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Biography of Joo Rodrigues SJ, missionary in East a Asia


Name and Name Modications: Japanese: Tuzu (modern: Tzuji = the interpreter) c Chinese: Lou Yohan also Ruiz Relevance for the Far Eastern Mission: Rodriguez was an important geographer and historian of the Far East, sinologist and japanologist, author of the rst Japanese grammar. He also played an eminent role in the Chinese Rites Controversy. Dates of Birth and Death: () 1561 in Serncelhe, diocese Lamego, Portugal a () 1. August 1633 in in the Portuguese enclave Macau, today China Family Data: Nothing is known about Rodrigues family. Rodrigues joined the Society of Jesus in 1580 in Japan. Ordination for priesthood was in Macau in 1596. Rodrigues made his four solemn vows in Nagasaki on am 10 June 1601. Mission: Rodrigues already arrived in Japan in 1576 or in 1577, fteen years old. Education: After he had joined the Society of Jesus, Rodrigues studied theology in Bungo (since 1580) and theology and philosophy in Nagasaki. Professional Career: No to be confounded with the Jesuit Joo Rodrigues Giro SJ (+ 1629), who a a was also in Japan. Rodrigues already arrive in Japan with only fteen years. As a soldier, he accompanied the daimy (prince) of Bungo on a campaign. He was so wello

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versed in the Japanese language that he became the ocial interpreter for his brethren at the Court (since 1596). The leader of Japan, the daimy o Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), was very impressed by Rodrigues abilities and made him his personal interpreter in 1590. Also under the rule of Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616), Toyotomis successor and later Shgun, Rodrigues o remained persona grata at Court. From 1603 until 1610, Rodrigues was procurator of the mission in Nagasaki. He also played an important role in the silver trade between Japan and China, which was mostly done by the Jesuits. The favor of the great daimys and of the Shgun arose the jealousy of others. o o The strongest adversary became the Protestant English Will Adams (1564?1620), who came to Japan in 1600 and became the interpreter of the Shgun. o He had been pilot in Dutch service and saw in the Catholic nations Portugal and Spain the concurrence in commerce. Rodrigues was accused because of a scandal in commerce and was expelled from Japan already in 1610, even before the other missionaries were banned from Japan in 1614. He went to Macau and then to China. In the interior of China, Rodrigues made investigations for old Christian communities from 1613-15. As a mission procurator (1591-1626), he accompanied the visitor Andr Palmeiro (1569-1635) on his visitation through China e to Peking. In 1630, he was interpreter of Portuguese soldiers, who helped the Chinese Ming dynasty (1368-1644) against the attacking Manchus. This brought him an Imperial elogium (19 June 1632). During the discussions in China about the question, if Chinese termini could be used for the Christian God and other theological matters, Rodrigues, because of his experiences in Japan, opted for the Latin Deus. In this way, he became a direct source for Niccol` Longobardos (1557-1654) treatise Reo sponsio brevis super controversias de Xamti..., which became an important document in the Rites Controversy. Publications Joo Rodrigues: a Gongsha xiao zhong ji (1632) (Miracles and other stories). Arte da Lingoa de Iapam, 1604-8, Japanese: Daibunten von Doi Tadao, (1955), The Muse Described, (translation of the part on Japanese poesy by Michael Cooper) in: Monumenta Nipponica XXVI (1971) pp. 55-75.

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Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa tirada da arte grande da mesma lingoa, pera os que comeam a aprender os primeiros principios della (Amacao c 1620), reprint with Japanese translation: Hino Hiroshi (Tokyo). Amaral Abranches Pinto (ed.), Histria da Igreja do Japo, 2 vols. o a (Tokyo 1953), Japanese: Doi Tadao (transl.), Nihon Kyokai Shi, 2 vols. (Tokyo 1967-70), parts in English translation by Michael Cooper: This Island of Japan (Teil 1, Buch 1 & 2) (1973), and: Arte del Cha (Tokyo 1954) (Spanish translation of the part on the tea ceremony by J. Alvarez-Taladriz) . Michael Cooper (transl., ed.), This Island of Japan (Tokyo 1973), also as: Michael Cooper (ed.) Joo Rodrigues account of sixteenth-century a Japan (London 2001). Jeroen Pieter Lamers (ed.), Treatise on Epistolary Style. Joo Roa driguez on the Noble Art of Writing Japanese letters (Ann Arbot 2002). English translation of Rodrigues letters from China: Letter, Macao, 1 November 1611, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 350-338. Letter, Canton, 25 January 1612, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 338-324. Letter, Canton, December (?) 1615, to Valemtim Carvalho, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Roa drigues, 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 o u (Tokyo 1981) pp. 324-315. Letter, Macao, 22 January 1616, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 313-298.

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Letter, Macao, 31 October 1622, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 298-284. Letter, Macao, 21 November 1626, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 284-270. Letter, Macao, 30 November 1627, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 269-253. Peking, Macao, 27 May 1630, to the Macao community ?, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 251-242. Letter, Macao, 5 February 1633, to the Jesuit General, in: Michael Cooper (ed.), Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo o u 1981) pp. 242-231. (+ Annotations to all letters, pp. 230-224). Rodrigues manuscripts about the sects and religions, the geography and an explanation of the Stele of Xianfu of China seem to be lost seem to be lost, and also his Tractatus copiosissimus contra praxes Matthaei Ricci, which served Longobardo to write his Tractatus. Joo Rodrigues Bibliography: a Joseph Dehergne, Rpertoire des Jsuites de Chine de 1552 ` 1800 (Rome, e e a Paris 1973) pp. 227f. Louis Pster, Notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les Jsuites de e lancienne Mission de Chine 1552-1773 (Chang-hai 1932) 214f. Robert Streit, Bibliotheca Missionum, vol. V (Freiburg 1929) # 1497.

