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Calculation sheet

Station Grounding Grid

CONTENTS
1.0

GENERAL ........................................................................................................1

2.0

REFERENCES .................................................................................................1

3.0

CALCULATION................................................................................................1

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

General ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Conductor Size Calculation ...................................................................................................... 1
Check of touch voltage and step voltage .................................................................................. 2
Initial Design Parameters ......................................................................................................... 3
Grid Resistance......................................................................................................................... 3
Maximum Grid Current............................................................................................................ 4
Ground Potential Rise............................................................................................................... 4
Calculation of Mesh & Step Voltages ...................................................................................... 4
Verification on suitability of conductor length (L)................................................................... 6

4.0

CONCLUSION .................................................................................................6

Rev. 1

Calculation sheet
1.0

Station Grounding Grid

GENERAL
This calculation is prepared to design the station earthing with IEEE Standard 80 to achieve a
low resistance earth path and to ensure safe touch and step voltages for the 240MW Coal Fired
Power Plant.

2.0

REFERENCES

2.1

Resistivity Geophysical Analysis Puerto Chile Oct. 2006

2.2

ANSI/IEEE Std. 80-1986, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding

2.3

IEEE 665-87 Guide for Generating Station Grounding

3.0

CALCULATION

3.1

General
The worst fault current energy(MVA base) is occurred at highest voltage system. i.e. 220kV
GIS. Hence, the soil resistivity data and fault currents are applied based on 220kV GIS system.

3.1.1

Maximum Ground Fault Current


I = 20,000 A (please refer to Clause 3.6)

3.1.2

Soil Resistivity: 23.91 ohm-m


Please refer to attachment 2 of site soil resistivity and analysis report.

3.1.3

Ground Grid Area : 35,000m2


In this calculation, station earthing, around its perimeter is considered to be buried at 0.5m
depth under the switchyard & power block area.
200 m
150 m

100 m
250 m

Area A = 150200 + 50100 = 35,000 m2


3.1.4

Depth of ground grid conductors in m: h = 0.5 m

3.1.5

Ground connection method : Thermal welding type

3.2

Conductor Size Calculation

Calculation sheet

Amm2

Station Grounding Grid

t c r r 10 4
TCAP
=I
T Ta
ln 1 + m

K 0 + Ta

(From IEEE 80, Eq. 33, page 67)

where
Amm2
I
Tm
Ta
Tr
0
r
r

= conductor cross section in mm2


= rms max. Ground fault current in kA, : 20.000kA
= maximum allowable temperature in C (250C).
= ambient temperature in C (31C)
= reference temperature for material constants in C (20C)
= thermal coefficient of resistivity at 0 C
= thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr (20=0.00393)
= the resistivity of the ground conductor at reference temperature Tr in /cm3
(20=1.7241)
K0
= 1/0, or (1/r)Tr , 234 for Standard Annealed Soft Copper Wire
tc
= time of current flow, in sec : 1sec.
TCAP = thermal capacity factor, 3.422, in J/cm3/C from IEEE Std. 80-1986, page 66, table 1
(Material Constants)

Amm 2

1 0.00393 1.7241 10 4
3.422
114.7 mm2
= 20
250 31
ln 1 +

234 + 31

Thus, the ground conductor size shall be 120mm2.(IEC coded standard size)

3.3

Check of touch voltage and step voltage


For a surface material with resistivity of 2094.8-m, and for a soil resistivity of 23.91-m,
reflection factor K is

K=

s 23.91 2094.8
=
= 0.9774
+ s 23.91 + 2094.8

(From IEEE 80, Eq. 20, page 39)

where
s

3.3.1

= surface material resistivity in -m, 2094.8


= soil resistivity in -m, 23.91

Touch Voltage Criterion


Assuming the persons weight to be at least 50 kg, the tolerable step and touch voltages shall
be as follows:

Etouch 50 = (1000 + 1.5C s (hs , K ) s )0.116

t s = 365.7[V ] (From IEEE 80, Eq. 26, page 46)

Calculation sheet

Cs
s
ts

3.3.2

Station Grounding Grid

reduction factor for derating the nominal value of surface layer resistivity determined as
above, 0.685
the resistivity of the surface material in -m, 2094.8
duration of shock current in sec., 1.0

Step Voltage Criterion

E step 50 = (1000 + 6C s (hs , K ) s )0.116

t s = 1114.7[V ] (From IEEE 80, Eq. 24, page 46)

Cs

reduction factor for derating the nominal value of surface layer resistivity determined as
above, 0.685

the resistivity of the surface material in -m, 2094.8

ts

duration of shock current in s, 1.0

3.4

Initial Design Parameters

3.4.1

Spacing
a) Horizontal Spacing: 20 m
b) Vertical Spacing: 20 m

3.4.2

Total length of buried conductor (L)


Main Conductors : ( 250(m) 6(EA) ) + ( 200(m) 3(EA) ) + ( 150(m) 11(EA) ) + ( 100(m)
3(EA) = 4,050 [m]
The total buried length is 4,050 m.

