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1. Study of OP AMPs - IC 741, IC 555, IC 565, IC 566, IC 1496-functioning, parameters and specifications

IC 741 General Description:


The IC 741 is a high performance monolithic operational amplifier constructed using the planer epitaxial process. High common mode voltage range and absence of latch-up tendencies make the IC 741 ideal for use as voltage follower. The high gain and wide range of operating voltage provide superior performance in integrator, summing amplifier and general feed back applications.

Block Diagram of Op-Amp:

Pin Configuration:

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Features:
1. No frequency compensation required. 2. Short circuit protection 3. Offset voltage null capability 4. Large common mode and differential voltage ranges 5. Low power consumption 6. No latch-up

Specifications:
1. Voltage gain A = typically 2,00,000

2. I/P resistance RL = , practically 2M


3. O/P resistance R =0, practically 75 4. Bandwidth = Hz. It can be operated at any frequency 5. Common mode rejection ratio = (Ability of op amp to reject noise voltage) 6. Slew rate + V/sec (Rate of change of O/P voltage)

7. When V1 = V2, VD=0


8. Input offset voltage (Rs 10K) max 6 mv 9. Input offset current = max 200nA 10. Input bias current : 500nA

11. Input capacitance : typical value 1.4pF


12. Offset voltage adjustment range : 15mV

13. Input voltage range : 13V 14. Supply voltage rejection ratio : 150 V/V 15. Output voltage swing: + 13V and 13V for RL > 2K
16. Output short-circuit current: 25mA 17. supply current: 28mA

18. Power consumption: 85mW


19. Transient response: rise time= 0.3 s Overshoot= 5%

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Applications:
1. AC and DC amplifiers
2. Active filters 3. Oscillators 4. Comparators 5. Regulators

IC 555: Description:
The operation of SE/NE 555 timer directly depends on its internal function. The three equal resistors R1, R2, R3 serve as internal voltage divider for the source voltage. Thus one-third of the source voltage VCC appears across each resistor. Comparator is basically an Op amp which changes state when one of its inputs exceeds the reference voltage. comparator is +1/3 VCC. The reference voltage for the lower If a trigger pulse applied at the negative input of this

comparator drops below +1/3 VCC, it causes a change in state. The upper comparator is referenced at voltage +2/3 VCC. The output of each comparator is fed to the input terminals of a flip flop. The flip-flop used in the SE/NE 555 timer IC is a bistable multivibrator. This flip flop changes states according to the voltage value of its input. Thus if the voltage at the threshold terminal rises above +2/3 VCC, it causes upper comparator to cause flip-flop to change its states. On the other hand, if the trigger voltage falls below +1/3 VCC, it causes lower comparator to change its states. Thus the output of the flip flop is controlled by the voltages of the two comparators. A change in state occurs when the threshold voltage rises above +2/3 VCC or when the trigger voltage drops below +1/3 Vcc. The output of the flip-flop is used to drive the discharge transistor and the output stage. A high or positive flip-flop output turns on both the discharge transistor and the output stage. The discharge transistor becomes conductive and behaves as a low resistance short circuit to ground. The output stage behaves similarly. When the flip-flop output assumes the low or zero states reverse action takes place i.e., the discharge transistor behaves as an open circuit or positive VCC state. voltage applied to the threshold and the trigger input terminals. Thus the operational state of the discharge transistor and the output stage depends on the

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Block Diagram of IC 555:

Pin Configuration:

Function of Various Pins of 555 IC:


Pin (1) of 555 is the ground terminal; all the voltages are measured with respect to this pin. Pin (2) of 555 is the trigger terminal, If the voltage at this terminal is held greater than one-third of VCC, the output remains low. A negative going pulse from Vcc to less than Vec/3 triggers the output to go High. The amplitude of the pulse should be able to make the comparator (inside the IC) change its state. However the width of the negative going pulse must not be greater than the width of the expected output pulse.
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Pin (3) is the output terminal of IC 555. There are 2 possible output states. In the low output state, the output resistance appearing at pin (3) is very low (approximately 10 ). As a result the output current will goes to zero , if the load is connected from Pin (3) to ground , sink a current I Sink (depending upon load) if the load is connected from Pin (3) to ground, and sinks zero current if the load is connected between +V CC and Pin (3). Pin (4) is the Reset terminal. When unused it is connected to +V cc. Whenever the potential of Pin (4) is drives below 0.4V, the output is immediately forced to low state. The reset terminal enables the timer over-ride command signals at Pin (2) of the IC. Pin (5) is the Control Voltage terminal.This can be used to alter the reference levels at which the time comparators change state. A resistor connected from Pin (5) to ground can do the job. ground. threshold voltages. Pin (6) is the threshold terminal. In both astable as well as monostable modes, a capacitor is connected from Pin (6) to ground. Pin (6) monitors the voltage across the capacitor when it charges from the supply and forces the already high O/p to Low when the capacitor reaches +2/3 VCC. Pin (7) is the discharge terminal. It presents an almost open circuit when the output is high and allows the capacitor charge from the supply through an external resistor and presents an almost short circuit when the output is low. Pin (8) is the +Vcc terminal. 555 can operate at any supply voltage from +18V. +3 to Normally 0.01F capacitor is connected from Pin (5) to supply noise and does not allow it affect the This capacitor bypasses

Features of 555 IC
1. The load can be connected to o/p in two ways i.e. between pin 3 & ground 1 or
between pin 3 & VCC (supply)

2. 555 can be reset by applying negative pulse, otherwise reset can be connected
to +Vcc to avoid false triggering.

3. An external voltage effects threshold and trigger voltages.


4. Timing from micro seconds through hours. 5. Monostable and bistable operation 6. Adjustable duty cycle 7. Output compatible with CMOS, DTL, TTL 8. High current output sink or source 200mA
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9. High temperature stability 10. Trigger and reset inputs are logic compatible.

Specifications:
1. Operating temperature
2. Supply voltage : : : : : SE 555-NE 555-+5V to +18V Sec to Hours 200mA 50 PPM/oC change in temp or 0-005% /oC. -55oC to 125oC 0o to 70oC

3. Timing
4. Sink current

5. Temperature stability

Applications:
1. Monostable and Astable Multivibrators 2. dc-ac converters 3. Digital logic probes 4. Waveform generators 5. Analog frequency meters

6. Tachometers
7. Temperature measurement and control 8. Infrared transmitters

9. Regulator & Taxi gas alarms etc.

IC 565: Description:
The Signetics SE/NE 560 series is monolithic phase locked loops. The SE/NE 560, 561, 562, 564, 565, & 567 differ mainly in operating frequency range, power supply requirements and frequency and bandwidth adjustment ranges. The device is Phase available as 14 Pin DIP package and as 10-pin metal can package.

comparator or phase detector compare the frequency of input signal fs with frequency of VCO output fo and it generates a signal which is function of difference between the phase of input signal and phase of feedback signal which is basically a d.c voltage mixed with high frequency noise. LPF remove high frequency noise voltage. Output is error voltage. If control voltage of VCO is 0, then frequency is center frequency (fo) and mode is free running mode. Application of control voltage shifts the output frequency of VCO from fo to f. On application of error voltage, difference between fs
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& f tends to decrease and VCO is said to be locked. While in locked condition, the PLL tracks the changes of frequency of input signal.

Block Diagram of IC 565

Pin Configuration:

Specifications:
1. Operating frequency range 2. Operating voltage range 3. Inputs level required for tracking max. : : : 0.001 Hz to 500 KHz 6 to 12V 10mV rms minimum to 3v (p-p)

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4. Input impedance 5. Output sink current

: : : : : : : :

10 K typically 1mA typically 300 PPM/oC typically 1.5%/V maximum typically 2.4 VPP at 6V typically 5.4 VPP at 6V 10mA typically <1 to > 60%

6. Drift in VCO center frequency


(fout) with temperature 7. Drif in VCO centre frequency with supply voltage

8. Triangle wave amplitude 9. Square wave amplitude


10. Output source current 11. Bandwidth adjustment range Center frequency fout = 1.2/4R1C1 Hz

= free running frequency FL = 8 fout/V Hz V = (+V) (-V) fc =

fL 3 2 (3.6) x10 xC 2

]1 / 2

Applications:
1. Frequency multiplier

2. Frequency shift keying (FSK) demodulator 3. FM detector

IC 566: Description:
The NE/SE 566 Function Generator is a voltage controlled oscillator of exceptional linearity with buffered square wave and triangle wave outputs. The frequency of oscillation is determined by an external resistor and capacitor and the voltage applied to the control terminal. The oscillator can be programmed over a ten to one frequency range by proper selection of an external resistance and modulated over a ten to one range by the control voltage with exceptional linearity.