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Henri Bernard, Les tapes de la cartographie scientique..., Monumenta e Serica I (1936) pp. 440-452. Jacques Bsineau, Au Japon avec Joo Rodrigues 1580-1620 (Lisbonne, e a Paris 1998). Charles R. Boxer, Padre Joo Rodrigues Tzucu, S.J. and his Japanese a Grammar, in: Miscellnea de Filologia, literatura e histria cultural ` memria a o a o de Francisco Adolfo Coelho, vol. II (1950) pp. 338-363, and in: Charles R. Boxer, Portuguese Merchants and Missionaries in Feudal Japan, 1543-1640 (Aldershot 1997), article VI. Charles R. Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650 (Cambridge 1951). Hubert Cieslik, Father Joo Rodrigues the Interpreter, Missionary Bula letin IX (1955) pp. 326-331, 404-409. Claudia von Collani, The Treatise on Chinese Religion (1623) of N. Longobardi, S.J., Sino-Western Cultural Relations Journal XVII (1995) pp. 29-37. Michael Cooper, They came to Japan. An Anthology of European Reports on Japan 1543-1640 (1965). Otis Cary, A History of Christianity in Japan (Rutland, Tokyo 2000). Michael Cooper, The Muse described, Joo Rodrigues Account of Japanese a Poetry, Monumenta Nipponica XXVI (1971) pp. 55-75. Michael Cooper, Rodrigues the Interpreter. An Early Jesuit in Japan and China (New York, Tokyo 1974, 1994). Michael Cooper, Rodrigues in China. The Letters of Joo Rodrigues, a 1611-1633, in: Doi Tadao (ed.), Kokugoshi he no michi: Doi sensei shju o kinen ronbunsh (Festschrift Prof. Doi Tadao), vol. 2 (Tokyo 1981) pp. 352u 224. Heinz Finger, Geschichte der Kirche in Japan (Kln 2004). o Eta Harich-Schneider, A History of Japanese Music (London 1973). Ikuo Higashibaba, Christianity in Early Modern Japan. Kirishitan Belief and Practice (Leiden, Boston, Kln 2001). o Wenchao Li, Hans Poser (eds.), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Discours sur la theologie naturelle des Chinois. Mit einem Anhang: Nicolas Longobardi, Trait sur quelques points de la religion des Chinois; Antoine de Sainte Marie, e Trait sur quelques points importans de la Mission de la Chine; Nicolas e Malebranche, Entretien dun Philosophe Chrtien et dun Philosophe Chie nois sur lexistence et la Nature de Dieu; Leibniz, Marginalien zu den Texten von Longobardi, Sainte Marie und Malebranche; Rezensionen aus dem Journal des Savans; Leibniz, Annotationes de cultu religioneque Sinensium c (Verentlichungen des Leibniz-Archivs) (Frankfurt 2002). o Joseph Moran, The Well of Japanese Undeled: J.R. Advice How to Study

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Japanese, Monumenta Nipponica XXX (1975) pp. 277-290. Isabel Castro Pina, Joo Rordrigues Tuzu and the controversy over Chrisa c tian terminology in China: The perspective of a Jesuit from the Japanese mission, Bulletin of Portuguese-Japanese studies 6 (2003) pp. 47-71. Benjamin Videira Pires, Matteo Ricci and Joo Rodrigues Tcuzzu: Two a Links in the Cultural Interpretation of China and Japan, Review of Culture 30 (1997) pp. 47-54. Georg Schurhammer, Das kirchliche Sprachproblem in der japanischen Jesuitenmission des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts (Tokyo 1928). Georg Schurhammer, Doppelgnger in Portugiesisch-Asien, in: Oriena talia (Rom 1963) pp. 124-126. Georg Schurhammer, P. Johann Rodriguez Tuzzu als Geschichtsschreiber c Japans, Archivum Historicum Societatis Jesu 1 (1932) pp. 23-40, also in: Orientalia, Gesammelte Studien, t. 2 (Rome 1963) pp. 605-618. Josef Franz Schtte, A Historia inedita dos Bispos da Igreja do Japao, u in: Congresso Internacional de Histria dos Descobrimentos. Actas V/1 o (Lisboa 1961) pp. 297-327. Arcadio Schwade, Die Frhgeschichte des Christentums in Japan im Uberblick, u in: Adrian Hsia, Ruprecht Wimmer (eds.), Mission und Theater. Japan und China auf den Bhnen der Gesellschaft Jesu (Jesuitica 7) (Regensburg 2005) u pp. 289-353. Nicolas Standaert (ed.), Handbook of Christianity in China. Volume One: 635-1800. (Handbook of Oriental Studies, section 4: China 15/1. Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 4: China 15) (Leiden, Boston, Kln 2001). o Ad Dudink, Nicolas Standaert, Chinese Christian Texts Database (CCTDatabase) http://www.arts.kuleuven.be/sinology/cct (12 November 2009). Author(s) of this contribution: Claudia von Collani

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