This article was downloaded by: [HEALLink Consortium]
On: 14 April 2011 Access details: Access Details: [subscription number 786636650] Publisher Taylor & Francis
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37 41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
NUMERICAL STUDY OF BASE BLEED EFFECTS ON AERODYNAMIC DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
JanKaung Fu ^{a} ; ShenMin Liang ^{b} ^{a} Department of Aeronautics, Chinese Air Force Academy, Kangshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ^{b} Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
To cite this Article Fu, JanKaung and Liang, ShenMin(1993) 'NUMERICAL STUDY OF BASE BLEED EFFECTS ON AERODYNAMIC DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE', International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, 1:
3, 249 — 273 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/10618569308904475 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10618569308904475
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE
Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/termsandconditionsofaccess.pdf
This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan or sublicensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
_{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{.} _{F}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} _{D}_{y}_{n}_{.}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{9}_{3}_{,} _{V}_{o}_{l}_{.} _{I}_{,} _{p}_{.} _{2}_{4}_{9}_{}_{2}_{7}_{3} O 1993 Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, S.A.
Reprints available directly from the publisher Printed Photocopying permitted by license only
in the United States of America
NUMERICAL STUDY OF BASE BLEED EFFECTS ON AERODYNAMIC DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
JANKAUNG FU
Department of Aeronautics, Chinese Air Force Academy, Kangshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 82012, R.O.C.
SHENMIN LIANG
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.
(Received 10 September
1992; in Jinaljorm 16 April 1993)
ABSTRACT
A numerical study is made to analyze the performance of a secantogivecylinder projectile in the
transonic regime in terms of aerodynamic drag. At transonic speeds, the base drag contributes a major portion of the total aerodynamic drag, and hence affects projectile's performances significantly. The base bleed method is applied to reduce the base drag by varying the value of parameters, the bleed quantity (I) and the bleed area ratio (G). The implicit, diagonalized, symmetric Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme, accompanied by a suitable grid, is employed to solve the thinlayer
axisymmetric NavierStokes equations coupled with the BaldwinLomax turbulence model. The computed results show that, in comparison with the case without base bleed, an increase in bleed quantity or a higher injection speed due to a smaller bleed area ratio at fixed bleed quantity can result
in a base (and total) drag reduction. At Mach number 0.96, the reductions in base drag and total drag
can be as high as 64% and 44%, respectively, for I= 0.1 and 0 = 0.3.
1. INTRODUCTION
The secantogivecylinder (SOC) configuration, as shown in Figure 1, has become one of the standard models for the artillery projectile and/or the missile shell design'.'. The critical aerodynamic behaviour of projectiles in the transonic regime can be attributed in part to the complex shock structure existing on the projectile. Since axisymmetric bodies, like missiles, artillery projectiles and bullets,.often have a blunt base, the corresponding base drag is usually an appreciable part (typically about 50%)'.~ of the total aerodynamic drag for the transonic speed flight, and significantly influences the projectiles performances such as the flight range and the terminal velocity. The pressure and viscous components of aerodynamic drag generally cannot be reduced significantly without adversely affecting the stability of
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
Figure 1
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG
Configuration of a typical SOC projectile, Ref. I.
the shell; thus, the reduction in base drag becomes a major and direct consideration for improving the performance of a projectile. A significant amount of work in reducing the base drag for axisymmetric bodies has been done in the past three decades mainly by means of boattai~in~~~and base bleed47. Although in the transonic regime an additional wave drag is induced by shock wave developed on the boattail portion, nevertheless, boattailing can effectively reduce the base drag, leading to a total drag reduction, due to the fact that the area of the base region and extent of flow expansion at the base corner are reduced5'. While, the base bleed method is by injecting a small amount of mass flow into the base region in order to increase the base