3.4.3

Burial depth of ground grid conductors in m (h): 0.5 [m]

3.5

Grid Resistance

Rg

1
= +
L

1
20 A

1
1 +

1 + h 20
A

where
Rg
= station ground resistance in

= average earth resistivity in -m


A
= the area occupied by the ground grid in m2
L
= total buried length of conductors in m
h
= depth of the grid in m, 0.5

(From IEEE 80, Eq. 40, page 82)

Calculation sheet

Station Grounding Grid

1
1
1
R g = 23.91
+
1 +
= 0.063[]
4050
20
20

35000

1
0
.
5
+

35000

For most transmission and other large substations, the ground resistance should be about 1
or less. Hence, the value of the grid resistance obtained here (0.063[]) meets usual
requirements. (from IEEE 80, Section 12.1, page 81)

3.6

Maximum Ground Grid Current

I G = C p Df I g
Ig = Sf I f

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 53&54, page 91)

where
IG
= maximum ground grid current in A
Df
= decrement factor; 1.0
Sf
= current division factor relating the magnitude of fault current to that of its portion
flowing between the grounding grid and surrounding earth, 0.5
If
= rms value of symmetrical fault current in A, 40kA
Cp
= correction projection factor, 1.0

I G = C p D f S f I f = 1.0 1.0 0.5 40,000 = 20,000 [A]

3.7

Ground Potential Rise


To verify the suitability of the initial design parameters, it is necessary to compare the product
of IG and Rg, GRP, with the tolerable touch voltage, Etouch50. Calculated according to the
equation shown in IEEE 80, Eq. B4, page 177,

GRP = I G R g = 20000 0.063 = 1260[V ]


exceeds 365.7 [V], determined in Section 3.3.1 as the safe value of Etouch50. Therefore, further
design evaluations are necessary. The calculation which accounts for geometrical factors, a
corrective factor, the soil resistivity, and the average current density per unit of buried
conductor can be found hereinafter in Section 3.8.

3.8

Calculation of Mesh & Step Voltages

3.8.1

Mesh Voltage (Em)


Em = KmKiIG/L

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 66, page 113)

a) Km, Spacing factor for mesh voltage, simplified method

Calculation sheet

Station Grounding Grid

D + 2h )
(
h K
1 D2
8

ln

Km =
+
+ ii ln
2 16hd
8 Dd
4d Kh (2n 1)

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 68, page 113)


where

K ii =

( 2n)

2
n

= 0.5744

K h = 1 + h h0 = 1.225

Corrective weighting factor that emphasizes the effects of grid


depth, simplified method

h0 = 1m

reference depth of grid

D = 20

Spacing between parallel conductors in m

n = n A n B = 9 14

Number of parallel conductors in one direction

= 11.22
d = 0.0142

Diameter of grid conductors in m

Thus, we get

(20 + 2 0.5)2 0.5 + 0.5744 ln


1
20 2
8
+
ln

2 16 0.5 0.0142 8 20 0.0142 4 0.0142 1.225 ( 2 11.22 1)


= 1.1488
Km =

b) Ki, Corrected factor for grid geometry, simplified method


Ki = 0.656 + 0.172n =0.656 + 0.172 11.22 = 2.5867 (from IEEE 80, Eq. 69, page 114)
c) Mesh Voltage, Em
Em = KmKiIG/L = 23.911.1488 2.5867 20000 / 4050 = 350.9 < 365.7[V] (Etouch50)
3.8.2

Step Voltage (Es)


Es = KsKiIG/L

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 67, page 113)

a) Ks, Spacing factor for step voltage, simplified method

Ks =

11
1
1

1 0.5n 2
+
+

2h D + h D

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 74, page 115)

Calculation sheet

Station Grounding Grid

where

D = 20

Spacing between parallel conductors in m

n = max(n A , n B ) = max(9,14) = 14 Number of parallel conductors in one direction


h=0.5

Depth of ground grid conductors in m

Thus, we get

Ks =

+
+ (1 0.5
2 0.5 20 + 0.5 20
1

14 2

) = 0.3498

b) Ki, Corrected factor for grid geometry, simplified method


Ki = 0.656 + 0.172n =0.656 + 0.17214 =3.064

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 69, page 114)

c) Step Voltage, Es
Es = KsKiIG/L=23.91 0.3498 3.064 20000 / 4050 = 126.5 < 1114.7[V] (Estep50)
3.9

Verification on suitability of conductor length (L)


The suitability of conductor length buried can be verified with the following equation.

L>

K m K i I G t s

(116 + 0.174C (h, K ) s )

1.1488 2.5867 23.91 20000 1


= 3,886[m]
(116 + 0.174 0.685 2094.8)

(from IEEE 80, Eq. 77, page 115)


Since the design length (4,050 [m]) exceeds the minimum required length (3,886[m]), the
proposed grounding design is acceptable.

4.0

CONCLUSION

Area
Chile
TPP

Grid
Area
35000
[m2]

Conductor
Size
120
mm2

Spacing
2020
[mm]

Note :
1. *Etouch50 : Tolerable Touch potential Voltage
2. *Estep50 : Tolerable Step potential Voltage
3. *Em
: Actual Touch potential Voltage
4. *Es
: Actual Step potential Voltage
TPP: Thermal power plant

Total
Length
4050
[m]

Grid
resistance
0.063
[]

*Etouch50
*Em
365.7[V]
350.9[V]

*Estep50
*Es
1114.7[V]
126.5[V]