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Block Diagram of IC566

Pin diagram:

Specifications:
Maximum operating Voltage --Input voltage Storage Temperature Operating temperature Power dissipation --------26V 3V (P-P) -65oC to + 150oC 0oC to +70oC for NE 566 -55oC to +125oC for SE 566 300mv

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Applications:
1. Tone generators. 2. Frequency shift keying 3. FM Modulators 4. clock generators 5. signal generators 6. Function generator

IC 1496 Description:
IC balanced mixers are widely used in receiver ICs. The IC versions are usually described as balanced modulators. Typical example of balanced IC modulator is MC1496. The circuit consists of a standard differential amplifier (formed by Q5 _ Q6 combination) driving a quad differential amplifier composed of transistor Q1 Q4. The modulating signal is applied to the standard differential amplifier (between terminals 1 and 4). The standard differential amplifier acts as a voltage to current converter. It produces a current proportional to the modulating signal. Q7 and Q8 are constant current sources for the differential amplifier Q5 Q6. The lower differential amplifier has its emitters connected to the package pins ( 2 & 3) so that an external emitter resistance may be used. Also external load resistors are employed at the device output (6 and 12 pins).The output collectors are cross-coupled so that full wave balanced multiplication takes place. As a result, the output voltage is a constant times the product of the two input signals.

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Schematic of IC1496:

Pin Configuration:

Applications of MC 1496:
a) Balanced modulator b) AM Modulator c) Product Modulator

d) AM Detector
e) Mixer

f) Frequency Doublers.

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2. OP AMP Applications Adder, Subtractor, Comparator Circuits


Aim:
To design adder, subtractor and comparator for the given signals by using

operational amplifier.

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Equipment/Component name IC 741 Resistor Diode Regulated Power supply Function Generator Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Multimeter Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 1k 0A79 (0 30V),1A (.1 1MHz), 20V p-p (0 20MHz) 3 digit display Quantity 1 4 2 2 1 1 1

Theory: Adder:
amplifier. A two input summing amplifier may be constructed using the inverting Here the inverting mode is used. So the inputs are applied through The gain of this mode. The adder can be obtained by using either non-inverting mode or differential resistors to the inverting terminal and non-inverting terminal is grounded. This is called virtual ground, i.e. the voltage at that terminal is zero. proper external resistors. summing amplifier is 1, any scale factor can be used for the inputs by selecting

Subtractor: A basic differential amplifier can be used as a subtractor as shown in


the circuit diagram. In this circuit, input signals can be scaled to the desired values by selecting appropriate values for the resistors. When this is done, the circuit is referred to as scaling amplifier. However in this circuit all external resistors are equal in value. So the gain of amplifier is equal to one. The output voltage V o is equal to the voltage applied to the non-inverting terminal minus the voltage applied to the inverting terminal; hence the circuit is called a subtractor.

Comparator:

The circuit diagram shows an op-amp used as a comparator. A

fixed reference voltage Vref is applied to the (-) input, and the other time varying

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signal voltage Vin is applied to the (+) input; Because of this arrangement, the circuit is called the non-inverting comparator. Depending upon the levels of Vin and Vref, the circuit produces output. In short, the comparator is a type of analog-to-digital converter. At any given time the output waveform shows whether Vin is greater or less than Vref. The comparator is sometimes also called a voltage-level detector because, for a desired value of Vref, the voltage level of the input Vin can be detected

Circuit Diagrams:

Fig 1: Adder

Fig 2: Subtractor

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Fig 3: Comparator .

Procedures: A) Adder:
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 1. 2. Apply the supply voltages of +15V to pin7 and pin4 of IC741 respectively. 3. Apply the inputs V1 and V2 as shown in Fig 1.
4. Apply two different signals (DC/AC ) to the inputs

5. Vary the input voltages and note down the corresponding output at pin 6 of the IC
741 adder circuit.

6. Notice that the output is equal to the sum of the two inputs.

B) Subtractor:
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 2. 2. Apply the supply voltages of +15V to pin7 and pin4 of IC741 respectively. 3 Apply the inputs V1 and V2 as shown in Fig 2. 4. Apply two different signals (DC/AC ) to the inputs 5. Vary the input voltages and note down the corresponding output at pin 6 of the IC 741 subtractor circuit. 6. Notice that the output is equal to the difference of the two inputs.

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C) Comparator:
1. A fixed reference voltage Vref is applied to the (-) input, and to the other input a
varying voltage Vin is applied as shown in Fig 3.

2. Vary the input voltage above and below the Vref and note down the output at pin 6
of 741 IC.

3. Observe that,
when Vin is less than Vref, the output voltage is -Vsat ( - VEE) when Vin is greater than Vref, the output voltage is +Vsat ( +VCC)

Observations: Adder:
V1(V) 2.5 3.8 V2(V) 2.5 4.0 Vo(V) -5.06 -8.04

Subtractor:
V1(V) 2.5 4.1 V2(V) 3.3 5.7 Vo(V) 0.8 1.67

Comparator:
Vin(V) 2 5 Vref(V) 0.5 7.2 Vo(V) +14 -14

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Model Calculations: a) Adder


Vo = - (V1 + V2) If V1 = 2.5V and V2 = 2.5V, then Vo = - (2.5+2.5) = -5V.

b) Subtractor
Vo = V2 V1 If V1=2.5 and V2 = 3.3, then Vo = 3.3 2.5 = 0.8V

c) Comparator
If Vin < Vref, Vo = -Vsat - VEE Vin > Vref, Vo = +Vsat = +VCC

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result:
For adder, subtractor and comparator circuits, the practical values are compared with the theoretical values and they are nearly equal.

Inference:
Different applications of opamp are observed.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the saturation voltage of 741 in terms of VCC?
Ans: 90% of VCC

2. What is the maximum voltage that can be given at the inputs?


Ans: The inputs must be given in such a way that the output should be less than Vsat.

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3. Integrator and Differentiator Circuits using IC 741


Aim:
To design and verify the operation of an integrator and differentiator for a

given input.

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name 741 IC Capacitors Resistors Regulated Power supply Function generator Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 0.1f, 0.01f 159, 1.5k (0 30)V,1A (1Hz 1MHz) (0 20MHz) Quantity 1 Each one Each one 1 1 1

Theory Integrator : In an integrator circuit, the output voltage is integral of the input signal.
The output voltage of an integrator is given by Vo = -1/R1Cf

Vidt
o

At low frequencies the gain becomes infinite, so the capacitor is fully charged and behaves like an open circuit. The gain of an integrator at low frequency can be limited by connecting a resistor in shunt with capacitor.

Differentiator: In the differentiator circuit the output voltage is the differentiation


of the input voltage. Vo = -RfC1 The output voltage of a differentiator is given by

dVi .The input impedance of this circuit decreases with increase in dt


At high

frequency, thereby making the circuit sensitive to high frequency noise. frequencies circuit may become unstable.

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Circuit Diagrams:

Fig 1: Integrator

Fig 2: Differentiator

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Design equations: Integrator:


Choose T = 2RfCf Where T= Time period of the input signal Assume Cf and find Rf Select Rf = 10R1 Vo (p-p) =
T /2

1 R1C f

V
o

i ( p p)

dt

Differentiator
Select given frequency fa = 1/(2RfC1), Assume C1 and find Rf Select fb = 10 fa = 1/2R1C1 and From R1C1 = RfCf, find Cf find R1

Procedures: Integrator
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 1 2. Apply a square wave/sine input of 4V(p-p) at 1KHz 3. Observe the output at pin 6. 4. Draw input and output waveforms as shown in Fig 3.

Differentiator
1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram shown in Fig 2 2. Apply a square wave/sine input of 4V(p-p) at 1KHz
3. Observe the output at pin 6 4. Draw the input and output waveforms as shown in Fig 4

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Wave Forms:
Integrator

Fig 3: Input and output waves forms of integrator

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Differentiator

Fig 4 :Input and output waveforms of Differentiator

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Sample readings: Integrator


Input Square wave Amplitude(VP-P) (V) 8 Time period (ms) 1 Output - Triangular Amplitude (VP-P) (V) 10 Output - cosine Amplitude (VP-P) (V) 6 Time period (ms) 1 Time period (ms) 1

Input sine wave Amplitude(VP-P) (V) 8 Time period (ms) 1

Differentiator
Input square wave Amplitude (VP-P) (V) 8 Time period (ms) 1 Output - Spikes Amplitude (VP-P) (V) 28 Time period (ms) 1

Input sine wave Amplitude (VP-P) (V) 8 Time period (ms) 1

Output - cosine Amplitude (VP-P) (V) 1.8 Time period (ms) 1

Model Calculations: Integrator:


For T= 1 msec fa= 1/T = 1 KHz fa = 1 KHz = 1/(2RfCf) Assuming Cf= 0.1f, Rf is found from Rf=1/(2faCf) Rf=1.59 K Rf = 10 R1 R1= 159

Differentiator
For T = 1 msec f= 1/T = 1 KHz
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fa = 1 KHz = 1/(2RfC1) Assuming C1= 0.1f, Rf is found from Rf=1/(2faC1) Rf=1.59 K fb = 10 fa = 1/2R1C1 for C1= 0.1f; R1 =159

Precautions:

Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result: For a given square wave and sine wave, output waveforms for integrator
and differentiator are observed.