pressure, and leads to a base drag reduction. This concept of mass injection at the projectile base has been widely studied for supersonic but fewer data are available in the transonic flow regin~e~~.Thus, the accurate prediction of the effect of base bleed, in terms of bleed quantity and bleed area, on the total aerodynamic drag becomes essential for the transonic projectile shell design. In the past fifteen years, earlier experimental research programs were predominantly in the supersonic regime; but in recent years1*, efforts have been extended to the transonic regime. However, in experiments, the individual drag components, especially the base drag and skin friction drag, are difficult to measure, and the cost of experimental measurements (together with limited transonic fa'dities) are very expansive. Due to the recent advances in computer processors, significant progress in numerical procedures3s4"3~14has been achieved; thus, numerical simulation is a 'good' approach for predicting all individual drag components for projectiles on a costeffective basis. In the transonic regime, the flow over a _{S}_{O}_{C} projectile is quite complicated
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
25 1
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
mainly due to the instantaneous existences of the fast flow expansion at nose cylinder juncture, the interaction between shock waves and turbulent boundary layer, and the flow separation near the base corner followed by a recirculatory flow in the base region. Since this complex flow structure often causes numerical instability due to improper grid distribution and/or numerical scheme, such as the BeamWarming schemels which produces spurious oscillation near the shock waves. Thus, it is needed to adopt a robust scheme and proper grids for obtaining an accurate calculation of transonic flows over the projectiles. In addition to producing the oscillating solution near the shock wave, the traditional centraldifferencing schemes generally often require special tuning of the artificial viscosity to reduce the numerical oscillations. In order to overcome these difficulties, an implicit, diagonalized, symmetric Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) ~cherne'~.~',accompanied by a suitable grid1', is employed to solve the thin layer axisymmetric NavierStokes equations1' coupled with the BaldwinLomax turbulence modelz0. The linearized conservative implicit (LCI) form of TVD schemez1is adopted in this study. The TVD scheme not only can avoid numerical oscillations but also can satisfy the entropy condition so that no expansion shock is capturedzz."'. Like many shock capturing schemes, the TVD scheme has a secondorder accuracy in regions of smoothness and is firstorder accurate at points of extrema. The assessment of TVD schemes for inviscid and turbulentflow computations by Chen et al.% revealed that the symmetric TVD method requires less CPU time per iteration and has a faster convergence rate than the upwind TVD schemes in twodimensional computations, although both symmetric and upwind TVD schemes have almost identical accuracy and stability limit. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the flow structure (especially in the base region) of the SOC projectile with and without base bleed in transonic regime at zero angle of attack, and (2) to study systematically the effects of bleed quantity (I)and bleed area ratio (G)on the variations of nose (or head) pressure drag (CDH),viscous drag (CDV),base drag (CDB), respectively, and finally the total drag (Cm) coefficients. But, the combined effect of boattailing and base bleed is not considered here.
2. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
2.1. The Axisymmetric ThinLayer NavierStokes
For an axisymmetric projectile at zero angle of attack, the equations governing the flow are the azimuthalinvariant NavierStokes equations, which can be obtained from the threedimensional NavierStokes equations. Figure 2 shows the notation for the Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, the cylindrical coordinates x, 6,R and the transformed coordinates t,q, 5 where E, q and r represent the longitudinal, the circumferential and the near normal coordinates, respectively. For high Reynolds number flow, the transformed nondimensional axisymmetric thinlayer Navier
Equations
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
252
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG
(a) Conecylinder body
(b) x = const. plane
Figure 2
(c) 4 = const. plane Axisymmetric body and coordinate system.
Stokes equations can be written as19
where
with
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
and
Here U, V, Ware the contravariant velocity components, and the Jacobian, J, is defined as
Let computations be performed on the 4 = 0 plane. Then, in equation (2d), R = z,
The metric terms &, qx, qr and Si. are zero when
