault 1 of the wonders of medieval in France Fortified Towns Carcassone- 50 towers, moat & walls Castles Chateau de Perrefonds- elongated location, overlooking town Arch. Viollet- le- Duc ENGLISH GOTHIC English gothic vaulting: formerets diagonal ribs ridge ribs transverse ribs tierceron boss- covering of ribs (pendant)

FRENCH ROMANESQUE Southern France- Muslim influence due to pointed arch Northern Italy- flanking towers Madeleine Vezelay- earliest form of cross-pointed vault in France Abbaye-Aux Homes, Caen Orderprototype of Gothic

GERMAN ROMANESQUE East & west apse Worms Cathedral- emperor Charlemagne GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE France- style ogivale - lofty & aspiry quality - structural honesty - economy in use of material System: Arcuated w/ Pointed Arches Material: stone Principal building: Cathedral- Latin Cross (west oriented) Plan- asymmetrical Walls- rubble masonry, buttress to support walls

Moulding- nail head Roof- ribbed & paneled vaulting

Double cone Wolsey Dog tooth Ball flower Tablet flower Embatled sandwich Classification of English Gothic Mouldings: 1. bowtel- of a circle 2. pointed bowtel- roll moulding in w/c 2 faces meet in a blunt arris 3. bracket/ brace- double ogee 4. wave moulding- a slight connexity followed by hallows 5. keel moulding 6. scroll 7. casement 8. hood & label Types of Trusses: 1. tie beam 2. trusted rafter 3. hammer beam 4. collar beam 5. aisle roof Principal Buildings: Cathedrals 1st div- Cathedral of the Old Foundationserved by secular clergy York Cathedral- largest cathedral among English cathedral Salisbury Cathedral- English gothic caharcteristic cable

Manor House Hampton Court Palace- archt Cardinal University University of Oxford Cambridge University BELGIUM & DEUTCH GOTHIC -eastern & western apse Principal Buildings: Hall Church St. Elizabeth, Manburg- typical church in Germany Cologne Cathedral- largest gothic church in Northern Europe ITALIAN GOTHIC Milan Cathedral- 2nd largest church in Europe archt Henrich Von Gmunden Sienna Cathedral- stripped marble found in walls & tiers of church Santo Corce- Arnolfo de Cambio, 1 of largest in Europe Florence Cathedral- combination of gothic & renaissance Arnolfo de Cambio Famous group bldg in the world Doges Palace in Italy- civic example gothic in Italy Giovanni & Bartolome Buon Ca D Oro- one of the famous palatial homes during gothic period SPANISH GOTHIC - influenced by Muslim art- excessive ornament foun in retablo - retablo & grilles or rajas- back of altar Civic Cathedral- largest Cathedral in Europe Largest Church: St. Peters Cathedral Civic Cathedral William Cathedral Colon Cathedral St. Pauls, London

Monastic Foundation- served by monks or regular clergy herbury Cathedral- 1st Norman church hester Cathedral- longest gothic cathedral in Europe 3rd div- Cathedrals of the New Foundation- served by bishops presence of 2 chapels- lady chapel- Virgin Mary - chantry chapel- patrons are burried Monastery Westminster Abbey- largest Benedictine Founation Triple group of monastery Coronation church & burial place for Eng kings Royal Palace- parliament & Big Ben Westminster Church- highest Castles Tower of London- builder Bishop Gundolf for William I

RENAISSANCE- rebirth of classical Character: Dignity & Formality achieved thru symmetry System: Trabaeted and Arcuated Elements: pediment, horizontal cornice, columnar arcade Baroque- curve lines 1. twisted column/ solomonica 2. pediment segmented scrolled open swan neck