Inferences:

Spikes and triangular waveforms can be obtained from a given

square waveform by using differentiator and integrator respectively.

Questions & Answers:


1. What are the problems of ideal differentiator?
Ans: At high frequencies the differentiator becomes unstable and breaks into oscillation. The differentiator is sensitive to high frequency noise.

2. What are the problems of ideal integrator?


Ans: The gain of the integrator is infinite at low frequencies.

3. What are the applications of differentiator and integrator?


Ans: The differentiator used in waveshaping circuits to detect high frequency components in an input signal and also as a rate-of change detector in FM demodulators. The integrator is used in analog computers and analog to digital converters and signal-wave shaping circuits.

4. What is the need for Rf in the circuit of integrator?


Ans: The gain of an integrator at low frequencies can be limited to avoid the saturation problem if the feedback capacitor is shunted by a resistance Rf

5. What is the effect of C1 on the output of a differentiator?


Ans: It is used to eliminate the high frequency noise problem.

4. Active Filter Applications LPF, HPF (first order)


Aim:
To design and obtain the frequency response of

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i) ii)

First order Low Pass Filter (LPF) First order High Pass Filter (HPF)

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name IC 741 Resistors Variable Resistor capacitors Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Regulated Power supply Function Generator Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 10k ohm 20k pot 0.01f (0 20MHz) (0 30V),1A (1Hz 1MHz) Quantity 1 3 1 1 1 1 1

Theory: a) LPF:
A LPF allows frequencies from 0 to higher cut of frequency, fH. At fH the gain is 0.707 Amax, and after fH gain decreases at a constant rate with an increase in frequency. The gain decreases 20dB each time the frequency is increased by 10. Hence the rate at which the gain rolls off after fH is 20dB/decade or 6 dB/ octave, where octave signifies a two fold increase in frequency. The frequency f=fH is called the cut off frequency because the gain of the filter at this frequency is down by 3 dB from 0 Hz. Other equivalent terms for cut-off frequency are -3dB frequency, break frequency, or corner frequency.

b) HPF:
The frequency at which the magnitude of the gain is 0.707 times the maximum value of gain is called low cut off frequency. Obviously, all frequencies higher than fL are pass band frequencies with the highest frequency determined by the closed loop band width all of the op-amp.

Circuit diagrams:

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Fig 1: Low pass filter

Fig 2: High pass filter

Design:
First Order LPF: To design a Low Pass Filter for higher cut off frequency fH = 4 KHz and pass band gain of 2 fH = 1/( 2RC ) Assuming C=0.01 F, the value of R is found from R= 1/(2fHC) =3.97K The pass band gain of LPF is given by RF=( AF-1) R1=10K AF = 1+ (RF/R1)= 2 Assuming R1=10 K, the value of RF is found from

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First Order HPF: To design a High Pass Filter for lower cut off frequency fL = 4 KHz and pass band gain of 2 fL = 1/( 2RC ) Assuming C=0.01 F,the value of R is found from R= 1/(2fLC) =3.97K The pass band gain of HPF is given by RF=( AF-1) R1=10K AF = 1+ (RF/R1)= 2 Assuming R1=10 K, the value of RF is found from

Procedure:
First Order LPF

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 1. 2. Apply sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude as the input such that op-amp does
not go into saturation.

3. Vary the input frequency and note down the output amplitude at each step as
shown in Table (a).

4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 3 .


First Order HPF 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagrams shown in Fig 2. Apply sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude as the input such that op-amp does not go into saturation. Vary the input frequency and note down the output amplitude at each step as shown in Table (b). 4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 4.

2. 3.

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Tabular Form and Sampled Values: a)LPF Input voltage Vin = 0.5V
Frequenc O/P y 100Hz 200Hz 300Hz 500Hz 750Hz 900Hz 1KHz 2KHz 3KHz 4KHz 5KHz 6KHz 7KHz 8KHz 9KHz 10KHz Voltage(V) 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 Voltage Gain Gain Vo/Vi 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 indB 5.105 5.105 5.105 5.105 5.105 5.105 5.105 4.08 3.52 2.92 2.27 0.82 0 -0.91 -1.94 -3.09 500Hz 700Hz 800Hz 1KHz 2KHz 3KHz 4KHz 5KHz 6KHz 7KHz 8KHz 9KHz 10KHz Frequency O/P Voltage(V) 0.12 0.16 0.2 0.24 0.4 0.55 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 Voltage Gain Gain Vo/Vi 0.24 0.32 0.4 0.48 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 indB -12.39 -9.89 -7.95 -6.38 -1.938 0.83 2.92 3.52 4.08 4.60 4.60 4.60 4.60

b) HPF

Model graphs :
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Fig (3) Fig(4) Frequency response characteristics Frequency response characteristics of LPF of HPF

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result:

First order low-pass filter and high-pass filter are designed and frequency

response characteristics are obtained.

Inferences : By interchanging R and C in a low-pass filter, a high-pass filter can


be obtained.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is meant by frequency scaling?
Ans: Change of cut off frequency from one value to the other.

2. How do you convert an original frequency (cut off) fH to a new cut off frequency
fH? Ans: By varying either resistor R or capacitor C values

3. What is the effect of order of the filter on frequency response characteristics?


Ans: Each increase in order will produce -20 dB/decade additional increases in roll off rate.

4. What modifications in circuit diagrams require to change the order of the filter?
Ans: Order of the filter is changed by RC network.

5. Active Filter Applications BPF & Band Reject (Wideband ) and Notch Filters
Aim: To design and obtain the frequency response of
i) Wide Band pass filter
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ii) iii)

Wide Band reject filter Notch filter

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 Equipment/Component name 741 IC Resistors Resistors 3 4 Resistors Capacitors Capacitors Capacitors 5 6 7 Regulated Power supply Function Generator Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 5.6k 39k (20k pot) 0.01f 0.1f 0.2f (0 30)V,1A (1Hz 1MHZ) (0 20MHz) Quantity 3 9 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

Theory: Band pass filter:


A band pass filter has a pass band between two cutoff frequencies fH and fL such that fH > fL. Any input frequency outside this pass band is attenuated. There are two types of band-pass filters. Wide band pass and Narrow band pass filters. We can define a filter as wide band pass if its quality factor Q <10. If Q>10, then we call the filter a narrow band pass filter. A wide band pass filter can be formed by simply cascading high-pass and low-pass sections. The order of band pass filter depends on the order of high pass and low pass sections.

Band Rejection Filter: The band-reject filter is also called a band-stop or


band-elimination filter. In this filter, frequencies are attenuated in the stop band while they are passed outside this band. Band reject filters are classified as wide bandreject narrow band-reject. Wide band-reject filter is formed using a low pass filter, a high-pass filter and summing amplifier. To realize a band-reject response, the low cut off frequency fL of high pass filter must be larger than high cut off frequency fH of low pass filter. The pass band gain of both the high pass and low pass sections must be equal.

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Notch Filter:
The narrow band reject filter, often called the notch fitter is commonly used for the rejection of a single frequency. The most commonly used notch filter is the twin-T network .This is a passive filter composed of two T-shaped networks. One T network is made up of two resistors and a capacitor, while the other uses two capacitors and a resistor. There are several ways to make the notch filter. One way is to subtract the band pass filter output from its input .The notch-out frequency is the frequency at which maximum attenuation occurs and is given by

fN = 1/( 2RC )

Circuit diagrams:

Fig 1: Wideband pass filter

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Fig 2: Wideband reject filter

Fig 3: Notch filter

Design: Band pass filter: To design a band pass filter having


= 400Hz and pass band gain of 2. As shown in Fig 1,the first section consisting of Op Amp,RF,R1,R and C is the high pass filter and second consisting of low pass filter. The design of low pass and high pass filters. fH = 4KHz and fL

Low Pass Filter Design:


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Assuming C=0.01f, the value of R is found from R = 1/(2fH C) =3.97K The pass band gain of LPF is given by ALPF = 1+ (R F / R1 )=2 Assuming R1=5.6 K, the value of RF is found from RF =( AF-1) R1=5.6K

High Pass Filter Design:


Assuming C=0.01f, the value of R is found from R = 1/(2fLC) =39.7K The pass band gain of HPF is given by AHPF = 1+ (RF / R1 )=2 Assuming R1=5.6 K, the value of RF is found from RF = ( AF-1) R1=5.6K

Band reject filter:

To design a band reject filter with fH = 4 KHz, fL = 400Hz

and pass band gain of 2

Low Pass Filter Design:


Assuming C=0.01f, the value of R is found from R = 1/(2fH C) =3.97K The pass band gain of LPF is given by ALPF = 1+ (R F / R1 )=2 Assuming R1=5.6 K, the value of RF is found from RF =( AF-1) R1=5.6K

High Pass Filter Design:


Assuming C=0.01f, the value of R is found from R = 1/ (2fLC) =39.7K The pass band gain of HPF is given by AHPF = 1+ (RF / R1) =2 Assuming R1=5.6 K, the value of RF is found from RF = (AF-1) R1=5.6K

Adder circuit design: Select all resistors equal value such that gain is unity.
Assume R2=R3=R4=5.6 K

Notch Filter Design:


R = 1/ (2fNC)=39 K

fN = 400Hz

Assuming C=0.1f,the value of R is found from

Procedure:
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Wide Band Pass Filter:


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig1 2. Apply sinusoidal wave of 0.5V amplitude as input such that opamp does not go
into saturation (depending on gain).

3. Vary the input frequency from 100 Hz to 100 KHz and note down the output
amplitude at each step as shown in Table (a).

4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 4.

Wide Band Reject Filter:


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2 2. Apply sinusoidal wave of 0.5V amplitude as input such that opamp does not go into saturation (depending on gain). 3. Vary the input frequency from 100 Hz to 100 KHz and note down the output amplitude at each step as shown in Table( b). 4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 5.

Notch Filter:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 3 2. Apply sinusoidal wave of 2Vp-p amplitude as input such that opamp
does not go into saturation (depending on gain).

3. Vary the input frequency from 100 Hz to 4 KHz and note down the output
amplitude at each step as shown in Table( c).

4. Plot the frequency response as shown in Fig 6.

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Observations:
a) Band pass filter: b) Input voltage (Vi) = 0.5V Band Reject Filter

Frequeny

O/P Voltage Vo(V) 0.5 0.9 1.15 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.55 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.34 0.28

Gain Vo/Vi 1 1.8 2.3 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.4

Gain indB 0 5.105 7.23 8.94 9.54 10.10 10.63 10.63 10.63 10.10 9.83 9.54 8.94 7.6 6.84 6.02 5.11 4.60 2.92

Frequency O/P Voltage(V) 50Hz 70Hz 100Hz 200Hz 300Hz 400Hz 500Hz 700Hz 900Hz 1KHz 2KHz 3KHz 4KHz 5KHz 6KHz 7KHz 8KHz 9KHz 10KHz 1 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.28 0.22 0.28 0.44 0.56 0.70 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.90 0.90

Gain Vo/Vi 2 2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.56 0.44 0.56 0.88 1.12 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8

Gain indB 6.02 6.02 6.02 5.10 4.08 2.92 1.58 0 -5.03 -7.13 -5.056 -1.11 0.98 2.92 4.08 4.61 5.10 5.10 5.10

100Hz 200Hz 300Hz 400Hz 500Hz 750Hz 900Hz 1KHz 1.5KHz 2KHz 2.5KHz 3KHz 4KHz 5KHz 6KHz 7KHz 8KHz 9KHz 10KHz

c) Notch filter
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Input voltage=2Vp-p Frequency 100Hz 200Hz 300Hz 400Hz 500Hz 600Hz 700Hz 800Hz 900Hz 1 KHz 2 KHz 3 KHz 4 KHz O/P Voltage(V) 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.08 0.28 0.48 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.35 0.15 0.04 0.014 0.024 0.35 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Vo/Vi Gain in dB -7.95 -9.11 -16.47 -27.95 -17.05 -12.39 -9.11 -7.95 -7.95 -7.95 -7.95 -7.95 -7.95

Model graphs:

Fig 4 : Frequency response of wide bandpass filter

Fig 5 : Frequency response of wide band reject filter

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Fig 6: Frequency response of notch filter

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result:
i) The frequency response of wide band pass filter is plotted as shown in Fig 4. ii) The frequency response of wide band reject filter is plotted as shown in Fig 5. iii) The frequency response of notch filter is plotted as shown in Fig 6

Inferences:

Cascade connection of HPF and LPF produces wideband pass filter

and parallel connection of the above filters gives wideband reject filter. The notch filter is used to reject the single frequency.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the relation between fC & fH, fL?
Ans:

fC =

fH fL

2. How do you increase the gain of the wideband pass filter? Ans: By increasing the gain of either LPF or HPF

3. What is the application of Notch filter?


Ans: The rejection of single frequency such as the 50-Hz power line frequency hum
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4. What is the order of the filter (each type) ?.What modifications you suggest for the Ans: circuit diagram to increase the order of the filter? Order of the BPF & BRFS are the order of the HPF & LPF..Order of the BPF& BRFs are increased by increasing order of HPF&LPF. 5. What is the gain roll off outside the pass band? Ans: Gain roll off outside the pass band is (20n) db/dec where n indicates the order of the filter. 6. What is the difference between active and passive filters? Ans: Active filters use Op Amp as active element, and resistors and capacitors as the passive elements. 7. What are the advantages of active filters over passive filters? Ans: Gain and frequency adjustment. No loading problem.

Low cost

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6. IC 741 Oscillator Circuits Phase Shift and Wien Bridge Oscillators


Aim:
To design (i) phase shift and (ii) Wien Bridge oscillators for the given frequency of oscillation and verify it practically.

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 Equipment/Component name IC 741 Resistors Variable Resistor 3 4 5 Capacitors Regulated Power supply Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Specifications/Value Quantity Refer page no 2 1.3 K,3.18 K 13K, ,31.8 K 500 K pot 0.1 F 0.01 F (0 30V),1A (0 -20MHz) 1 Each Three Each one 1 3 2 1 1

Theory:
The A741 is a high performance monolithic operational amplifier constructed using the planar epitaxial process. High common mode voltage range and absence of latch-up tendencies make the A741 ideal for use as voltage follower. The high gain and wide range of operating voltage provides superior performance in integrator, summing amplifier and general feedback applications. In the phase shift oscillator, out of 360o phase shift, 180o phase shift is provided by the op-amp and another 180o is by 3 RC networks. In the Weinbridge oscillator, the balancing condition of the bridge provides the total 360o phase shift.

Circuit Diagrams:

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Fig 1 : RC Phase shift oscillator

Fig 2: Wien Bridge oscillator

Design:
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1. Phase shift oscillator


To design a phase shift oscillator with fo =500 Hz fo = 1/(2RC 6 ) and gain= RF/R1= 29 Assuming C = 0.1 F,the value of R is found from R = 1/ (2 foC 6 ) = 1.3 K Take R1 = 10R =13 K RF = 29R1 (use 500K pot)

2. Wien bridge Oscillator


To design a Wien bridge oscillator with fo =5 KHz fo = 1/2RC and RF = 2R1 Assuming C = 0.01 F,the value of R is found from R= 1/2fc= 3.18 K Take R1 = 10 R=31.8 K RF = 2R1 (use 100K pot)

Procedure: 1. Phase shift oscillator


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 1
2. Observe the output waveform on the CRO.

3. Vary the potentiometer to get the undistorted waveform as shown Fig a.


4. Measure the time period and amplitude of the output waveform. 5. Plot the waveforms on a graph sheet.

2. Wien bridge Oscillator


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2 2. Observe the output waveform on the CRO. 3. Vary the potentiometer to get the undistorted waveform as shown in Fig b 4. Measure the time period and amplitude of the output waveform. 5. Plot the waveforms on a graph sheet

Waveforms:
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Fig (a): RC Phase Shift Oscillator Fig (b): Wien Bridge Oscillator

Tabular form: 1. Phase shift oscillator:


S.No 1 Amplitude(VP-P) 20V Time period (ms) 2.2 Practical frequency (Hz) 454 Theoretical frequency (Hz) 500

2. Wien bridge Oscillator:


S.No 1 Amplitude(VP-P) 20V Time period (ms) 0.22ms Practical frequency (Hz) 4.545KHz Theoretical frequency (Hz) 5KHz

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.
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Result:
RC phase shift and Wien bridge oscillators are designed and output waveforms are observed as shown in Fig (a) and (b).

Inferences:
Sinusoidal waveforms can be deigned by using RC phase shift and WienBridge oscillators.

Questions & Answers:


1 What is an oscillator? Ans: Oscillator is a circuit that generates a repetitive waveform of fixed amplitude and frequency without any external input signal. 2 How do you change the frequency of oscillation in RC phase shift and Ans: Wien bridge oscillators? By varying either resistor R or capacitor C values 3 What are the applications of oscillators? Ans: Oscillators are used in radio, television, computers, and communications What is the advantage of using opamp in the oscillator circuit? Ans: Opamp is used to generate a variety of output wave forms. How do you achieve fine variations in fo ? Ans: Fine variations in fo can be achieved by changing C value. How do you achieve coarse variations in fo ? Ans: Coarse variations in fo can be achieved by changing R value

4 5 6

7. Function Generator using OPAMPs


Aim: To generate square wave and triangular wave form by using OPAMPs.
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Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Equipment/Component name 741 IC Capacitors Resistors Resistors Regulated Power supply Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 0.01f,0.001f 86k ,68k ,680k 100k (0 30V),1A (0 -20MHz) Quantity 2 Each one Each one 2 1 1

Theory: Function generator generates waveforms such as sine, triangular, square


waves and so on of different frequencies and amplitudes. The circuit shown in Fig1 is a simple circuit which generates square waves and triangular waves simultaneously. triangular wave. Here the first section is a square wave generator and second section is an integrator. When square wave is given as input to integrator it produces

Circuit Diagram:

Fig1: Function generator

Design: Square wave Generator:


T= 2RfC ln (2R2 +R1/ R1) Assume R1 = 1.16 R2 Then T= 2RfC Assume C and find Rf
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Assume R1 and find R2

Integrator:
Take R3 Cf >> T R3 Cf = 10T Assume Cf find R3 Take R3Cf = 10T Assume Cf = 0.01f R3 = 10T/C = 20K

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown above. 2. Obtain square wave at A and Triangular wave at Vo2 as shown in Fig 1. 3. Draw the output waveforms as shown in Fig 2(a) and (b).

Model Calculations:
For T= 2 m sec T = 2 Rf C Assuming C= 0.1f Rf = 2.10-3/ 2.01.10-6 = 10 K Assuming R1 = 100 K R2 = 86 K

Sample readings:
Square Wave: Vp-p = 26 V(p-p) T = 1.8 msec Triangular Wave: Vp-p = 1.3 V T= 1.8 msec

Wave Forms:

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Fig 2 (a): Output at A (b): Output at V02

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully. .

Result:

Square wave and triangular wave are generated and the output

waveforms are observed.

Inferences:

Various waveforms can be generated.

Questions & Answers:


1. How do you change the frequency of square wave? Ans: By changing resistor and capacitor values

2.

What are the applications of function generator? Ans: Function generators are used for Transducer linearization and sine shaping.

8. IC 555 Timer-Monostable Operation Circuit


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Aim: To generate a pulse using Monostable Multivibrator by using IC555 Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name 555 IC Capacitors Resistor Regulated Power supply Function Generator Cathode ray oscilloscope Specifications/Value Refer page no 6 0.1f,0.01f 10k (0 30V),1A (1HZ 1MHz) (0 20MHz) Quantity 1 Each one 1 1 1 1

Theory: A Monostable Multivibrator, often called a one-shot Multivibrator, is a


pulse-generating circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC network connected externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or stand by mode the output of the circuit is approximately Zero or at logic-low level. When an external trigger pulse is obtained, the output is forced to go high ( VCC). The time for which the output remains high is determined by the external RC network connected to the timer. At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logic-low stable state. The output stays low until the trigger pulse is again applied. Then the cycle repeats. The Monostable circuit has only one stable state (output low), hence the name monostable. Normally the output of the Monostable Multivibrator is low.

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Circuit Diagram:

Fig1: Monostable Circuit using IC555

Design:
Consider VCC = 5V, for given tp Output pulse width tp = 1.1 RA C Assume C in the order of microfarads & Find RA

Typical values:
If C=0.1 F , RA = 10k then tp = 1.1 mSec Trigger Voltage =4 V
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Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Apply Negative triggering pulses at pin 2 of frequency 1 KHz.
3. Observe the output waveform and measure the pulse duration.

4. Theoretically calculate the pulse duration as Thigh=1.1. RAC


5. Compare it with experimental values.

Waveforms:

Fig 2 (a): Trigger signal (b): Output Voltage (c): Capacitor Voltage

Sample Readings:
Trigger 0 to 5V range 1)1V,0.09msec Output wave 0 to 5V range 4.6V, 0.5msec Capacitor output 0 to 3.33 V range 3V, 0.88 msec

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Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result: The input and output waveforms of 555 timer monostable Multivibrator are
observed as shown in Fig 2(a), (b), (c).

Inferences:

Output pulse width depends only on external components RA and C

connected to IC555.

Questions & Answers:


1. Is the triggering given is edge type or level type? If it is edge type, trailing or raising edge? Ans: Edge type and it is trailing edge 2. What is the effect of amplitude and frequency of trigger on the output? Ans: Output varies proportionally.

3. How to achieve variation of output pulse width over fine and course ranges?
Ans: One can achieve variation of output pulse width over fine and course ranges by varying capacitor and resistor values respectively 4. What is the effect of Vcc on output? Ans: The amplitude of the output signal is directly proportional to Vcc

5. What are the ideal charging and discharging time constants (in terms of R and C)
of capacitor voltage? Ans: Charging time constant T=1.1RC Sec Discharging time constant=0 Sec 6. What is the other name of monostable Multivibrator? Why? Ans: i) Gating circuit .It generates rectangular waveform at a definite time and thus could be used in gate parts of the system. ii) One shot circuit. The circuit will remain in the stable state until a trigger pulse is received. The circuit then changes states for a specified period, but then it returns to the original state.

7. What are the applications of monostable Multivibrator?


Ans: Missing Pulse Detector, Frequency Divider, PWM, Linear Ramp Generator

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9. IC 555 Timer - Astable Operation Circuit


Aim:
To generate unsymmetrical square and symmetrical square waveforms using IC555.

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name IC 555 Resistors Capacitors Diode Regulated Power supply Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Specifications/Value Refer page no 6 3.6k,7.2k 0.1f,0.01f OA79 (0 30V),1A (0 20MHz) Quantity 1 Each one Each one 1 1 1

Theory:
When the power supply VCC is connected, the external timing capacitor C charges towards VCC with a time constant (RA+RB) C. During this time, pin 3 is high (VCC) as Reset R=0, Set S=1 and this combination makes Q =0 which has unclamped the timing capacitor C. When the capacitor voltage equals 2/3 VCC, the upper comparator triggers the control flip flop on that Q =1. It makes Q1 ON and capacitor C starts discharging towards ground through RB and transistor Q1 with a time constant RBC. Current also flows into Q1 through RA. Resistors RA and RB must be large enough to limit this current and prevent damage to the discharge transistor Q1. The minimum value of RA is approximately equal to VCC/0.2 where 0.2A is the maximum current through the ON transistor Q1.

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During the discharge of the timing capacitor C, as it reaches V CC/3, the lower comparator is triggered and at this stage S=1, R=0 which turns Q =0. Now Q =0 unclamps the external timing capacitor C. The capacitor C is thus periodically

charged and discharged between 2/3 VCC and 1/3 VCC respectively. The length of time that the output remains HIGH is the time for the capacitor to charge from 1/3 VCC to 2/3 VCC. The capacitor voltage for a low pass RC circuit subjected to a step input of V CC volts is given by VC = VCC [1- exp (-t/RC)] Total time period T = 0.69 (RA + 2 RB) C f= 1/T = 1.44/ (RA + 2RB) C

Circuit Diagram:

Fig.1 555 Astable Circuit

Design:
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Formulae: f= 1/T = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) C Duty cycle (D) = tc/T = RA + RB/(RA+2RB)

Procedure: I) Unsymmetrical Square wave


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown without connecting the
diode OA 79. 2. Observe and note down the waveform at pin 6 and across timing capacitor. 3. Measure the frequency of oscillations and duty cycle and then compare with the given values. 4. Sketch both the waveforms to the same time scale.

II) Symmetrical square waveform generator:


1. Connect the diode OA79 as shown in Figure to get D=0.5 or 50%. 2. Choose Ra=Rb = 10K and C=0.1F 3. Observe the output waveform, measure frequency of oscillations and the duty
cycle and then sketch the o/p waveform.

Model calculations:
Given f=1 KHz. Assuming c=0.1F and D=0.25 1 KHz = 1.44/ (RA+2RB) x 0.1x10-6 and 0.25 =( RA+RB)/ (RA+2RB) Solving both the above equations, we obtain RA & RB as RA = 7.2K RB = 3.6K
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Waveforms:

Fig 2(a): Unsymmetrical square wave output (b): Capacitor voltage of Unsymmetrical square wave output (c): Symmetrical square wave output

Sample Readings:
Parameter Voltage VPP Unsymmetrical 5V Symmetrical 5V

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Tc=0.8ms td=0.2ms Time period T Duty cycle 1 ms 80%

Tc = 0.5ms td = 0.5ms 1 ms 50%

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result: Both unsymmetrical

and symmetrical square waveforms are obtained and

time period at the output is calculated.

Inferences:

Unsymmetrical square wave of required duty cycle and symmetrical

square waveform can be generated.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the effect of C on the output? Ans: Time period of the output depends on C 2. How do you vary the duty cycle? Ans: By varying R A or RB.

3. What are the applications of 555 in astable mode?


Ans: FSK Generator, Pulse Position Modulator, Square wave generator

4. What is the function of diode in the circuit?


Ans: To get symmetrical square wave.

5. On what parameters Tc and Td designed?


Ans: R A , RB and C

6. What are charging and discharging times


Ans: The time during which the capacitor charges from (1/3) Vcc to (2/3) Vcc is equal to the time the output is high is known as charging time and is given by Tc=0.69(RA+RB)C The time during which the capacitor discharges from (2/3) Vcc to (1/3) Vcc is equal to the time the output is low is known as discharging time and is given by Td=0.69(RB) C.

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10. Schmitt Trigger Circuits- using IC 741 & IC 555


Aim: To design the Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 741 and IC 555 Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Equipment/Component name IC 741 555IC Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Multimeter Resistors Capacitors Regulated power supply Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 Refer page no 6 (0 20MHz) 100 56 K 0.1 f, 0.01 f (0 -30V),1A Quantity 1 1 1 1 2 1 Each one 1

Theory:
The circuit shows an inverting comparator with positive feed back. This circuit converts orbitrary wave forms to a square wave or pulse. The circuit is known as the Schmitt trigger (or) squaring circuit. The input voltage Vin changes the state of the output Vo every time it exceeds certain voltage levels called the upper threshold voltage Vut and lower threshold voltage Vlt. When Vo= - Vsat, the voltage across R1 is referred to as lower threshold voltage, Vlt. When Vo=+Vsat, the voltage across R1 is referred to as upper threshold voltage Vut. The comparator with positive feed back is said to exhibit hysterisis, a dead band condition.

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Circuit Diagrams:

Fig 1: Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 741

Fig 2: Schmitt trigger circuit using IC 555

Design:
Vutp = [R1/(R1+R2 )](+Vsat)
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Vltp = [R1/(R1+R2 )](-Vsat) Vhy = Vutp Vltp =[R1/(R1+R2)] [+Vsat (-Vsat)]

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1 and Fig2. 2. Apply an orbitrary waveform (sine/triangular) of peak voltage greater than UTP to
the input of a Schmitt trigger.

3. Observe the output at pin6 of the IC 741 and at pin3 of IC 555 Schmitt trigger
circuit by varying the input and note down the readings as shown in Table 1 and Table 2

4. Find the upper and lower threshold voltages (Vutp, VLtp) from the output wave form.

Wave forms:

Fig 3: (a) Schmitt trigger input wave form (b) Schmitt trigger output wave form

Sample readings: Table 1:


Parameter Voltage( Vp-p) Time period(ms)
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Input 741 3.6 0.72 555 4 1 741 24.8 0.72

Output 555 4.4 1


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Table 2:
Parameter Vutp Vltp 741 0.2V -0.05 555 0.4V -0.4V

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Results:
UTP and LTP of the Schmitt trigger are obtained by using IC 741 and IC 555 as shown in Table 2.

Inferences:

Schmitt trigger produces square waveform from a given signal.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the other name for Schmitt trigger circuit? Ans: Regenerative comparator

2. In Schmitt trigger which type of feed back is used?


Ans: Positive feedback.

3. What is meant by hysteresis?


Ans: The comparator with positive feedback is said to be exhibit hysteresis, a deadband condition. When the input of the comparator is exceeds Vutp, its output switches from + Vsat to - Vsat and reverts back to its original state,+ Vsat ,when the input goes below Vltp

4. What are effects of input signal amplitude and frequency on output?


Ans: The input voltage triggers the output every time it exceeds certain voltage levels (UTP and LTP). Output signal frequency is same as input signal frequency.

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11. IC 565- PLL Applications


Aim:
To design a frequency multiplier using IC 565

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 Equipment/Component name IC 565 IC 555 Resistors Capacitors Specifications/Value Refer page no 8 Refer page no 6 12K,54.5 K 0.01F 0.1 F 10F 5 6 Regulated power supply Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (0 -30V),1A (0 20MHz) Quantity 1 1 Each one 2 1 1 1 1

Theory:
The frequency divider is inserted between the VCO and the phase comparator of PLL. Since the output of the divider is locked to the input frequency fIN, the VCO is actually running at a multiple of the input frequency .The desired amount of multiplication can be obtained by selecting a proper divide by N network ,where N is an integer. To obtain the output frequency f OUT=2fIN, N = 2 is chosen. One must determine the input frequency range and then adjust the free running frequency fOUT of the VCO by means of R1 and C1 so that the output frequency of the divider is midway within the predetermined input frequency range. The output of the VCO now should be 2fIN . The output of the VCO should be adjusted by varying potentiometer R1. A small capacitor is connected between pin7 and pin8 to eliminate possible oscillations. Also, capacitor C2 should be large enough to stabilize the VCO frequency.

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Circuit diagram

Fig.1 PLL as Frequency Multiplier

Design:
If C= 0.01F and the frequency of input trigger signal is 2KHz, output pulse width of 555 in monostable mode is given by 1.1RAC = 1.2T =1.2/f RA= 1.2/(1.1Cf)=54.5K fIN=fOUT/N Under locked conditions, fOUT = NfIN = 2fIN = 4KHz

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Procedure:
1. The circuit is connected as per the circuit diagram.

2. Apply a square wave input to the pin2 of the 565


3. Observe the output at pin4 of 565 under locked condition.

4. Give the output of 565 to the pin2 of 555 IC.


5. Observe the output of 555 at pin3.

6. Now give the output of 555 as feedback to the pin5 of the 565. 7. Observe the frequency of output signal fo at pin4 of 565 IC.
8. Draw the wave forms.

Wave forms:

Fig 2(a): Input (b): PLL output under locked conditions without 555 (c): Output at pin4 of 565 with 555 connected in the feedback

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Sample readings:
Parameter Amplitude (Vp-p) Frequency (KHz) Input 8 2 Output 8 4

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully. .

Result:
Frequency multiplier using IC 565 is obtained.

Inferences:
Application of IC 555 in monostable mode as a frequency divider is observed while designing the frequency multiplier.

Questions & Answers:


1. Out of capture and lock ranges, which is smaller? Ans: Capture range

2. What is the function of VCO in a PLL?


Ans: To get stable oscillations

3. What does happen if frequency divider network -by- 4 is placed in the


feedback? Ans: Frequency multiplier of 4 is obtained at the output.

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12. IC 566 VCO Applications


Aim: i) To observe the applications of VCO-IC 566
ii) To generate the frequency modulated wave by using IC 566

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component Name IC 566 Resistors Capacitors Regulated power supply Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Function Generator Specifications/Value Refer page no 10 10K 1.5K 0.1 F 100 pF 0-30 V, 1 A 0-20 MHz 0.1-1 MHz Quantity 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Theory: The VCO is a free running Multivibrator and operates at a set frequency f o
called free running frequency. This frequency is determined by an external timing capacitor and an external resistor. It can also be shifted to either side by applying a d.c control voltage vc to an appropriate terminal of the IC. The frequency deviation is directly proportional to the dc control voltage and hence it is called a voltage controlled oscillator or, in short, VCO. The output frequency of the VCO can be changed either by R1, C1 or the voltage VC at the modulating input terminal (pin 5). The voltage VC can be varied by connecting a R1R2 circuit. The components R1 and C1 are first selected so that VCO output frequency lies in the centre of the operating frequency range. frequency variation of about 10 to 1. Now the modulating input voltage is usually varied from 0.75 V CC which can produce a

Circuit Diagram:

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Fig1: Voltage Controlled Oscillator

Design:
1. Maximum deviation time period =T. 2. fmin = 1/T.
where fmin can be obtained from the FM wave

3. Maximum deviation, f= fo - fmin 4. Modulation index = f/fm 5. Band width BW = 2(+1) fm = 2 (f+fm)
6. Free running frequency,fo = 2(VCC -Vc) / R1C1VCC

Procedure:
1. The circuit is connected as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig1.
2. Observe the modulating signal on CRO and measure the amplitude and frequency of the signal. 3. Without giving modulating signal, take output at pin 4, we get the carrier wave. 4. Measure the maximum frequency deviation of each step and evaluate the modulating Index. mf = = f/fm

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Waveforms:

Fig 2 (a): Input wave of VCO (b): Output of VCO at pin3 (c): Output of VCO at pin4

Sample readings:
VCC=+12V; R1=R3=10K; R2=1.5K; fm=1KHz Free running frequency, fo = 26.1KHz fmin = 8.33KHz f= 17.77 KHz = f/fm = 17.77 Band width BW 36 KHz

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result:
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Frequency modulated waveforms are observed and modulation Index, B.W required for FM is calculated for different amplitudes of the message signal.

Inferences:
During positive half-cycle of the sine wave input, the control voltage will increase, the frequency of the output waveform will decrease and time period will increase. Exactly opposite action will take place during the negative half-cycle of the input as shown in Fig (b).

Questions & Answers:


1. What are the applications of VCO?
Ans: VCO is used in FM, FSK, and tone generators, where the frequency needs to be controlled by means of an input voltage called control voltage.

2. What is the effect of C1 on the output?


Ans: The frequency of the output decreases for an increase in C1.

13. Voltage Regulator using IC723


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Aim: To design a low voltage variable regulator of 2 to 7V using IC 723. Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Equipment/Component name IC 723 Resistors Variable Resistors Regulated Power supply Multimeter Specifications/Value Refer appendix A 3.3K,4.7K, 100 1K, 5.6K 0 -30 V,1A 3 digit display Quantity 1 Each one Each one 1 1

Theory:
A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of changes in load current and input voltage variations. Using IC 723, we can design both low voltage and high voltage regulators with adjustable voltages. For a low voltage regulator, the output VO can be varied in the range of voltages Vo < Vref, where as for high voltage regulator, it is VO > Vref. The voltage Vref is generally about 7.5V. Although voltage regulators can be designed using Opamps, it is quicker and easier to use IC voltage Regulators. IC 723 is a general purpose regulator and is a 14-pin IC with internal short circuit current limiting, thermal shutdown, current/voltage boosting etc. Furthermore it is an adjustable voltage regulator which can be varied over both positive and negative voltage ranges. By simply varying the connections made externally, we can operate the IC in the required mode of operation. Typical performance parameters are line and load regulations which determine the precise characteristics of a regulator. The pin configuration and specifications are shown in the Appendix-A.

Circuit Diagram:
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Fig1: Voltage Regulator

Design of Low voltage Regulator :Assume Io= 1mA,VR=7.5V RB = 3.3 K For given Vo R1 = ( VR VO ) / Io R2 = VO / Io

Procedure:
a) Line Regulation: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1. 2. Obtain R1 and R2 for Vo=5V 3. By varying Vn from 2 to 10V, measure the output voltage Vo. 4. Draw the graph between Vn and Vo as shown in model graph (a) 5. Repeat the above steps for Vo=3V

b) Load Regulation: For Vo=5V

1. Set Vi such that VO= 5 V 2. By varying RL, measure IL and Vo


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3. Plot the graph between IL and Vo as shown in model graph (b)


4. Repeat above steps 1 to 3 for VO=3V.

Sample Readings:
a) Line Regulation: Vo set to 5V Vi(V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Vo(V) 0 0.65 0.66 1.23 2.68 3.40 4.13 4.90 5.33 5.33 5.33 Vo set to 3V Vi(V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Vo(V) 0 0.65 0.69 1.05 1.42 1.80 2.19 2.57 2.81 2.81 2.81

b) Load Regulation:
Vo set to 5V
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Vo set to 3V
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IL (mA) 46 44 40 35 28 20 18 16 12 8 6 4 2

Vo(V) 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33 5.33

IL (mA) 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Vo(V) 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81

Model graphs:
a) Line Regulation:

b)

Load Regulation:

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.
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Results:
Low voltage variable Regulator of 2V to 7V using IC 723 is designed. Load and Line Regulation characteristics are plotted.

Inferences:
Variable voltage regulators can be designed by using IC 723.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the effect of R1 on the output voltage?
Ans: R1 decreases for an increase in the output voltage. 2. What are the applications of voltage regulators? Ans: Voltage regulators are used as control circuits in PWM, series type switch mode supplies, regulated power supplies, voltage stabilizers. 3. What is the effect of Vi on output? Ans: Output varies linearly with input voltage up to some value (o/p voltage+ dropout voltage) and remains constant.

14. Three Terminal Voltage Regulators- 7805, 7809, 7912


Aim:
To obtain the regulation characteristics of three terminal voltage regulators.
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Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Equipment/Component Name Bread board IC7805 IC7809 IC7912 Multimeter Milli ammeter Regulated power supply Connecting wires Resistors pot Specifications/Values Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Each one

Refer appendix A Refer appendix A Refer appendix A 3 digit display 0-150 mA 0-30 V 100 ,1k

Theory:
A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of changes in load current and input voltage. IC voltage regulators are versatile, relatively inexpensive and are available with features such as programmable output, current/voltage boosting, internal short circuit current limiting, thermal shunt down and floating operation for high voltage applications. The 78XX series consists of three-terminal positive voltage regulators with seven voltage options. These ICs are designed as fixed voltage regulators and with adequate heat sinking can deliver output currents in excess of 1A. The 79XX series of fixed output voltage regulators are complements to the 78XX series devices. These negative regulators are available in same seven voltage options. Typical performance parameters for voltage regulators are line regulation, load regulation, temperature stability and ripple rejection. The pin configurations and typical parameters at 250C are shown in the Appendix-B.

Circuit Diagrams:

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Fig 1: Positive Voltage Regulator

Fig 2: Negative Voltage Regulator

Procedure: a) Line Regulation:


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1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1 by keeping S open for 7805. 2. Vary the dc input voltage from 0 to 10V in suitable stages and note down the
output voltage in each case as shown in Table1 and plot the graph between input voltage and output voltage.

3. Repeat the above steps for negative voltage regulator as shown in Fig.2 for
7912 for an input of 0 to -15V.

4. Note down the dropout voltage whose typical value = 2V and line regulation
typical value = 4mv for Vin =7V to 25V.

b) Load regulation:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the Fig 1 by keeping S closed for load
regulation.

2. Now vary R1 and measure current IL and note down the output voltage Vo in
each case as shown in Table 2 and plot the graph between current IL and Vo. 3. Repeat the above steps as shown in Fig 2 by keeping switch S closed for negative voltage regulator 7912.

c) Output Resistance:
Ro= (VNL VFL) IFL VNL VFL IFL load voltage with no load current load voltage with full load current full load current.

Sample readings: a) Line regulation


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b) Load Regulation
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1) IC 7805 Input Voltage Vi,(V) 0 5 6 7 10 Output Voltage Vo(V) 0 4.05 4.86 5 5

1) IC 7805 Load Current IL(mA) 44 40 30 20 16 8 Output Voltage Vo(V) 5 5 5 4.98 4.97 4.96

2) IC 7809

2) IC 7809 Load Current IL(mA) 56 48 33 25 21 15 Output Voltage Vo(V) 9 9 9 8.96 8.82 8.60

Input Voltage Vi,(V) 0 5 10 12 14

Output Voltage Vo(V) 0 7.4 8.7 9 9

3)7912

3) IC 7912

Load Current Input Voltage Vi,(V) 0 -10 -12 -14 -15 Output Voltage Vo(V) 0 -9.59 -11.59 -12 -12 IL(mA) 56 46 38 28 24 20

Output Voltage Vo(V) -12.09 -12.09 -12.07 -12.06 -11.98 -11.80

Graphs:
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IC 7805

IC 7809

IC7912

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% load regulation = VNL - VFL x 100 VFL

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result:
Line and load regulation characteristics of 7805, 7809 and 7912 are plotted

Inferences:
Line and load regulation characteristics of fixed positive and negative three terminal voltages are obtained. These voltage regulators are used in regulated power supplies.

Questions & Answers:


1. Mention the IC number for a negative fixed three terminal voltage regulator of
12V. Ans: IC 7912 2. Explain the significance of IC regulators in power supply Ans: To get constant dc voltages. 3. What is drop-out voltage? Ans: The difference between input and output voltages is called dropout voltage 4. What is the role of C1 and C2? Ans: C1 is used to cancel the inductive effects. C2 is used to improve the transient response of regulator.
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4. What are C1 and C2 called?


Ans: Bypass capacitors

15. 4 bit DAC using OP AMP


Aim:
To design 1) weighted resistor DAC 2) R-2R ladder Network DAC

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name 741 IC Resistors Regulated Power supply Multimeter(DMM) connecting wires Digital trainer Board Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 1K,2K,4K, 8K 0-30 V , 1A 3 digit display Quantity 1 Each one 1 1 1

Theory:

Digital systems are used in ever more applications, because of their

increasingly efficient, reliable, and economical operation with the development of the microprocessor, data processing has become an integral part of various systems Data processing involves transfer of data to and from the micro computer via input/output devices. Since digital systems such as micro computers use a binary system of ones and zeros, the data to be put into the micro computer must be converted from analog to digital form. On the other hand, a digital-to-analog converter is used when a binary output from a digital system must be converted to

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some equivalent analog voltage or current. The function of DAC is exactly opposite to that of an ADC. A DAC in its simplest form uses an op-amp and either binary weighted resistors or R-2R ladder resistors. In binary-weighted resistor op-amp is connected in the inverting mode, it can also be connected in the non inverting mode. Since the number of inputs used is four, the converter is called a 4-bit binary digital converter.

Circuit Diagrams:

Fig 1: Binary weighted resistor DAC

Fig 2: R 2R Ladder DAC


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Design:
1. Weighted Resistor DAC
A + B + c + D Vo = -Rf 8R 4 R 2 R R

For input 1111, Rf = R = 4.7K Vo = -

Rf 1 1 1 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 ] R x5

Vo = - 9.375 V 2.R-2R Ladder Network:


A + B + c + D Vo = -Rf 16 R 8R 4 R 2 R

X5

For input 1111, Rf = R= 1K

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 1. 2. Vary the inputs A, B, C, D from the digital trainer board and note down the output at pin 6. For logic 1, 5 V is applied and for logic 0, 0 V is applied. 3. Repeat the above two steps for R 2R ladder DAC shown in Fig 2.

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Observations: Weighted resistor DAC


S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Theoretical Voltage(V) 0 -0.62 -1.25 -1.87 -2.5 -3.12 -3.75 -4.37 -5 -5.62 -6.25 -6.87 -7.5 -8.12 -8.75 -9.37 Practical Voltage(V) 0 -0.66 -1.02 -1.74 -2.36 -3.08 -3.44 -4.16 -4.95 -5.66 -6.02 -6.73 -7.35 -8.07 -8.43 -9.15

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R-2R Ladder Network:


S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Theoretical Voltage(V) -0.31 -0.62 -0.93 -1.25 -1.56 -1.87 -2.18 -2.5 -2.81 -3.12 -3.41 -3.75 -4.06 -4.2 -4.37 -4.68 Practical Voltage(V) -0.05 -0.6 -0.7 -1.22 -1.27 -1.91 -1.96 -2.41 -2.52 -3.06 -3.11 -3.63 -3.69 -3.7 -4.32 -4.38

Model Graph:
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Decimal Equivalent of Binary inputs

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Results:
Outputs of binary weighted resistor DAC and R-2R ladder DAC are observed.

Inferences:
Different types of digital-to-analog converters are designed.

Questions & Answers:


1. How do you obtain a positive staircase waveform?
Ans: By giving negative reference voltage.

2. What are the drawbacks of binary weighted resistor DAC?


Ans: Wide range of resistors is required in binary weighted resistor DAC. 3. What is the effect of number of bits on output ? Ans: Accuracy degenerates as the number of binary inputs is increased beyond four.

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Other Experiments 1. Voltage- to- Current Converter


Aim:To design voltage to current converter with floating load and grounded load using op amp

Apparatus required:S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Equipment/Component name 741 IC Resistors Regulated Power supply Multimeter Ammeter Digital trainer Board Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 10 K 1K (0-30V),1A 3 digit display (0 30) A Quantity 1 5 1 1 1 1 1

Theory:In many applications we must convert the given voltage into current. The two types of voltage to current converters are 1. V to I converters with floating load 2. V to I converters with grounded load. Floating load V I converters are used as low voltage ac and dc voltmeters, diode match finders, light emitting diodes and zener diode testers. V to I converters Grounded load are used in testing such devices as zeners and LEDs forming a ground load.

Circuit Diagrams:-

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Fig 1: V I converter with floating load

Fig 2: V I converter with grounded load

Design:

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V I converter with floating load Vin = Vid + Vf where Vid is input difference voltage and Vf is the feedback voltage But Vid = 0 Vin = Vf = R1RL IL = Vin/RL V I converter with grounded load I1+I2=IL (Vin-V1)/R+(Vo-V1)/R=IL Vin+Vo-2Vi=ILR Since op-amp is non inverting Gain=1+(R/R)=2 Vo=2Vi Vin=Vo-Vo+ILR IL=Vin/R

Procedure:V I converter with floating load 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram in Fig 1. 2. Apply input voltage to the non-inverting terminal of 741. 3. Observe the output from CRO and note down the ammeter reading for various values of input voltage. V I converter with grounded load 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2. 2. Set ac input to any desired value. 3. Switch on the dual trace supply and note down the readings of ammeter 4. Repeat the above procedure for varies values input voltages.

Sample readings:

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V I converter with floating load Vin(V) RL=1K 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 2.8 3.9 4.7 5.3 5.3 Current (mA) RL=10K 0 0.9 1 1 1 1 1 1

V I converter with grounded load Vin 1 2 3 4 5 6 Current(mA) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.49 0.58

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Results:
Voltage to current converters with floating load and grounded load are designed and outputs are observed.

Inferences:
Different types of V-I converters are designed.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the effect of RL on the output current in V-to-I converter with floating load? Ans: Output current decreases for an increase in RL. 2. What is the effect of R on the output current in V-to-I converter with
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grounded load? Ans: Output current decreases for an increase in R 3. For what ranges of currents the circuits are useful? Ans: Range of current is (0 to 30mA).

2. Precision Rectifier
Aim: To obtain a precision rectifier (half wave rectifier using IC 741). Apparatus required:
S.No Equipment/Component Specifications/Value Quantity

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1 2 3 5 6

name 741 IC Resistors Regulated Power supply Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Digital trainer Board

Refer page no 2 10 K 1K (0-30V),1A (0-20MHz)

1 5 1 1 1 1

Theory:
There are two types of half wave rectifiers. One is inverting half wave rectifier and second one is non-inverting half wave rectifier. The below circuit show the noninverting half wave rectifier with diode (0A79) in the feed back loop of an op-amp.

Circuit diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Give the sinusoidal input of 100mVp-p, 1 KHz from function generator.

3. Switch on the dual power supply of + 15V.


4. Note down the output from CRO.

Model Graphs:

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Fig.a) Input waveform to the half wave rectifier b ) Output to (a)

Sample readings:
Parameter Amplitude (V),Vp-p Time period (ms) Input 2 1 Output 1 1

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Results:
Half-wave rectifier output is observed.

Inferences:
Precision half-wave rectifier is obtained by using IC 741.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the output if the diode is reversed? Ans: The circuit acts as a negative small signal half wave rectifier. 2. What is a super diode?
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Ans: The combination of the diode-op amp is referred as super diode. This combination works as basic half wave rectifier. Placing the diode with in the feedback loop in effect eliminates any errors due to its forward voltage.

3. What is precision rectifier?


Ans: Precision rectifier is a rectifier which is capable of rectifying milli volt signals.

4. What modifications you suggest to get negative half cycles at output?


Ans: By reversing the diode in the given circuit.

3. Clipper Circuits using IC 741 Aim:

To obtain the clipped waveforms of the input using IC741.

Apparatus required:
S.No 1 2 Equipment/Component name 741 IC Resistors Specifications/Value Refer page no 2 10 K Quantity 1 1
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3 4 5 6

Regulated Power supply Function generator Diode Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

(0-30V),1A (0-1MHz) 0A79 (0-20MHz)

1 1 1 1

Theory:
A positive clipper is a circuit that removes positive parts of the input signal. In this circuit the op-amp is basically used as a voltage follower with a diode in the feed back path. The clipping level is determined by the reference voltage Vref which should be less than input voltage range of op-amp. Additionally since Vref is derived from the positive supply voltage, dc supply voltage is well regulated. During the positive half cycle of the input, the diode(IN4007) conducts only until Vin =Vref. This happens because Vin < V ref the voltage Vref at -ve input is higher than that at the +ve input. Hence the output voltage Vo the op-amp become sufficiently negative to drive D1 into conducting. When D1 conducts it closes the feed back loop and op-amp operates as a voltage follower i.e. output Vo follows input Vin until Vin =Vref.

Circuit diagrams:

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Fig 1: Positive Clipper

Fig 2: Negative Clipper

Procedure:
Positive clipper
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1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 1.


2. Apply the reference voltage of 1V.

3. Apply a 6Vp-p of sine wave as input. 4. Note down the output waveform as shown in Fig 3(a) and 3(b).
Negative clipper 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2. 2. Apply the reference voltage of 1V. 3. Apply a 6Vp-p of sine wave as input. 4. Note down the output waveform as shown in Fig 3(c) and 3(d).

Waveforms:
Positive clipper

Fig 3 (a) : Input wave form (b) : output wave form

Negative clipper

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Fig 3 (c): Input (d): output

Sample readings:
a) Positive clipper Parameter Amplitude (V),Vp-p Time period (ms) b) Negative clipper Parameter Amplitude (V), Vp-p Time period (ms) Input Voltage 6 1 Output Voltage 4..6 1 Input Voltage 6 1 Output Voltage 4.6 1

Precautions:
Check the connections before giving the power supply. Readings should be taken carefully.

Result:
The positive and negative clippers are obtained.

Inferences:
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The application of IC 741 as a clipper is observed.

Questions & Answers:


1. What is the effect of Vref on the output? Ans: Clipping level is determined by the Vref, which should be less than the input voltage range of the op-amp 2. How do you change a positive clipper into negative clipper? Ans: A positive clipper is converted into a negative clipper by reversing diode D1 and changing the polarity of reference voltage Vref .

APPENDIX-A IC723
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Pin Configuration

Specifications of 723:
Power dissipation Input Voltage Output Voltage Output Current Load regulation Line regulation : : : : : : 1W 9.5 to 40V 2 to 37V 150mA for Vin-Vo = 3V 10mA for Vin-Vo = 38V 0.6% Vo 0.5% Vo

APPENDIX-B
Pin Configurations: 78XX
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79XX
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Plastic package

Typical parameters at 25oC:


Parameter Vout,V Imax,A Load Reg,mV Line Reg,mV Ripple Rej,dB Dropout Rout,m ISL,A LM 7805 5 1.5 10 3 80 2 8 2.1 LM 7809 9 1.5 12 6 72 2 16 0.45 LM 7912 -12 1.5 12 4 72 2 18 1.5

REFERENCES

1. D.Roy Choudhury and Shail B.Jain, Linear Integrated Circuits, 2nd edition,
New Age International. 2. James M. Fiore, Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Application, WEST.

3. Malvino, Electronic Principles, 6th edition, TMH


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4. Ramakant A. Gayakwad, Operational and Linear Integrated Circuits,4th


edition, PHI.

5. Roy Mancini, OPAMPs for Everyone, 2nd edition, Newnes. 6. S. Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits,
3rd edition, TMH.

7. William D. Stanley, Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits, 4th


edition, Pearson. 8. www.analog.com

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