equations (2a) through (2c) are used, and the rest of the metric terms can be found in Reference 19.
Although equation (1) contains only two spatial derivatives, it retains all three momentum equations. In particular, the circumferential velocity is not assumed to be zero, and computations for spinning projectiles or swirling flow can be accomplished. It should be noted that the thinlayer approximation has been widely applied for computing high Reynolds number turbulent flows over proje~tiles4.L23'4325. The validity of the thinlayer approximation was studied by Degani and schiffZ5who found that less computing time (about 11%) is required for the thinlayer approximation compared with the full NavierStokes equations, while the change (or improvement) in the solution (including the separated region) of the full NavierStokes equation is very small (less than 0.5%). The twolayer algebraic turbulence model of ~aldwin~omax~Ois employed. The advantage of this turbulence model is that it is simple to implement and there is no special need to determine the outer edge of the boundary layer.
_{R}_{t} = zr and
Rr = zr
for
4 = 0.
2.2. Grid Generation
In general, it is convenient to use a 0type grid for the projectile with a basez6. In this study, the grid generation procedure is based on the numerical approach of Sorenson's elliptic solverz7and a simple tangent stretching interpolation method2'. Once the coordinates of the body and the outer boundary are specified, the elliptic solver is used to generate a coarse grid (in the _{r} direction). Then, the stretching interpolation is used to obtain a final grid, as shown in Figure 3. The grid for the whole computational domain and the local grid near the base region are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. Grid points are clustered near the body surface as well as regions with high gradients, and stretched in the far field.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG
Figure 3
Local grid near a SOC projectile.
Figure 4
Overview of a 110 x 60 0type projectile grid.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
Figure 5
Local grid near the base corner.
3. NUMERICAL PROCEDURE
3.I. Approximate Factorization
Approximate factorization method of Beam and warmingI5 is applied to equation (I), to obtain a semifinitedifference equation
where h = At, and A, e and M are the Jacobian matrices defined as
Equation (3) contains two implicit operators in which each operator will produce a block tridiagonal matrix. The inversion of the blocktridiagonal matrices is the most timeconsuming part of the computation. The overall computational work of this part can be reduced by introducing _{a} diagonalization of the blocks in the implicit operators29and by neglecting the viscous flux ~acobian~'~".Since A and e can be diagonalized, A = T€A€F'and e=T~A~TF',where matrices Tc and Tr consist of the right eigenvectors of A and e, respectively, and the elements of diagonal matrices A€,A' are the corresponding eigenvalues. After neglecting the
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
_{2}_{5}_{6}
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG
viscous Jacobian on the implicit side and factoring the similarity matrices TEand
Tr outside the spatial derivatives ac and a,,
from equation (3) one obtains
3.2. The Symmetric TVD Method
Let t = n At, E= J Af, { = /A{, A'= AtlAf, Xr = At/A{, and ajm+1/2, Tj+1/2, _T~I/Z denote the quantities a;", Ti,Tcl evaluated at &j+l/z,i. Hence, the values of Qj+l/2,r and &.r+m are evaluated at the cell surfaces, respectively, using Roe's averaging procedure32. The final diagonalized form of the symmetric TVD scheme can be written in the
The detailed form of M can be found in Reference 33.
The term R^(&")
on the right hand side of equation (5a) is of the form
where the numerical flux function _{E}_{j}_{+}_{1}_{/}_{2}_{.}_{1} can be expressed asz1
and Dj+1/2
Reference 16.
is the explicit
dissipation
term.
The definition
of
D
is given
in
4. BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS
4. I. Wall Boundary
Conditions
The body surface is mapped to the constant _{{} line _{(}_{{} _{=} 0) in the computational domain. On the impermeable surface of a rigid body without spinning, the no slip condition must be satisfied. While for projectiles with base bleed, the subsonic mass injection boundary condition is used34. It should be noted that since the amount of the bleeding air flow is small such that the subsonic mass injection boundary condition corresponds (or reduced) to a linear extrapolation if the change in pressure (Ap =p, PI) between the wall pressure, p, and the pressure at first grid off the wall, pl, is small (about 10% of pl). Furthermore, the bleeding air flow used
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
257
in the present study is assumed to have a temperature close to that in the base region such that the effect of temperature of the bleeding air flow is negligible. Due to the absence of a measured wall bleed distribution, a uniform distribution of surface bleed is employed. The amount of air flow injected into the base region is specified on the body surface by the mass flow rate mj (=pjujAj), where Aj denotes the bleed area. Rather than specifying mj, however, it is customary and convenient to specify the bleed quantity, _{I}_{,} which is defined as4
where 3 is the area ratio Aj/Ab, with Ab the base area. Note that both the bleed quantity I and the area ratio a are two parameters in the base bleed method for the base drag reduction. Given I, 3, M, and the extrapolated density pj from the first interior point off the body surface, the injection velocity uj can be calculated from equation (8), and v and w are set equal to zero. The pressure on the body surface can be obtained from the normal momentum equation _{l}_{9}
where n denotes the normal direction of the body surface. The total energy e is obtained from
4.2. Far Field Boundary Condition
(line ED) for an 0type grid
system. On the inflow boundary (Wf,,. < 0), all physical variables, Qi, are fixed at freestream values for both supersonic and subsonic flows. On the outflow boundary (Wf,, > 0), all variables Qi are extrapolated from the first interior point off the outer boundary for M, > 1. While for M, < 1, the same conditions used in supersonic flow are used except that the total energy _{e} is obtained from equation
(10) with fixed freestream pressure p, and the other extrapolated quantities. Since the downstream boundary adopted in the present study is far enough (25 calibers) such that the effect due to the base bleed on the downstream boundary condition is small and can be neglected, the simple extrapolation for all of the variables is used on the downstream boundary (line CD) for both bleeding and nonbleeding cases.
The far field boundary condition is imposed at !: = r,,,
4.3. Centerline Boundary Condition
The symmetric condition is applied on the centerlines of projectile ahead of the
nose ([=
A secondorder extrapolation is used
0) and
aft of
the
base ((= (,,,).
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
_{2}_{5}_{8}
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG
such that alp = &(pu) = ac(pv)= are= 0, and the momentum in the zdirection (pw) is set equal to zero.
4.4. Initial Condition
In this study, all flow variables are set to the freestream values initially, then the boundary conditions are enforced gradually during the iteration process. This slow impulsive start accompanied with a smaller value of the Courant number, CFL, helps to reduce the initial transient errors, especially for viscous flows, and to ensure that no numerical instability is produced during the initial computing process.
4.5. Selection of Time Step
To maintain numerical stability, the required time step generally is a function of local grid spacings. Thus, if a constant time step is used for solving the transonic flows on a highly stretched grid, the smallest time step associated with the smallest spacing must be used, and the CPU time required for the computations will be relatively high. For obtaining a fast converged steadystate solution, a spatially varying time step is used such that more uniform Courant numbers are used throughout the flow field. This is an effective strategy for a stretched grid system. The stability criterion for an explicit scheme is used with a larger Courant number, CFL. The time step varies according to3'
where a is the local sound speed. In the first 50 iterations, a smaller CFL (around 1.O) is used for avoiding the occurrence of numerical instability. As the iteration proceeds, the Courant number is increased to a larger value (between 1.5 and 3.0) for fast convergence and less CPU time.
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Transonic turbulent flows over a zero angleofattack SOC projectile with base bleed are considered. The projectile model has a 3caliber secantogivenose followed by a 3caliber cylinder. All the present computations were performed on an ALLIANT computer FX2800. A series of computations were based on the conditions of a stagnation temperature of 580' R and a Reynolds number of 4.6 x lo6 based on the model, length, L. The axisymmetric projectile flows are computed on the qi = 0 plane, and the flow domain chosen has an outer boundary about 25 calibers from the projectile. The computational grid used, as shown in Figure 4, has 110 points in the streamwise direction and 60 points in the direction normal to the projectile surface. This grid system is clustered near the body surface with a minimum spacing of A r,i, = 4.2 x lO'd to ensure that there are at least two
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
_{2}_{5}_{9}
grid points inside the laminar sublayer. Steadystate solutions are achieved when the residual measured by the rootmeansquare error _{i}_{n} all five conservative variables
is less than 1.5 x The transonic flows over the same SOC projectile for the
case of no base bleed have been studied by the authors36 using the present TVD scheme, and obtained reasonable and accurate results for all the drag components and total drag predictions. These computed results for the case of no base bleed are used for the comparison with the bleed case in this study. Six Mach numbers ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 are chosen here, and the base bleed takes place over 90% of the base area.
5.1. Effect of Bleed Quantity
For determining the effect of mass flow rate of base bleed on the base drag
reduction, five different bleed quantities (I= 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) with
a bleed area ratio of 0.9 are chosen, where I is defined in equation (8). Figures 6 and 7 show the Mach contours and pressure contours of a SOC projectile at Mach
number of 0.96 with bleed quantities of 0 and 0.1, respectively. It is found that there exist two strong expansions at the nosecylinder juncture and the base corner, respectively. For the both cases, the flow structure are almost identical except in the base region due to the base bleed. The predicted location of a shock wave on the cylinder is in close agreement with the shadowgraph reported by Kayser and whiton'. The supersonic region near the base corner (due to the fast flow expansion) is reduced by the base bleed, and the pressure (or pressure gradient) in the base region is increased (or decreased) as bleed quantity increases. The velocity vector fields in the base region for the corresponding cases are shown in Figure 8.
It can be seen that the core of the recirculatory flow moves toward downstream for
the bleed case. The computed distributions of the pressure coefficient, C,, on the projectile surface for the above cases are shown in Figure 9. It is found that the pressure coefficient on the projectile surface is independent of the base bleed except on the base where the pressure is increased. The distribution of C, beyond the base (x _{=} 6) represents the pressure coefficient along the symmetry axis, [ = Cmar The pressure along the symmetry axis is increased from the base, reaching a maximum at the reattachment point, and followed by a downstream recovery. The predicted reattachment points are at about x = 7.3 and 7.6 for I = 0 and 0.1, respectively. Moreover, the peak of the pressure distribution along the symmetry axis is decreased after base bleed. For the nonbleeding case _{(}_{I}_{=}_{O}_{)}_{,} as shown in
Figure 9(a), the Kayser's experiment2gives higher value of C, on the base surface, this may be due to a sting is mounted on the projectile base and hence cause some disturbances on the base pressure. Figure 10 represents the comparison of the base drag coefficient, Cm, for I= 0 case. The present computed results at all chosen Mach numbers were well predicted compared with those by the MCDRAG code". Some large discrepancies between the Kayser's experiments2 and the predictions by the BeamWarming schemeL3at lower Mach number were observed. Note that, in Kayser's experiments, the higher pressure on base surface due to the existence of
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
Figure 6
(b) Pressure contour Transonic flow over a projectile, M, = 0.96, I = 0.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
Figure 7
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
(a) Match contour
Transonic flow over a projectile with base bleed, M, = 0.96, G = 0.9, I = 0.1.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
0
Figure 8
1.K. FU AND S.M. LIANG
5.5
I
6.0
(a) I=0
6.5
X
7.0
7.5
(b) I=0.1 Velocity vector field in the base region, M, = 0.96, a = 0.9.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
263
Figure 9
X
(b) I=0.1 Comparison of pressure distribution on a projectile. M, = 0.96, G = 0.9.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
^{0}^{.}^{3}^{5}
0.30
Figure 10
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG
*
MCDRAC
(371
Q. EXPERIMENTAL.[~~
BEAMWARMING
[13
 + 
Present result
MACH NUMBER
Comparison of base drag coefficient of a projectile, I= 0.
the sting leads to a reduction in base drag. And, Hsu et a1.I4 commented the underpredicted base drag (for M, < 0.98) obtained by the BeamWarming scheme is due to an oscillation in the pressure distribution along the base even though a converged solution was obtained. The computed head pressure drag coefficient, CDHand viscous drag coefficient, CDVare found to be independent of the base bleed for Mach numbers from _{0}_{.}_{9} to 1.2 (see Table 1). The variations of the base drag coefficient (CDB)and the total
Table 1 Comparison of drag components and drag reduction with different base bleed rates, 8 = 0.9
Mach No.
M,
Bleed Rate
I(Q70)
Head Drag
CDH
Visc. Drag
CDV
Base Drag
CDB
Total Drag
Cm
CDB
ACm
Cool,o
ACDB
CDB(Io

Cm
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
0.05i
0.05
^{I}
Figure 11
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
,.,,~,,l,,,,l,,.,l,,,,,,.,,
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
BLEED RATE, I
c
Variation of base drag coefficient of a projectile, G = 0.9.
0.11
C
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.10
BLEED RATE, I
Figure 12
Variation of total drag coefficient of a projectile, 3 = 0.9.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
.I.I,
0.8
0.9
Figure 13
J:K.
FU AND S.M. LlANG
I
1.0
,,,,,.(r
1.1
1.2
!.,,
1.3
MACH NUMBER
Variation of base drag coefficient, G = 0.9.
Figure 14
MACH NUMBER
Variation of total drag coefficient, G = 0.9.
,.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
267
drag coefficient (Cm) with base bleed for different Mach numbers are shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. It can be seen that both the base drag and total drag decrease with increasing bleed quantity. The variations of the base drag coefficient and total drag coefficient with various freestream Mach numbers at different bleed quantities are shown in Figures 13 and 14, respectively. These results indicate that the base bleed used for reducing the base drag is more effective for the supersonic flows than that in the subsonic flows. As listed in Table I, for larger bleed quantity (say, I = 0.2), the base drag reduction is over 50% for all three Mach numbers, and the weights of the base drag reduce from 68.6%, 67.0% and 58.8% for the case of no base bleed to 51.4070, 50.4% and 38.8% of the total drag at Mach numbers 0.9, 0.96 and 1.2, respectively. While, the reduction in the total drag is about 35.7%, 34.4% and 32% for Mach numbers 0.9, 0.96 and 1.2, respectively. It should be noted that for the bleeding cases around _{I}_{2} 0.1, there may be theoretically inconsistent for the application of the thinlayer concept to describe the base flow. However, for I = 0.1 case, it is found that the computed base drag coefficient from the full NavierStokes equations computation differs from the result of the thin layer approximation only by I%, but the former needs larger computing time (about 15%).
5.2. Effect of Bleed Area Ratio
To study the effect of bleed area on the base drag reduction, three different bleed area ratios, B = 0.9, 0.6 and 0.3 were selected, where B is defined in Section 4.2. The calculations are performed for case of Mach number 0.96. The Mach contours and pressure contours of a SOC projectile with bleed quantity of 0.1 for bleed area ratio of 0.3 are shown in Figures 15(a) and 15(b), respectively. Comparing with the result of the B = 0.9 case as shown in Figure 6, the supersonic zone near the base corner is further reduced and the pressure in the base region is increased as bleed area ratio decreases. This is due to the higher injection speed resulted from a smaller bleed area for fixed bleed quantity, and hence a higher momentum is injected into the base region. The velocity vector field in the base region for the corresponding case shown in Figure 16, it is found that the recirculatory flow is disappeared. Figure 17 shows the corresponding computed distributions of the pressure coefficient on projectile surface. The result shows that the pressure distribution on the projectile surface is also independent of the bleed area ratio; but on the base the pressure distribution increases with decreasing bleed area ratio. The peak of the pressure distribution on the symmetry axis, _{[} =,,,[ decreases with the bleed area ratio. The predicted head drag and viscous drag are almost independent of the bleed area ratio (see Table 2). The variations of the base drag coefficient and total drag coefficient with base bleed for different bleed area ratios are shown in Figures 18 and 19, respectively. It can be seen that both the base drag and the total drag decrease with bleed area ratio and with increasing bleed quantity. The reduction rates in both the base drag and total drag increase with decreasing bleed area ratio for bleed quantity from 0 to 0.2. From Table 2, it is seen that the reduction in base drag, for I = 0.1, is 40%
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
268
Figure 15
J.K. FU AND S.M. LIANG
(:::r:
LiJI.O~~0=[r.0'2.0J~:01:~05~~061"'~0=>'7r,.0~8=.0
~+l
:
O
X
(a) Match contour
c:)r
;
':.1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
J:O
i~O 5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
X
(b) Pressure contour
Transonic flow over a projectile with base bleed, Moo = 0.96, w= 0.3, 1=0.1.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
""'=
c
o
  = == 
~ ~::::.= 

==
~_
~~+==== ~
6.0
_{8}
5
1.0
7.S
5.0
x
Figure 16
Velocity vector field in the base region, Moo = 0.96, 1=
.1, w= 0.3.
a.
U
(L8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Figure 17

':

rT""""T~rr

0.0
_{2}_{.}_{0}
_{4}_{.}_{0}
6.0
X
8.0
_{·}_{1}_{0}_{.}_{0}
12.0
Comparison of pressure distribution on a projectile, Moo = 0.96, w= 0.3.
269
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
_{2}_{7}_{0}
1.K. FU AND S.M.LLANG
Table 2 
Comparison of drag components and drag reduction with different base bleed rates, M, = 0.96 

Bleed 

Area. 
Bleed Rate 
Head Drag 
Visc. Drag 
Base Drag 
Total Drag 
_{C}_{D}_{B} 
_{A}_{C}_{D}_{O} 
_{A}_{C}_{D}_{B} 
t%
I(%)

CDH

CDV
 
CDB

Cm

C,(,.o
0
for Ci = 0.6 case and
the reduction in base drag can be as high as 88.3% and the base drag occupies only about 19% of the total drag instead of about 67% for no base bleed; the reduction in total drag is about 60%. It should be noted that at fixed bleed quantity, a smaller bleed area ratio produces a same effect as a larger bleed quantity does. However, a large bleed quantity needs large pumping power; thus, in order to effectively reduce the base drag by the base bleed method, a smaller bleed area ratio (0.3 6 G 6 0.6) accompanied with a small bleed quantity (I 6 0.1) is suggested. But, the bleed area ratio can not be unlimited small since it also needs tender of a higher pumping pressure for same bleed quantity.
64.2% for = 0.3 case. For the case of G = 0.3 and I = 0.2,
0.05
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{1}_{8}
I."',,".'I'
0.00
0.05
,.'r',".'
0.10
0.15
BLEED RATE, I
0.20
Variation of base drag coefficient, M, = 0.96.
I
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
0.05
0.05
Figure 19
6. CONCLUSIONS
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
BLEED RATE, I
Variation of total drag coefficient, M, = 0.96.
0.25
_{2}_{7} _{1}
The transonic flows over a secantogivecylinder projectile with base bleed have been successfully simulated by solving the axisymmetric thinlayer NavierStokes equations, using an implicit, symmetric TVD scheme. The computed results show that the base drag and total drag can be reduced by increasing the bleed quantity or by decreasing the bleed area ratio at fixed bleed quantity (i.e. increasing the injection speed). For the case of a = 0.3 and I = 0.2, the reductions in base drag and total drag can be as high as about 88% and 60%, respectively. It is suggested that a smaller bleed area ratio (0.3 $ G $ 0.6) associated with a small bleed quantity (I< 0.1) can obtain a better effect in the aerodynamic drag reduction. It is concluded that the present TVD scheme is robust enough for the predictions of transonic flows over a projectile with or without base bleed, and can be an effective tool for the design of highperformance projectiles.
I. Kayser, L. D. and Whiton, F. (1982) "Surface pressure measurements on a boattailed projectile shape at transonic speeds", U.S. Army. Ballistic Research Laboratory Technical Rept. ARBRLMR
03161.
2. Kayser, L. D. (1984) "Base pressure measurements on a projectile shape at rnach numbers from 0.91 to 1.20", U.S.Army, Ballistic Research Laboratory. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., ARBRLMR
03353 (AD A141341).
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
272 
J.K. FU AND S.M. LlANG 

3. 
Sahu, J Nietubicz, C. J. and Steger, J. L. (1982) "Numerical computation of base flow for a 

projectile at transonic speeds", AIAA Paper No. 821358. 

4. 
Sahu, J., Nietubicz, C. J. and Steger, J. L. (1985) "NavierStokes 
computations of projectile base 
flow with and without mass injection", AIAA Journal, 23 (9), 13481355.
5. Sedney, R. (1966) "Review of base drag",
US. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen
Proving Ground. Md., Rept. 1337 (AD 808767).
6. Tanner, M. (1975) "Reduction of base drag", Prog. Aerospace Sci., 16 (4). 369384.
7. Sykes, D. M. (1970) "Cylindrical and boattailed afterbodies in transonic flow with gas ejection", AIAA Journal, 8 (3), 588590.
8. Schetz, J. A., Billig. F. S. and Favin, S. (1980) "Approximate analysis axisymmetric supersonic base flows with injection". AIAA Journal. I8 (8). 867868.
9. Addy, A. L. (1970) "Thrustminusdrag optimization by base bleed and/or boattailing", Journal of Spacecraft, 7 (11). 13601361.
10. Bowman, J. E. and Clayden, W. A. (1968) "Boattailed afterbodies at M = 2 with gas ejection", AIAA Journal. 6 (lo), 20292030.
11. Sullins, G. A,, Anderson.
J. D. and Drummond, J. P. (1982) "Numerical investigation of
supersonic base flow with parallel injection", AlAA Paper 821001.
12. Deiwert, G. S. (1984) "Supersonic axisymmetric flow over boattails containing a centered propulsive jet". AlAA Journal, 22 (lo), 13581365.
13. Sahu. J. (1986) "Drag predictions for projectiles at transonic and supersonic speeds". US. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, Proving Ground, Md., Memorandum Report BRLMR 3523 (AD A171462).
Shiau. N. H. and Reed, C. W. (1988) "Numerical simulation of transonic turbulent flow
14. Hsu. C. C
past a real projectile", AlAA Paper 880218.
15. Beam, R. M. and Warming, R. F. (1978) "An implicit factored scheme for the compressible Navier Stokes equations", AIAA Journal. _{1}_{6} (4), 393402.
16. Shiau, N. H. and Hsu, C. C. (1988) "A diagonalized TVD scheme for turbulent transonic projectile aerodynamics computation", AlAA Paper 880217.
17. Yee, H. C. (1985) "On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes", Proceedings of the 6th GAMM Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Mechanics. or NASATM 86842.
18. Fu, J. K. (1991) "A numerical study on drag reduction of turbulent transonic flow over a projectile", Ph.D. Dissertation, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University. Tainan, Taiwan. R.O.C.
Pulliam. T. H. and Steger, J. L. (1979) "Numerical solution of the azimuthal
19. Nietubicz. C. J
invariant thinlayer NavierStokes equations", AlAA Paper 790010.
20. Baldwin, B. S. and Lomax, H. (1978) "Thinlayer approximation and algebraic model for separated turbulent flows", AlAA Paper 78257.
21. Yee. H. C. and Harten, A. (1987) "Implicit TVD schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws in
curvilinear coordinates", AIAA Journal, 25, 266274. Also (1985) AlAA Paper No. 851513.
22. Harten, A. (1983) "A high resolution scheme for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws", Journal of Compulalional Physics, 49, 357393.
23. Yee. H. C
Warming, R. F. and Harten. A. (1983) "Implicit total variation diminishing (TVD)
schemes for steady state calculations", AlAA Paper No. 831902.
24. Chen, M., Hsu, C. and Shyy, W. (1989) "Assessment of TVD schemes for inviscid and turbulent flow", AlAA Paper No. 891795.
25. Degani, D. and Schiff. L. B. (1986) "Computation of turbulent supersonic flows around pointed bodies having crossflow separation". Journal of Compulafional Physics, 66, 173196.
26. Steger, J. L., Nietubicz, C. J. and Heavey, K. R. (1981) "A general curvilinear grid generation program for projectile configurations". U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., Memorandum Report ARBRLMR03142 (AD A107334).
27. Sorenson, R. L. (1980) "A computer program to generate twodimensional grids about airfoils and other shapes by the use of Poisson's equation", NASA TM81198.
28. Thompson, J. F. (1987) "A general threedimensional elliptic grid generation system on a composite block structure". Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 64, 37741 1.
29. Pulliam. T. H. and Chaussee, D. S. (1981) "A diagonal form of an implicit approximate factorization algorithm", Journal of Compulolionol Physics, 39. 347363.
30. Pulliam, T. H. (1984) "Euler and thinlayer NavierStokes codes: ARCZD, ARC3DU, Notes
for
CFD User's Workshop, Tullahoma, Tennessee.
31. Pulliam. T. H. and Steger, J. L. (1985) "Recent improvements in efficiency, and convergence for implicit approximate factorization algorithms", AlAA Paper 850360.
Downloaded By: [HEALLink Consortium] At: 04:35 14 April 2011
DRAG FOR A TRANSONIC PROJECTILE
273
32. Roe, P. L. (1981) "Approximate Riemann solver, parameter vectors, and difference schemes", Journal of Computational Physics, _{4}_{3}_{,} 357372.
33. Hu, C. L. and Liang. S. M. (1989) "Numerical investigation of thrustreversing nozzle using an
implicit TVD scheme", AlAA Paper 892899.
34. Wang. J. C. T. (1993) "Design and development of airframe and propulsion system", Notes for Workshop on Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
35. Anderson, W. K., Thomas, J. L. and van Leer, B. (1985) "A comparison of finite volume flux vector splittings for the Euler equations", AlAA Paper 850122(1985).
36. Fu. J. K. and Liang, S. M. (1992) "Computations of turbulent transonic flow over a projectile with or without spinning', Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the Aeronautical and Astronautical Society of Republic of China, Taiwan, Tainan.
37. McCoy, R. L. (1981) 'McDrag  A computer program for estimating the drag coefficients of projectiles", US. Army, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Md., ARBRL TR02293 (AD A098110).
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.