Antonio de Sangallo- younger, extended broken Rococo Comparative analysis: Plans- symmetrical Walls- often constructed w/ ashlar masonry, bricks for Germany Exterior wall- rustification- dado height 1.20m Doors & windows- semi circula head w/ greek entablature Roof- semi- circular vaults - dome or drum w/ semi circular windows Columns- classic orders Mouldings- roman mouldings Ornaments- fresco paintings Exterior color effect- sgrafitto (colored plaster) Countries that adapted Rennaisance: ITALY- birth place of renaissance Florence- birthplace, typical form Rome- typical Venice- receded frontage, contextualization w/ environment Brunelleschi- most famous architect in Italy Dome of Florence Cathedralgothic & renaissance Palazzo Pitti- largest except for Vatican Alberti- author of first architecture book after invention of printing De re Aedificatoria Church of Santa Andrea, Mantuaprototype of later renaissance Bramante- first Roman architect of renaissance time Pazzo Della Cancellaria Vatican Palace, Rome Raphael- cousin, pupil of baramnte & one of the greatest painters Vatical Loggie VignolaVilla of Pope Julius, Rome Palazzo Farnese, Caprarola- most maginificent of Roman palaces Gesu Church, Rome- prototype of Jesuit Church in baroque style Michael AngeloMedici Mausoleum- wealthiest family in Italy Capitol, Rome- mos successful civil work LonghenaSta. Maria Della Salute, Venicestructure in the middle of canal St. Peters Basilica- most famous in Italy, Renaissance period Bramante- first architect, plan in form of Greek cross plan Givliano da Sangallo- continued, after 2 yrs died Fra Giacondo- died Raphael- changed plan into Latin cross Baldazar Peruzzi- went back to Greek cross plan vestibule Designed the campanile Proposed central dome Michael Angelo- change to Greek cross plan Redesigned surrounding chapels & apses Designed the dome Giacomo Della Porta w/ Dominico Fontona- completed the dome Vignola- added side dome Carlo Maderna- change into Latin cross plan & colonnade Bernini- designed the entrance piazza containing 284 ionic columns Panthenon, Rome- largest dome Roman Florence Cathedral, Italy- 138 Renaissance St Peters Basilica, Italy- 137 1/2 Renaissance St Paul, London- 112 Renaissance Sta Soffia, Constantinople- 107 Byzantine FRENCH RENAISSANCE Chateau de Bury (typical French chateau) Chateau de Blois (spiral shell staircase)- Leonardo da Vinci Principal Buildings: Palaces Palais de Louvre (historical artifacts)Pierre Lescot Palais de Tuilleries- Philbert de Larme (residence of French rulers till 1879) Palais de Versailles (for Louis xiv)- Le Vau Churches Church of the Sorbonne- Le Mercier Dome of the Invalides (niche of Napoleon Boniparte) GERMAN RENAISSANCE- French style, use of bricks Heidelber Castle Salzberg Cathedral SPANISH RENAISSANCE- plateresque style - churrigueresque style (Spanish baroque) Plateresque- fancy design by silver crafts Churrigueresque- inspired by Jose de Churrigueresque - high baroque of Spanish renaissance

Palace of Charles V. Granada- Pedro Machuca, best example Escorial (art works)- Julian de Bautista, Julian de Herera w/ monastery, collage, church & place Granada Cathedral- Diego de Silde One of the grandest cathedral in Spain Tomb of Ferdinand & Isabela & others ENGLISH RENAISSANCE Elizabethan Mansion Features: Towers Gable roof Parapets Balustrade Chimneystacks Bay & oriel window Topiary work- landscaping sculpture Elements: Great hall Grand staircase Long Gallery (upper floor)- most striking feature Solar (withdrawing room)- warmest room Architects: Inigo Jones- deciple of Italian Renaissance characterized by the use of bricks Banqueting House, White Hall Queen,s House, Grenwich Sir Christopher Wren- deciple of French renaissance St Pauls Cathedral- greatest masterpiece, model English 53 London churches Grenwich Observatory & hospital Fountain court & garden faade of Hampton Palace REVIVAL ARCHITECTURE- 19TH CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Marked by Battle of Style- conflict between GOTHIC & CLASSIC Arts & Craft Movement- alliance of artists & factories, paved way to Art Nouveau- organic & dynamic forms curving designs whiplash line Victorian Architecture- Britain revival architecture BRITAIN 1830-1850 EARLY VICTORIAN Greek Revival & Graeco Roman Ex. Railway Buildings Personalities Awn Pugin S. Joseph PaxtonCrystal Palace S. W. ChambersCENTRAL EUROPE 1830-1848 JULY MONARCHY Neo Renaissance Ex. Vignon, Madeleine Paris Chalgrin- Arc de Triomphe Brandenburg Gate

