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STEAM JET EJECTOR


Steam jet ejectors are based on the ejector-venturi principle. In operation, steam issuing through an expanding nozzle has its pressure energy converted to velocity energy. A vacuum is created, air or gas is entrained and the mixture of gas and steam enters the venturi diffuser where its velocity energy is converted into pressure sufficient to discharge against a predominant back pressure. A typical ejector has three parts-the nozzle, the mixing chamber, and the discharge chamber. High pressure steam enters the steam chest at the end and expands in passing through the steam nozzle. Steam issues through the suction chamber at a high velocity. According to Bernaullis equation the pressure in this chamber remains very low. Steam and non-condensibles are drawn into the suction chamber. The gas vapour mixture moves through a venturi shaped converging-diverging section. In the diverging section or diffuser or discharge chamber the velocity head is converted into pressure head so that the mixture can be discharged into the atmosphere. Single stage ejectors are available in many materials of construction according to process requirement. If the gases or vapour are not corrosive, diffuser is usually made of cast iron and steam nozzle of stainless steel. For more corrosive gases and vapour many combination of materials such as bronze, various stainless steel alloys and other corrosion resistant metals carbon and glass can be used. These are designed to cover a suction pressure ranges from 1" to 30" Hg. Sizes 1" to 4" are cast in ductile iron with type 316 stainless steel steam nozzle. Size 5" to 6" the ductile iron body but tails made from steel. Sizes above 6 are made to special order and are generally 100% fabricated.

ADVANTAGES
Low cost: Pumps of the ejector types are small in relation to work they do and their cost is low in comparison with other type of equipment. No moving parts: these units have no moving parts to adjust repair. Simple, Compact Construction: Nothing could be simpler than a steam jet ejector. It consists of an expanding nozzle, a body and a venturi. Reliability: Because of the inherent simplicity these pumps are reliable. Maintenance requirements are simple and easily accomplished. Corrosion/Erosion resistance: Practically it is made of any workable material to provide utmost resistance to corrosion /erosion. Easy installation: Relatively light in weight, jet ejector are easy to install, requires no foundation. Even multistage units are readily adaptable to exiting condition.

High vacuum performance: Steam jet ejectors can handle air or other gases at suction pressure as low as three micron Hg. abs. The choice of most suitable type of ejector for a given application depends upon the following factors, 1. Steam pressure: ejector selection should be best upon the minimum pressure in the supply line selected to serve the unit. 2. Water temperature: selection is based on the maximum water temperature. 3. Suction pressure and temperature: over all process requirements should be considered but selection is usually governed by the capacity required at the minimum process pressure. 4. Capacity required: Again it is governed by the capacity required at the minimum process pressure.

Uses: Ejectors are used in the process, food, steel and allied industries in
connection with such operation as filtration, distillation, absorption, mixing, vacuum packaging, freeze drying, dehydrating and degassing. They will handle both condensable and non-condensable gases and vapors as well as mixture of the two.

Water outlet

Surfaces condenser Charging door Two stage ejector with inter condenser 2 stage exhaust frequently piped out
nd

inlet

Distilled receiver
Jacked still

Distillate drain Drain, residue drain hot well

Ejector used in connection with batch distillation 3

Suction connection (air or other gas)

Pressure connection (steam)

Tie bolts

Removable nozzle

Mixing chamber

STEAM JET EJECTORR

Body and Venturi Tail Piece (one piece construction

Discharge connection (mixture)

TYPES OF EJECTOR
Based upon the auxiliary equipment, two and three stage ejectors can be either condensing or non-condensing types. Four five or six stage units can also be non condensing, but usually are condensing types. CONDENSING TYPE EJECTOR:I t have an inter condenser between ejectors that reduces steam consumption in later stages by (1)condensing 1st stage operating steam and condensable vapors. And (2) cooling the air and other non condensable. The inter condenser may be direct contact or surface type, arranged barometrically or low level. When the condenser is mounted at barometric elevation, drainage is by gravity through a sealed tail leg so condenser and suction lines will not flood if steam service is interrupted or loss of vacuum occurs.
Steam inlet water inlet

Steam inlet

Water inlet

suction

H.V Ejector Inter cond

L.V Ejector tail pipe

NON-CONDENSING TYPE EJECTOR: These have the 1st stage discharging directly into the suction of the second stage ejector and so on, using condensers. Compared to the previous, this arrangement imposes a greater load on subsequent stages, requiring more operating steam and larger units following. This type ejectors are used where condenser Are not feasible, where initial cost is most important than operating cost, or service is to be intermittent making operating cost a secondary consideration. Steam inlet steam inlet water inlet

suction

discharge

L.V ejector H.V ejector

After cond.

TWO STAGE EJECTORS: two stage steam ejectors have the same general field of application as the single stage units. They handle condensable and non condensable gases or vapors, as well as mixture of two. The operating range is 5" Hg to 3 mm Hg. abs. In the assemblies, the suction mixture enters the body of the primary stage, or high vacuum (H.V.) ejector and is compressed from the required suction to an intermediate pressure less than atm. The secondary stage or low vacuum ejector(L.V.) compresses from this point to atm. or to a point where it is desired to utilized the ejector discharge. THREE STAGE EJECTORS: These types are recommended for applications where a previous unit will not provide low enough suction pressure economically. An applicable range is from 26 mm Hg.abs. to 0.8 mm Hg. abs. It consist of a booster condenser, and a two stage ejector consisting of a high vacuum ejector, inter condenser, and low vacuum ejector. In some applications another condenser can be used at low vacuum ejector. It can be direct contact or surface type arranged barometrically or low level. FOUR, FIVE, AND SIX-STAGE EJECTORS: These units are used for applications where required suction pressures are beyond the ranges of the ejector previously described. Generally suction pressure ranges are, Four stage ejector- 4 mm Hg. abs. to 75 microns Hg. abs. Five stage ejector- 0.4 mm Hg. abs. to 10 microns Hg. abs. Six stage ejector- 100 microns Hg. abs. to 3 microns Hg. abs. The four stage unit consists of a primary booster ejector, a secondary booster secondary booster ejector a high vacuum ejector a low vacuum ejector and usually two condensers-one after the secondary booster ejector and the other between high and low vacuum ejectors. The five and six stage units are similar in appearance to the four stage ejector except that additional booster is added.