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UNIT-I-INTRODUCTION PART_A 1. Define Consumer Behaviour.

Consumer behavior is defined as the behavior that consumer display in sear ching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. 2. What are the aspects of CB? There are 5 aspects of CB: searching, evaluating the alternatives, choice of alt ernatives, and decision-ma ing. 3. Difference between positive and negative approach. Positivism approach is prediction of a consumer and is based following ass umption1) A single reality exists. 2) Causes of behavior can be identified by manipulating causes(i.e., inputs ) , the mar eter can influence the behavior (i.e., outcome). 3) Rationality- Consumer ma e decision after weighing alternatives. 4) Events can be objectively measured. 5) Finding can be generalized in larger population. 6) Cause and effects of behavior can be identified and isolated. Interpretivism is the studying of CB from the point of view of understanding CB and meaning behind such behavior. Interpretivism study to include many subjectiv e aspect of CB such as:effects of moods and emotions. types of situations in CB. the role of fantasy. the role of play. the role of rituals the role of sensory pleasures that certain products of services provide.

4. What are roles of a Consumer? The roles of the consumer are categorized into 5 roles they are initiator, influ encer, decider, buyer and user. 5. Explain the cultural anthropology approach to CB.

6. List the merits of CB. 1. The study of CB is useful in determining the form, style, pac ing etc of the product. 2) The whole aspect of buying behavior determines the durability, pri ce policy, and utility aspect of goods. 3) Various mar eting strategy and policies are formed based on CB. 4) Understanding the buying behavior of customer in various mar et se gments helps seller in selling the product effectively and efficiently. 5) Successful mar eting decision requires extensive information on C B 6) Organization are applying theory and information of CB on daily

bases. 7) CB theory provides the manager with the proper question to as ; gi ven the by consumer 7. How does values of consumer research decide the CB? Customer Value is defined as the ratio between the customers perceived ben efits (economic, functional and psychological) and the resources (monetary, time , effort psychological) used to obtain those benefits. Perceived value is relati ve and subjective What is the role of domestic consumer in CB? The field of consumer behavior is rooted in the mar eting concept, a bus iness orientation that evolved in the 1950s through several alternative approach es toward doing business referred to respectively as, the production concept, pr oduct concept and selling concept. 9. What are the qualitative &Quantitative method of research? Qualitative research- depth interview, focus group projective techniques, word a ssociation, sentence completion Quantitative research- experimentation, observation and survey. 10. Does CB & mar eting management have significance? CB has a correlation with mar eting management. With the results of survey under ta en to determine the behaviour of the consumers the mar eters decide on the pa ttern of the consumers. 8. importance of specific situation and producer category preferred

PART-B 1. Explain the concept of consumer behaviour with reference to Indian conte xt. Introduction of CB Definition how consumers are given importance in India. 2. Consumer behavior involves more than just buying-Elucidate. Definition of CB buying process examples. 3. Discuss the different roles of Consumer. Who is a consumer roles of consumer example. 4. Are there any difference between customer & consumer Explain with exampl e? Explain what is consumer and customer how they differ in their buying pattern. 5. What are the different approaches to the study of CB? Definition of CB- various approaches to CB Social- cultural- anthropology- socio cultural approach. 6. Explain the application of CB in the field of mar eting. Definition of CB application of CB- in mar eting. 7. What are the various dimensions of consumer behavior? Introduction of CB Dimension of CB- Positivism Negativism- customer value- reten tion conclusion.

8. Consumer behavior is a dynamic process- Explain. Introduction- process of CB- concept of behavior in mar eting. UNIT-II- CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MODELS PART-A 1. What is D.M with reference to consumer behaviour? The process by which a person is required to ma e a choice from various alternat ive options is referred to as decision-ma ing. 2. What is buying motive? Motive can be a strong desire, feeling an urge from within a drive, stimulus or emotions, which plays a role in the consumers decision to purchase a product or s ervice.

3. Explain product & patronage motive. Product motive is a bundle of satisfaction to ta e care of consumers need and des ires. Then the question before the mar eting decision ma ers are why does a pers on buy a product, a specific brand. Patronage motive- why do consumers buy from a specific shop it can be categoriz ed into two namely emotional and rational motives. 4. What are the types of decision-ma ing? There are basically 3 different types of decision-ma ing they are Routine respon se behaviour, limited problem solving and extensive problem solving. 5. What do you mean by diffusion of innovation? According to Rogers(2003) "Diffusion is the process by which an innov ation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social System." In other words, the study of the diffusion of innovation is the study of how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cult ures. It applies, for example, to the acceptance of new technological products l i e the wristwatch and the personal computer, foods li e tomato sauce and sushi, music styles li e opera and bossa nova, dressing styles li e the top hat and bl ue jeans, ideals li e democracy or feminism, and so on. 6. What are the stages of diffusion? There are 5 stages in the process of diffusion they are : 1 ) by and large balanced growth at a low rate, (2) transition phase of gradually increasing the characteristic rate of gro wth.(Gomul a states that there are four characteristic rates of growth), (3) high level of roughly semi-balanced growth, (4) transition phase of gradually decreasing characteristic rate of growth, (5) by and large balanced growth at a relatively low rate, possibly close to the rate of growth of the country s population. What is the role of opinion leaders in CDM? OPINION LEADERSHIP-Opinion leadership (or word-of-mouth communications) i s the process by which one person (the opinion leader) informally influences the actions or attitudes of others, who may be opinion see ers or merely opinion re cipients. The ey characteristic of the influence is that it is interpersonal an d informal and ta es place between two or more people, none of whom represents a commercial selling source that would gain directly from the sale of something 8. List the characteristics of opinion leaders. 7.

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Does perpetual constraints stimulates the consumer behaviour? What is word of mouth? What is brand loyalty? is brand loyalty an attitude based behaviour? What are the six facts of brand loyalty? What ma es customer brand loyal? List the factors that constitute to brand loyalty. What is the motive to buy? What are the different types of purchase decision behaviour/ What is store loyality? What are the personal factors that affect the consumer purchase decision Explain the exogenous factors. How perpetual constructs lead to purchase behaviour? List the areas as descried by Engel Kollat model. What is the learning constructs? What are attitudinal brand loyalties? Is diffusion a timing process? When does the time of adoption come to a consumer? What do you mean by rate of diffusion? How can you manage dissonance? Loyalty needs to be both attitude & behaviour How? How to measure store loyalty?

PART-B 1. Explain what is customer loyalty? How it can be measured? Intro- Definition of loyalty- types-measurement- features- conclusion 2. Explain in detail about the models in decision-ma ing. Intro- definition of CB- models of CB- harward sheth- EKG model- Nicosia-conclus ion. 3. What do you mean by opinion leadership? Explain its characteristic & rol e in consumer behaviour. Intro- definition of opinion leadership- roles of opinions leaders in behaviourmeasurement- conclusion. 4. Explain the concept of diffusion process. Definition of diffusion- in relation to behaviour. 5. How does adoption process influence the consumer in decision ma ing? Intro- definition of adoption process of adoption 6. Discuss the factors that affect the diffusion of Innovation? Diffusion meaning- factors affecting diffusion- 5 stages of diffusion. 7. What is brand loyalty? Explain it with reference to Indian context. Definition of loyalty- examples types of loyalty- how it is influenced in behavi our. 8. What ma es a consumer brand loyal? Discuss the factors that influence br

i. they rmation. ii. They iii. They iv. They v. They vorable.

are perceived to be highly credible sources of product related info are gregarious an people with experience are both sources of information and advice. have got greater exposure to the media provide unbiased information that is li ely to be favorable or unfa

and loyalty. Definition of brand loyalty- factors influencing brand loyalty- conclusion. 9. List & explain the factors that contribute to brand disloyalty. What are brand disloyalty- factors internal and external factors- conclusion. 10. What is customer loyalty to stores? Explain. Meaning of customer loyalty to store- aspects11. Explain in detail the post purchase behaviour. Consumption: Post-consumption evaluation: possible results: Satisfaction: consumers expectations are matched by perceived performance. Dissatisfaction: experiences and performance fall short of expectations Post-purchase regret: have I made a good decision? Did I consider all the altern atives? The highest the price, the highest this factor. 12. Does Personal Influence have a role in Consumer Behaviour? 13. What are the types of councils that are available for consumer protectio n? Intro- types of councils- state council- central redressal council- its features . 14. How are consumers adopting to new products that are introduced in the ma r et? Meaning of adoption process- stages in adoption-conclusion.

UNIT-III-CONSUMER AS AN INDIVIDUAL PART_A 1. What is Motive? The arousal of any particular set of needs at a specific moment in time m ay cause by internal stimuli found in the individual physiological condition, by emotional or cognitive processes or by stimuli in the outside environment. 2. Define Motivation. Motivation is highly dynamic construct that is constantly changing in reac tion to life experiences. As a individual they continue to strive for old goals or they develop new ones. If they do not attain their goals, they continue to st rive for old goals or they develop substitute goals 3. What are Needs? Needs are of two type- Innate needs & Acquired needs. Innate needs are psychological (i.e., biogenic); they include the needs for food , water, air. Acquired needs are needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment. These may include needs for self-esteem, prestige, affection, po wer and learning. 4. What do you mean by rational motive? The term rationality in traditional economic sense, assumes that consumers

behave rationally by carefully considering all alternatives and choosing those that give them the greatest utility Difference between Positive& negative motivation. Motivation can be positive or negative in direction. Some psychologists re fer to positive drives as needs, wants or desires and to negative drives as fear s or aversions. Although motivational forces seem to differ, researchers often r efer either ind of drives or a motive as needs, wants and desires and this crea te goals. A positive goal is one toward which behavior is directed; thus, it is often referred to as an approach object. A negative goal is one from which behav ior is directed away and is referred to as an avoidance object. 6. Define Perception. Perception is the process of selecting organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning to events happening in environment. 7. Is sensation & perceptions different? Sensation may be described as an immediate response of a physical sensory organ. Perception is something more than sensation. It co-related integrates and comp rehends the various sensations and information received from the different organ s of the body. 8. What is absolute threshold? The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation is cal led the absolute threshold. The point at which a person can detect a difference between something and nothing is that persons absolute threshold for that stimulus. For EX- the distance at which a driver can note a specific billboard on a highwa y is that individuals threshold. State the difference between absolute & differential threshold. The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli i s called the differential threshold or the just noticeable difference (the JND). German Scientist Ernst weber discovered that the j.n.d between two stimuli was not an absolute amount but an amount relative to the intensity of the first sti mulus. Weber slaw as it has come to be nown states that the stronger the initial stimulus , the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different. 10. List the factors that affect attention Intensity and size, position, contrast, novelty, repetition, movement. 11. What do you mean by selective attention? This is a feeling of awareness of a need result in the person experience discomf ort or tension when he thin s he is missing something. 12. Does perceptual vigilance have a positive or negative impact? Perceptual vigilance refers to the individual being vigilant and screening out t hose stimuli or elements, which create conflict or may give rise to a threatenin g situation. 13. Explain Halo affect. It refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad, and asc ribing all good qualities to who is li ed and all bad qualities to another who i s disli ed. 14. What do you mean by perceptual bloc ing? It is another aspect of perceptual selectivity is perceptual bloc ing. When cons umers are bombarded with lots of information there is a general tendency to bloc 9. 5.

out some stimuli from their conscious.

16. List the components of learning. Drive, Cues, Response, Re-inforcement and retention. 17. What are the types of learning process? Routines and learning process. 18. What is Operant Conditioning? Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical cond itioning (also called respondent conditioning, or Pavlovian conditioning) in tha t operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or op erant behavior. Operant behavior "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning o f respondent behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Behaviors co nditioned via a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequen ces. 19. List the stages is observational learning process. There are 4 stages in the learning process they are: Attention, learning, reprod uction and reward. 20. Define personality. The characteristic and distinctive trait of a individual the stable and shifting pattern of relationship between these traits and the way the traits interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situation. 21. i. ii. iii. State the Characteristics of personality. It is a reflection of individual preference or difference It is usually stable. It can change under certain circumstances.

22. What is Neo Freudian Personality theory? According to this theory social relationships played a vital role in the formati on and development of the personality. 23. 24. Is self-concept related to consumer Behavior? Difference between sensing thin ing & Intuitive thin ing.

Sensing thin ing Intuitive thin ing Logical, empirical and rational Ta es a broader view of the situation Ris avoider Uses logic and imagination in decision Price sensitive and materialistic in considering motives Considers many o ptions while ta ing decisions. Short term considerations Long term view while ta ing decisions. 25. Define Attitude. An attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorab le or unfavorable way with respect to a given object. Each part of this definitio

Define learning. Consumer learning can be thought of as the process by which individual acq uire the purchase and consumption nowledge and experience that they apply to fu ture related behavior. The term learning encompasses the total range of learning from simple, almost reflexive responses to the learning of abstract concepts an d complex problem solving.

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n describes an important property of an attitude and is critical to understandin g the role of attitudes in consumer behavior. 26. Explain opinion & belief. Opinion is the measurement of attitudes is generally based on the expression of opinion. Belief is an enduring organization of perception and cognitions about some aspec ts of the individual world. 27. Does relationship exist between attitude & behavior? Mar eters are most interested in predicting the behavioral components of attitud es. There is a relationship between cognitive and affective component with that of the behavioral component. 28. What are the theories propounded for attitude formation? 1.Cognitive Dissonance Theory 2. Attribution Theory 29. Explain the Tri component attitude model. Affective component, co native component and cognition component. 30. What is connative component? Cognitive -Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer hol ds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. 31. Brief about Fishhein model. According to this model if a consumer believes strongly that an object has many positive and desirable attitudes then it will be rated favorably. What are the factors involved in attitude Formation? Internal and external information sources: Information about a specific product class or brand is gathered from a variety o f sources. Some information is already stored in our memory as a result of past cognitions or experiences. Other information we gather ourselves, either throu gh conscious information gathering, for example, reading consumer magazines, att ending trade shows, tal ing to industry or government experts; or by more passiv e means, such as watching television, or reading a poster on the London Undergro und. We also receive information from those around us and by observing their ac tions, especially our families in their daily consumption routines. Mar eters, through advertising, pac aging and point of purchase displays, are constantly pr oviding consumers with information about their own and their competitors products . 33. How do you measure Attitude? Attitude are measured through various scales li e li erts, 5 point scale, porter faces model etc. 34. How a change is attitude can be got within a consumer? Attitude change is an issue for every mar eter New entrants into the mar et need to change the attitude of consumers that suppo rt purchases from mar et leaders Mar et leaders need to strengthen the positive attitudes of their customers to r etain their mar et share 35. What are the dynamics of motivation? Motivation is a dynamic one where the need of the individual is studied. 36. Define Communication. Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a r 32.

eceiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is unders tood by both sender and receiver. It is a process that allows organisms to excha nge information by several methods. Communication requires that all parties unde rstand a common language 37. List the tools of persuasion. Communication that is persuasive is directed toward changing or altering a nother persons beliefs, attitudes, and, ultimately, behaviors. What are the basic elements of communication? Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimen sions: Content (what type of things are communicated), source, emisor, sender or encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which medium), destin ation, receiver, target or decoder (to whom), and the purpose or pragmatic aspec t. Between parties, communication includes acts that confer nowledge and experi ences, give advice and commands, and as questions. These acts may ta e many for ms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form depends on the abil ities of the group communicating. Together, communication content and form ma e messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity 39. What is the role of advertising is communication? The role of advertising in communication is that it should easily be understood by the consumer and attract the attention of the buyers. 38.

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Is self-image have an influence on consumer behavior? Consumers have a variety of enduring images of themselves. These self-im ages or perceptions of self are very closely associated with personality in that individuals tend to buy products and services and patronize retailers whose ima ges or personalities relate in some meaningful way to their own self-images.

PART_B 1. Explain the process of communication in detail. Definition of Communication features- process charts conclusion. 2. Does advertising & communication are related. Explain Introduction of advertising and communication the relation examples. 3. List & explain the barriers to communication. Definition of communication- barriers conclusion. 4. Explain the Internal & external factors that affect the perception. Introduction definition of perception factors affecting perception- conclusion. 5. Briefly explain the perceptual process. Definition of perception features process- limitations conclusion. 6. Does perceptual vigilances or defense have an influence on consumer beha viour? Explain. Introduction definition of perception vigilance influence of CB on perception co nclusion. 7. Explain the classical conditioning theory with example. Introduction of classical conditioning stimulus conditional stimulus- unconditio nal stimulus conditional response- conclusion.

8. Operant conditioning is a type of learning-Explain. Introduction Operant conditioning reinforcement punishment extinction- positive enforcement negative reinforcement conclusion. 9. Is the concept of low involvement theory a step to learning process? Introduction definition of learning what is low involvement process conclusion. 10. Explain the trait theories. Introduction what is trait single trait multiple trait- conclusion. 11. Explain Neo-Freudians theory. Introduction what is non- Freudians 3 aspects- complaints aggressive detached- co nclusion. 12. What are the factors that influence the personality? Introduction definition of personality factors affect personality- conclusion. 13. Explain the concept of self-image towards the personality of consumer. Introduction self image relation of self-image and personality types of self ima ges- conclusion. 14. Discuss the relationship between attitude & behavior. Intro- definition of attitude behavior features of both- relationship between th em- conclusions. 15. List & explain the congnitve dissonance theory of attitude. Intro definition of attitude theory of dissonance conclusion. 16. How do you measure attitude Explain the techniques in detail? Intro- attitude definition- techniques of attitude measurement conclusion. 17. Does attitude being a change in consumer-Explain. Attitude definition- change does change affect attitude types of change- conclus ion. 18. Explain the need theory of motivation. Definition of motivation- needs theory need hierarchy Herzberg theory X &Y theor y conclusion. 19. Explain Vroom expectancy theory. Intro motivation theory vroom expectancy valence relationship conclusion.

UNIT_IV- CONSUMERS IN THEIR SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SETTINGS PART_A

1. Define Group. A group is two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a ma nner that each person influences and is influenced by each other. 2. i. ii. iii. iv. 3. What are the features of group? Two or more persons Collective identity Interaction Shared goal interest. Define Culture. Culture is: The lens through which all phenomena are seen. It determines how these phenomena are apprehended and assimilated. The blueprint of human activity. It determines the coordinates of social action a nd productive activity, specifying the behaviors and objects that issue from bot h. What is Sub Culture? Sub cultures are social, with their own shared conventions, values and rituals, but they can also seem immersed or self-absorbed - another feature th at distinguishes them from countercultures. 5. i. ii. iii. iv. 6. Culture i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. 7. List the characteristics of culture. it is a learned process it includes inculcated values it is a social phenomenon it is a gratfying process What are ways of measuring culture? can be measured by the following ways: Projective test Attitude measurement test Depth interviews Observation Content analysis. What is cross-cultural analysis? Cross-cultural may refer to cross-cultural studies, a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural ana 4.

lysis any of various forms of interactivity between members of disparate cultural grou ps the discourse concerning cultural interactivity, sometimes referred to as crossculturalism 8. Is cross-cultural mar eting an important tool in consumer behaviour? It is an important tool in consumer behavior where it explains about the interac tion between members of different groups, various fields of study. 9. What are the problems in cross-cultural mar eting? The problems faced in cross cultural mar eting is : i. Problems related to product selection ii. Problems related to promotion iii. Problems relatd to pricing iv. Problems related to selection of distribution of channels.

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What are wor ing groups?

Formal wor group consists of individuals who wor together as part of a team and thus have sustained opportunity to influence each others consumption re lated attitudes and action. Informal friendship-wor groups consist of people wh o have become friends as a result of wor ing for the same firm, whether or not t hey wor together as a team. 11. i. ii. iii. iv. 12. i. ii. iii. iv. v. 13. How are groups formed? Interpersonal attraction It act as a vehicle of socialization It serves as a means of need satisfaction It get the job done List the advantages of group. Greater sum total of nowledge Greater number of approached to the problem Participation increases acceptance Better comprehension It acts as a motivator.

What is the role of reference group in consumer behaviour? Consumer reference group is that group to which the consumer has close re lationship and proximity and which the consumer uses for references and which ef fect the buying behavior of the consumer. We have generally two types of referen ce groups: they are normative and comparative reference group. 14. i. ii. iii. iv. v. 15. i. ii. iii. 16. Explain the various types of groups. Friendship groups Shopping groups Wor groups Virtual groups or communities Consumer-Action groups What are the benefits of reference group? Information and experience Credibility, attractiveness and power group of the reference group Conspicuousness of the product

Who are friendship groups? Typically classified as informal groups because they are usually unstruc tured and lac specific authority levels. After an individual family, his/her fr iends are most li ely to influence the individual purchase decision. Mar eters of products such as brand name clothing, fine jewelry, and snac foods recognize the power of peer group influence and frequently depict friendship sit uation in their ads. 17. Define reference group. Consumer reference group is that group to which the consumer has close relationship and proximity and which the consumer uses for references a nd which effect the buying behavior of the consumer. What are the various types of wor group? Formal wor group consists of individuals who wor together as part of a te am and thus have sustained opportunity to influence each others consumption relat ed attitudes and action. Informal friendship-wor groups consist of people who h ave become friends as a result of wor ing for the same firm, whether or not they wor together as a team.

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What are the factors that play a role is reference group influence? The degree of influence that a reference group exerts on an individual be havior usually depends on the nature of the individual and the product and on sp ecific social factors. A broad view of the factors that influence:1) Information and experience: - Individual with no experience and informat ion about a product easily ta e the advice of reference group for buy of the pro duct. 2) Credibility, attractiveness and power group of the reference group:- A r eference group that is perceived as credible, attractive or powerful can induce consumer attitude and behavior change. 3) Conspicuousness of the product:- The potential influence of a reference group on a purchase decision varies according to how visually or verbally conspi cuous the product is to others. A visually conspicuous product is one that will stand out and be noticed ;a verbally conspicuous product may be highly intereste d , or it may be easily described to others .products that are especially conspi cuous and status revealing are most li ely to be purchased with a eye to the rea ctions of relevant others.

PART_B 1. Discuss the role of cross-cultural consumer behavior. Intro- definition of cross cultural behavior roles conclusion. 2. Explain the role of family is the consumer decision-ma ing process. Intro family roles of the individual process of decision-ma ing. 3. Explain the following- sub culture, group dynamics, and social class.

4. What are the problems faced by the mar eter in the analysis of cross-cul tural mar eting? Intro what is cross-cultural mar eting problems conclusions. 5. Discuss the role of reference group in the consumer behavior. Intro- types of reference groups relation with consumer behavior.

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Give an example of a wea product, strong brand influence. Magazines, Furniture, AC, ovens, clothing.

UNIT-V- PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS PART-A What is Consumerism? Webster s dictionary defines Consumerism as "the promotion of the consumer s interests" or alternately "the theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically desirable". It is thus the opposite of anti-consumerism or of p roducerism What are the rights of Consumer? the right to be protected against the mar eting of goods and services whi ch are hazardous to life and property; (b) the right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, s tandard and price of goods or services, as the case may be so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices; (c) the right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices; (d) the right to be heard and to be assured that consumer s interests will r eceive due consideration at appropriate forums; (e) the right to see redressal against unfair trade practices or restrictiv e trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and (f) the right to consumer education. 3. The act i. ers ii. 4. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. How does MRRTP Act help the consumers? has two broad objectives: regulation of monopolies and prevention of concentration of economic pow Prohibit monopolistic restrictive and unfair trade practices. What is the characteristic of Industrial buyer? Fewer buyers Larger buyers Geographically concentrated Derived demand Inelastic demand Fluctuating demand Professional purchasing 2. 1.

5. Define Industrial buying. The industrial mar et consists of all the individual or organization who acquire goods and services that enter into the production of other products or services that are sold, rented or supplied to others.

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What are the latest online consumer mar eting? One of the main changes in modern consumer behavior has been the transi tion from a passive to an active and informed consumer, and one of the ey tools of this so-called postmodern online consumer has been the Internet. An examinatio n of previous research into online consumer behavior shows that there may be sig nificant differences from their terrestrial counter parts, however problems of d emographic bias, lac of observational data and the Internets rapid pace of chang e may have made it difficult to accurately model this behavior.

7. How does the buyer evaluate the products for industrial uses? The factors that are ta en into consideration for evaluation are environmental f actors, organizational factors, interpersonal factors and individual participant . 8. of the Consumers. However these councils are restricted to the states only. 9. List the advantages of using Internet in consumer purchase. Time consuming, more information within the easy reach, cost reduction. 10. Explain the role of the consumer in the emerging trends. The trend of mar eting is consumer oriented and all tas is focused towards the consumer where the information about the product. 11. Difference between Industrial & consumer buying. The industrial mar et consists of all the individual or organization who acquire goods and services that enter into the production of other products or s ervices that are sold, rented or supplied to others. 12. he purposes of this Act, the following agencies, namely: (a) a Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum to be nown as the "District Forum" est ablished by the State Government in each district of the State by notification: 13. Is Customer privacy necessary? Yes. All the consumers need to now about the information of the product, compan y and all other related information. What is consumer redress? Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies. - There shall be established for t What are the objects of consumer protection council? The objective of both the council is to promote and protect the rights

PART-B 1. Discuss the Industrial buyer behaviour with its features. Intro- Definition of industrial buying features- process. 2. Explain the rights of the consumer Rights of consumer councils of consumer conclusion. 3. Trace the history of consumerism & its causes. Intro consumerism- development of councils causes-conclusion 4. State briefly the functions of consumer protection councils. State councils- central councils grievance-handling councils. 5. What are the redressal agencies that are available to consumers?

6. Discuss the steps involved in Industrial buying process. Intro- industrial buying- steps- conclusion. 7. What is organizational buying? Discuss its characters. Intro- definition of organizational buying its features process conclusions.

8. What are the methods of on-line consumer behavior? Intro- developments in CB- web mar eting-email mar eting- latest trends- its imp act conclusion.