Somerset House S. John Soane- Bank of England 1850-1875 HIGH VICTORIAN Gothic Revival Renaissance Revival Personalities S.G. Scott- Liver Pool Cathedral S. Charles BarryWestminter Palace 1875-1901 LATE VICTORIAN Romanesque, Byzantine Baroque, Flemish, Renaissance

1848- 1870 SECOND EMPIRE High Neo Renaissance Ex. Fernstel- Votive Church, Vienna 1870-1914 THIRD REPUBLIC Neo- Baroque Ex. Charles Garnier- Paris Opera House

ENGLAND Queen Anne Style- popularized by Norman Shaw applied on domestic houses EARLY 20TH CENTURY BRITAIN Art Nouveau- Charles Rennie Mckintosh Ritz Hotel- first building made of reinforced concrete & glass after war - Mewes & Davies Schools- Ecole Des Beaux-Arts- Architectural Design Ecole de polytechnique- Engineering Art Nouveau France- Le Modern Style Germany- Jugensdstil, Bandwurmstil, Tapeworm Austria- Sezessione Italy- Stile Liberty, Stile Inglese, English Style Spain- Modernismo Architects of Modern Period: Britain: Wells Coates A.D. Connel C.A. Lucas Edwin Maxwell Fry B.R. Ward F.R.S. Yorke C. Europe: B. Lubetsrin W. Gropius Serge Chermayeff E. Mendelsohn Marcel Breuer German Exponents Of Arts & Crafts: August Endel Henri Vande Velde Viennese Architects Otto Wagner J.M. Olbrich Important architects of 1900-1916 Peter Behrens- Germany Auguste Perret- France Adolf Loos- Austria Foremost architects of Modern Period Erich Mendelson- Germany Ragnar Ostberg- Sweden Ivar Tengbon- Sweden Sven Markelious- Sweden

Gunnar Asplono- Denmark Prominent Art Nouveau Architects Mckintosh- Scotland Antonio Gaudi- Spain (undulating lines) Sagrada Familia Victor Horta- Belgium 19th century Precedents of Modern Architecture Crystal palace- Joseph Paxton Halles Centralles (market)- Baltard Bibioteque Nationale (lib)- Henry Labrouste Pioneers of Modern Architecture Otto Wagner- Austria Peter Behrens- Germany August Perret- France Hendrik Berlage- Holland Louis Sullivan- U.S. th 19 Century Inventions: combination of glass & steel folded slab- introduced by Eugene Freyssinet flat slab- by Robert Millart laminated timber (plywood) AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Georgian/ Colonial Architecture White House, Washington- Mckim, Mead & White Independence Hall, California- Andrew Hamilton NATIONAL PHASE 1. Post Colonial Period- 1790-1815 Departure from English architecture to French influence Revival period in U.S.A. Classic Revival example: Capitol, Washington D.C.- Thornton, Hallet & Latrobe University of Virginia- Thornton, Hallet & Latrobe Montecillo Virginia- Thornton, Hallet & Latrobe Plan of Washington D.C.- Charles Pierre L Enfant Federal Hall, Washington D.C.- Charles Pierre L Enfant Washington Monument, Washington D.C.- Robert Mills Philadelphia Exchange- William Stricklamp Revival of Gothic example: Trinity Church, New York- Richard Upjan St. Patricks Cathedral- James Wrenwick 2. 1st Eclectic Period- 1815-1860 predominant style of Greek architecture balloon frame introduction in building construction use of cast iron as building material 3. 2nd Eclectic Period- 1860-1930 most important period in architecture in U.S.A. Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia- 1876 Worlds Columbian Exposition, Philadelphia- 1893 Predominant style:

Gothic Revival- initiated by Henry Richardson later by Louis Sullivan End of Gothic Revival Frank Loyd Wright Beaux-Arts- more academic in character St. John the Divine Cathedral, NY- Le Farge Marshal Field Store, Chicago- Henry Richardson Skyscraper- dominant: innovations metal frame construction non- load bearing curtainwall elevator 4. 1930- Modern Period in America Walter Gropius Erich Mendelsohn Mies Vander Rohe Eliel Saarinen Bauhaus MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE Principal building: Masjid/ Mosque 3 types: Fami Masjid/ Friday Mosque- biggest Madrasa- colligiate mosque, learning Tomb Mosque Characteristics of Friday Mosque: Minaret- tower Maqsura- screen Dikka- reading desk Mihrab- niche Mimbar- palpit Liwanit- colonnade Fawara- fountain Sahn- open space Characteristics of mosque: Dome Colonnade- trefoil, ogee, horseshoe, lancet Ornaments- Mnemonic inscription (text) Superimposed ornaments- in layers Stalactite- found in pendentives (muqarna) 3d corbels Examples of Muslim Architecture: Arabian SaracenicGreat Mosque Mecca Assyrian SaracenicDome of the Rock, Jerusalemholiest place Spanish Saracenic Great Mosque Cordova- capital of Islam religion in West Giralda, Seville- most beautiful towers Alhambra Granada- part of royal palace, most famous Turkish Saracenic

Taj Mahal, Agra- most important, made of marble INDIAN ARCHITECTURE Characterized by Buddhist, Jain, Hindu BuddhistStambha/ Lath- monumental pillars Stupa/ Tope- domical sacred mound Chaitya- Indian Buddhist temple Vihara- Indian Buddhist monastery Hindu temple elements: Mandapa- hall for religious dancing & music Garbhagriha- unlighted shrine Vimana- sanctuary Great Stupa Sanchi- characteristic of Indian architecture Golden Temple of Sikhs- holiest temple CHINESE ARCHITECTURE Roof characteristics 1. steep gable roof w/ spreading eaves 2. extensive use of roof tilesyellow, green, blue- imperial palace red- mandarin black or gray- citizens 3. scultural works found on roof ridgesdragon, fish Principal buildings: Pai- Lou- Chinese gateway (3 openings) Pagoda/ Tais- houses relic of Buddha Temples- contains statue of Buddha Elements: Temple proper Dagoba Bell tower Pagoda Library Monks dwelling House- generally one storey Emperor- 9 bays Prince- 7 bays Mandarin- 5 bays Ordinary citizens- 3 bays Great Wall of China- built by emperor- Si- Huang- Ti JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE The Gussho System- based on rigidity of the triangle Features: Roof construction: 1. Kiruzuma/ Gabled Roof 2. Hogyo/ Pyramidal Roof 3. Shichu- Hip- Ridge Roof 4. Irimoya- Hip & Gabled Roof Incorporation of Buddhist altar in Japanese mansion Incorporation of stupas in monastery Chasitsu or tea house in Japanese dwellings Modular planning of house & palaces thru use of tatami 3x5 CAMBODIAN ARCHITECTURE- Stone Carving Angkor Thom- founder Jayavarman - center of town Bayon (main temple 54 towers) Angor Wat- one of architectural wonders of world - largest religious structure in the world, behive shape towers

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE- Hindu influenced (stone carving) Borubodur- largest budhist temple Stupa in Java MIYANMAR ARCHITECTURE (BURMA) Principal buildings: Chedi- Burmese stupa Shwedagon pagoda, pangun Kya- ung- Burmese monastery Thein- ordination hall for monks Pitakat-taik- Buddhist library NEPALIST ARCHITECTURE- Budhist Stupa- 13 tiers, symbolizes heaven Swayambhunath Stupa, Katmandu- square base w/ eyes of Buddha TIBETAN ARCHITECTURE Chorten- stupa Sakya Monastery- famous for collection of Tibetan manuscript Potala Palace, Lhasa- palace for entertaining important people THAI ARCHITECTURE Wat- group of religious buildings Bot- temple Phra chedi- stupa w/ a round tower Phra prang- stupa w/ elliptical tower Pra sat- royal throne hall Mondop- library Sala- pavilion for resting Kuti- monastery Phra Pathom Chedi- most important architectural landmark in Thailand FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE