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' g S' ­ -7 Rfl t~-{'~"J­ I r b ' Cc PREFACE This started as

Cc

PREFACE

This started as a radical revision, it ended as a new book. The author has long been impressed with the fundamental soundness of Nunn's Elements as a book for beginners, regarding it as incomparably the best book of its type published in this country. The subject is introduced gently and unhurriedly. The ground to be covered is sensibly chosen, representing a good year's work for the average student. Nunn's dis­ cursive lucidity is admirably suited to those who have to work on their own, and the exercises are well conceived. Yet thirteen years of teaching from this book have revealed many possibilities of improvement. The owners and publi~ers have kindly given me permission to revise it completely, using what material I like and omitting or changing what I like. I have been in the happy position of being allowed, if necessary, to write a new book, leaning heavily on Nunn, yet without risking the charge of plagiarism.

so the possibilities of improvement

seemed to multiply. The result in the end has been literally thousands of changes, many very small but many quite considerable. The guiding principle throughout the work of rewriting has been to try to conform the book as closely as possible to its title. That is to say, to try to present the elements (and only the elements) of New Testament Greek as simply and completely as possible. The learning of a language is an enormous task. The secret of success is to gain a thorough grasp of the elements. If the elements are known, the rest will come bit by bit easily enough. But if the elements are not known, the student will flounder and make no progress. The student should be protected from all avoid­

able toil which does not directly further this end. In the case of the New Testament it is possible to discover with remarkable precision just what the elements are. We are dealing with a limited body of literature containing abou.!2J~rds, of which the vocabulary has been statistically analysed and the grammar has been minutely examined. I have taken a great deal of trouble so to select the material that the student may know that everything he is learning is

. As work on the book progressed,

vi

PREFACE

really useful, and that if he can learn all that the book contains he will have mastered the complete elements of New Testament Greek. I have also tried to simplify the presentation in every possible way. The results may be summarised under the headings of omissions, additions and rearrangements. ~.\ Omissions include the Reading Exercises from the Shepherd Hermas and the Second Epistle of Clement (the student needs rather the encouragement of actual New Testament study); most of the references to Latin and Classical Greek; various points of overlapping; and a number of rare (or non-existent!) forms and constructions. These include future,.par!!ciples, m?~.of the 9.e~~!ive, several comparatives and superlatives, ~P,€7'f:po:;, YVWBL, 'TTpo:; with genitive and dative, p,H'W. These, though useful in their place, are relatively unimportant and should not load the beginner's memory. They may of course be met at an early in the study of a New Testament book and will be sought for in vain in the Elements. But this woili~!'!9L.~~~!!c!(;!,d.asa r.cfere,nc<=: "b2ok from which to elucidate unusual points of Greek grammar, but as a textbook of the elements, which is to be systematically learnt. A great saving of labour has been effected by a radical simplifica­ tion of the third declension, of conditional sentences, and of the -p,t verbs. I shall consider that I have done the student a great service if I have succeeded in robbing the -p,L verbs of their terror. I have omitted altogether about 170 of the less common words from the vocabularies and have reduced the number of principal parts from 73 to 42. The most obvious omission to strike the eye is the ./.disapEear~E.~~c:l[ ,~~!s. We are indebted to D. F. Hudson's Teach Yourself New Testament Greek for pioneering this revolution. The accentual tradition is so deeply rooted in the minds of classical scholars and of reputable publishers that the sight of a naked unaccented text seems almost indecent. Yet from the point of view of academic integrity, the case against their use is overwhelming. The oldest literary texts regularly using accents of any sort date from the first century B.C. The early uncial manuscripts of the New Testament had no accents at alL The accentual system ~_~~.::~:_~~t:~~lllyfrom the ninth century A.D. not suggested that the modern editor should slavishly copy first-century practiees. By all means let us use every possible device that will make

vii

PREFACE

The vocabularies have been entirely rearranged, so that all the words of one type are now grouped together in one (or at most two) vocabu­

laries. Much material has been moved from one part of the book to another, so that each subject can be systematically mastered, e.g. the scattered references to prepositions have been concentrated into two lessons and the two lessons on the infinitive have been brought together. Matter in footnotes has been transferred to the proper place in the text. (See, for example, the article.) The verbal system now has a logical arrangement, being built up progressively in the order of the six principal parts. All of this of course has meant an almost complete rewriting of the exercises. (The author will be most grateful for

for

improving later editions.) All in all it may be said that the present book represents a slight!,. more limited field, sown with more carefully selected

seed and cultivated more intensively. It is confidently expected to give a heavier yield. This book may be criticised for its incompleteness. Some fairly common forms which were not included in the old Nunn will still be looked for in vain, and some rare forms which could be tracked down are now no longer to be found at all. But this is the price (and a very small one) which has to be paid for limiting the book to the elements of the language. Suggestions are given on pp. 191-2 for further reading. It will be noted that the author is at work on a short Second Book of New Testament Greek, which it is hoped will compensate for these slight losses many times over. Stress has been laid on the need for mastering the elements before beginning serious work on the New Testament text. This is self­ evidently true, but there is no reason at all why, for interest's sake, translation should not be attempted long before the whole book has been learnt. An acquaintance with all the important forms can be gained from the summaries. A word on the vexed question of pronunciation. There is a consider­ able diversity of practice in this country. This is a pity, as it is a great help to learn by ear as well as by eye. The system recommended here is

1 J. W. Wenham, Key to the Elements of New Testament Greek (Cambridge,

corrections to the. Elements or to the Key,I and for suggestions

1965).

x

PREFACE

as close an approximation to the Revised Pronunciation advocated by the Classical Association as seems practicable for an English-speaking student, and corresponds fairly closely to that in general use on the Continent and in America. Finally a word of thanks to the manhho have helped in the produc­ tion of this book, only a few of whom I can mention by name. I owe

much of course to many previous writers. I am particularly indebted to J. G. Machen's New Testament Greek for Beginners and to E. G. Jay's New Testament Greek, and most of all to A. T. Robertson's A Grammar

of the Greek of the New Testament in the Light of Historical Research and

A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament. I should like to thank

the Dean and Chapter of Ely (who are the proprietors of the book) and the syndics and staff of the Cambridge University Press for their help and encouragement. I should like to express my personal gratitude to Professor C. F. D. Moule, to Professor K. Grayston, to the Rev. 1. H. Marshall and to my sons, Gordon, Peter and Michael, for valuable help at various stages, and to Mr H. C. Oakley, whose scrutiny of almost the whole manuscript has been invaluable. Last, but not least, I owe a great debt to the generations of students at the London College of Divinity and Tyndale Hall, who have kept alive my zest for elementary Greek and who have continually provoked me to strive for forcefulness and simplicity of presentation.

xi

J.W.W.

·flIo

INTRODUCTION: ENGLISH GRAMMAR

1.

SENTENCES, CLAUSE)

~

AND

PHRASES

A sentence is a group of words which makes complete sense. Clauses and phrases make sense, but not complete sense. A clause is a group of words which has a finite verb (see Section r 5), but is only part of a sentence, e.g. ' We do not know where they have laid

him'.

A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb, e.g. 'under the fig-tree '.

2.

SUBJECT AND

PREDICATE

Every sentence has two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject names the person or thing uppermost in mind when the sentence is formed. The predicate makes an assertion about the subject.

Subject

Predicate

I

die

The glorious gospel

is sent into all the world

Or the predicate may take the form of a question, e.g. 'Must I die?', or a command, 'Go into the world'. In the latter case the subject is often 'understood', Le. it is not expressed.

Subject

Predicate

I

must die

You (understood)

go into the world

3.

PARTS

OF

SPEECH

By parts of speech we mean the various classes under which all words used in speaking and writing may be arranged. There are eight parts of speech:

(1) A noun is the name of anything (Latin nomen, 'name'), e.g. 'John', 'brother', 'love'.

PARTS

OF

SPEECH

[E.G. 3]

(2) A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun (Latin pro, 'for'; nomen, 'name'), e.g. '1', 'you', 'they', 'him', 'who'.

(3) An adjective is a word joined to a noun to qualify (that is, add

e.g.

'good', 'many'. (4) A verb is a word by means of which we can make a statement, ask

a question, or give a command about some person or thing (Latin

verbum, 'word', so called as being the principal word in the sentence), e.g. 'I write', 'Do you see?', 'Depart'. (5) An adverb is a word joined to a verb to qualify its meaning (Latin ad, 'to'), e.g. 'immediately', 'well', 'very'. (Adverbs sometimes qualify an adjective or another adverb: 'very good', 'very well'.) (6) A preposition is a word joined to, and generally placed before,

something to) its meaning (Latin adjectum, 'a thing thrown to '),

a noun (or pronoup) to show the relation of the person or thing denoted by the noun to something else (Latin praepositum, 'placed before'), e.g. 'of', 'with', 'by'.

(7) A conjunction is a word that joins together sentences, clauses

or words (Latin conjungo, 'I join '), e.g. 'and', 'but', 'because'. (8) An interjection is a word thrown into a sentence to express a

feeling of the mind (Latin interjicio, 'I 'Woe!'

throw in '), e.g. 'Oh 1', 'Alas!',

The article, which is in fact a kind of adjective, is also sometimes

In English we have both the

classed as a separate part of speech.

definite article (' the ') and the indefinite article (' a '), but in Greek there

is no indefinite article.

The first principle to be remembered in determining the parts of speech is that a word must be carefully examined with reference to the function which it performs in the sentence. In English many words having exactly the same form must be regarded as entirely different parts of speech, according to the place which they occupy in the sentence, and must be translated by wholly different words in Greek, according to their meaning. Many words may be nouns or verbs, according to the place which they occupy in the sentence, e.g. 'judge', 'love', 'work', 'glory'. Other words may be adjectives or verbs, e.g. 'clean', 'free'. Others may be nouns, adjectives or verbs, e.g. 'last', 'stone'.

2

[E.G. 3]

PARTS

OF

SPEECH

A more difficult example is 'that', which (as we shaH see later) can be:

(r)A demonstrative pronoun: Thai is the man. (2) A demonstrative adjective: Give me that book. (3) A relative pronoun: This is the book that I want. (4) A conjunction: He said that th'?s~asthe book.

Try your hand at determining the parts of speech of the word 'that' in the following sentence: 'He said that that" that" that that man used was incorrect.'

Remembering then always to consider the word in connection with its sentence, the student should ask himself the foHowing questions to help him find out what part of speech a word is:

(1) Is it the name of anything? If so, then it is a noun. (2) Can a noun which is mentioned or thought of before be substi­ tuted for the word without altering the sense? Then it is a pronoun. (3) Does it answer any of the questions: 'What kind?', 'How many?', 'Which?', with regard to some noun? Then is it an adjective.

(4) Does it make a statement, ask a question, or give a command? Then it is a verb. (5) Does it answer the questions: 'How?', 'When?', 'Where?' Then it is an adverb. ('How?', 'When?' and '\Vhere?' are also themselves adverbs.) (6) Does it stand before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to something else? Then it is a preposition. (Another test of a preposition is that it is a word which is not a verb but which can stand before 'him' and 'them', but not before 'he' or 'they'.) (7) Does it join sentences, clauses or words? Then it is a conjunction.

Consider the following sentence: 'The man went quickly down the narrow street and did not stop, alas!'

THE

MAN

WENT

Adds something to the meaning of' man', tells us which man it was, i.e. some man already known. Is the name of something. Makes a statement about the man.

3

Therefore it is a kind of adjective. In this case of course the definite article. Therefore it is a noun. Therefore it is a verb.

NOUNS

PRONOUNS

[E.G. 3-5]

QUICKLY Qualifies the verb 'went'; tells us how he went. DOWN Stands before the noun 'street',

Therefore it is an adverb.

Therefore it is a preposi­

showing the relation between tion.

the street and the man's move­ ment. THE See above.

NARROW Adds something to the meaning Therefore an adjective. of 'street'. STREET The name of something. Therefore AND Joins together two clauses. Therefore a conjunction. DID STOP Make a statement about the Therefore verbs. man.

NOT Qualifies the verb 'did stop' because it tells us how he stopped, i.e. not at all. ALAS Expression of a feeling.

a noun.

Therefore an adverb.

Therefore an interjection.

4.

NOUNS

There are four kinds of nouns:

(I) A proper noun is the name appropriated to any particular

person,

,John', 'Jerusalem', 'Passover'.

place or thing (Latin proprius, 'belonging to a person '), e.g.

(2) A common noun is the name which all things of the same kind

e.g. 'brother',

'town', 'country'. (3) A collective noun is the name of a number of persons or things forming one body, e.g. 'crowd', 'church', 'flock'. (4) An abstract noun is the name of some quality, state or action considered apart from the person or thing in which it is embodied (Latin abstractus, 'withdrawn '), e.g. 'wisdom', 'peace', 'baptism'.

have in common (Latin communis, 'belonging to all '),

5.

PRONOUNS

There are nine kinds of pronouns:

(I) Personal pronouns:

(2) Demonstrative pronouns: 'this', 'that'. (3) Possessive pronouns: 'mine', 'yours', 'ours', 'theirs'.

'1', 'you', 'we', 'they'.

4

[E.G. 5-6]

ADJECTIVES

(4) Interrogative pronouns: 'who?', 'whose?', 'whom?', 'which?', 'what?'

'a

certain one', 'some'. (6) Reflexive pronouns are used ~en a pronoun in the predicate and the subject of the sentence refer to the same person or thing, e.g. 'The man hates himself', 'It did it by itself'.

(5) Indefinite

pronouns:

'anyone',

'someone',

'something',

(7)

Emphasising pronouns simply mark .emphasis, e.g. 'You your­

selves have heard', 'I saw the man himself'. The emphasising pronoun and the word which it emphasises both belong to either subject or predicate, whereas the reflexive pronoun is always in the predicate and so is separated from the subject. The emphasising pronoun usually immediately follows the word emphasised, though there are sometimes words in between, as in 'John did it himself'. In this case 'himself' is still part of the subject. (8) Reciprocal pronoun: 'one another'. (9) Relative pronouns ('who', 'whom', 'whose', 'which', 'that') are used to connect a subordinate clause with the main clause in such sentences as: 'The Spirit who gives life is promised', 'He whom the Father promised is here', 'The words that I speak are life'. These

pronouns refer (or' relate') back to a noun or pronoun which is called

the antecedent: 'The Spirit who .'.

', 'He whom

',

'The words

6.

ADJECTIVES

A. There are six kinds of adjectives:

(I) Adjectives of quality, which answer the question 'What kind of?', e.g. 'narrow street', 'good men'. (2) Adjectives of quantity, which answer the questions 'How many?', 'How much?', e.g. 'two disciples', 'much fruit', 'no food'. (3) Demonstrative adjectives, which answer the question' Which? " e.g. 'these women', 'that house'. (4) Possessive adjectives, which indicate possession, e.g. 'my master', 'our Father'. (5) Interrogative adjectives, which ask questions, e.g. 'whose image is this?'

5

WE

2

VERBS

[E.G. 6-7]

[E.G. 7-8]

ADVERBS

(6)

The identical adjective:

'same', e.g.

'The same men came

the verb 'to be'.

'He is' by itself is incomplete.

A sentence can be

back.'

completed by the addition of:

B.

There are three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative

(a)

a predicative noun: He is the shepherd;

and superlative. The regular forms of comparison are:

(b)

a predicative pronoun: He is mine;

hard

harder

hardest

just

more just

most just

An example of irregular comparison is:

good

better

best

The forms 'very hard', 'very just', 'very good' are called elative

superlatives.

C. An adjective can be used either attributively or predicatively.

Attribu~ire use. In the phrase 'the blind beggar', the word 'blind' merely qualifies the word' beggar'. That is to say, it defines him more exactly by mentioning one of his attributes. There is no complete sentence; nothing has yet been predicated of the man. (2) Predicative use. 'The beggar is blind', however, predicates

something of him.

It constitutes a complete sentence.

7.

VERBS

A. There are two kinds of verbs:

(I) Transitive verbs are so called because they denote an action

which necessarily affects or passes over to some person or thing other

e.g. 'I

than the subject of the

throw', 'I take'. These statements are not complete; we ask imme­ diately, 'What do you throw or take?' The name ofthe person or thing affected by the action must be supplied in order to make a complete sentence: 'I throw a ball', 'I take an apple'. The person or thing affected by the action of the verb is called the direct object. (2) Intransitive verbs denote an action which does not affect any person or thing besides the subject of the verb, e.g. 'I remain', 'the sun shines'. These sentences are complete statements in themselves.

B. There are also verbs of incomplete predication. These verbs

require another word to make a complete predicate. The commonest is

verb (Latin transire, 'to pass over '),

6

(c) a predicative adjective: He rl'~ood.

The completing word or group of words is known as the complement. Other verbs of incomplete predication, which can be either transitive

or intransitive, include:

Intransitive

become, seem, appear

Transitive

declare, choose, call, think, consider

It is important to distinguish carefully between the object and the complement of a verb, because (as we shall see later) this will affect the case to be used. The complement always refers to the same person (or thing) as the subject, the object to someone (or something) different: l

e.g. God became man (complement). God made man (object).

The difference in case can sometimes be seen quite clearly even in English. We say:

!remain faithful (complement). I chose faithful men (object).

I am he (complement: nominative case). God made him (object: accusative case).

8.

ADVERBS

A. There are five kinds of adverbs:

(I) Adverbs of manner, which answer the question 'How?', e.g.

'He thinks wisely, well, truly'. (2) Adverbs of time, which answer the question 'When?', e.g. 'I went yesterday, later, afterwards'.

(3) Adverbs of place, which answer the question 'Where?', e.g.

'She goes here, there'.

(4) Adverbs of degree, which qualify an adjective or another

adverb, e.g. 'quite quick', 'very slowly', 'almost at once'. (Some adverbs of degree can also qualify a verb, e.g. 'I quite like it'.)

(5) Interrogative adverbs: 'How?', 'Why?', 'Where?', 'When?'

1 Except of course in the case of the reflexive pronoun (p. 5).

7

2-2

INFLECTION

[E.G. 8-9]

B. Degrees of comparison are expressed thus:

(regular)

wisely

more wisely

most wisely

(irregular)

well

better

best

9.

INFLECTION

Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and some adverbs are capable of undergoing certain changes in form. The part of the word which con­ tains the basic idea is known as the stem. The stem remains unchanged,

but modifications of this basic idea are introduced by means of changes of form, which are known as inflections. The study of the form of words is known as morphology (or accidence). The study of the arrangement of words in the sentence is known as

syntax.

Inflection is important in English, but it is far more important in Greek. English has comparatively few inflections, whereas in the early stages of Greek the learning of the inflections is the student's main task. Nouns, pronouns and (in Greek) adjectives may have inflections for

number, gender, and for case (see Section 10).

(I) Number, e.g.

Singular:

heart,

church,

child,

I

Plural:

hearts,

churches,

children,

we

(2) Gender. In English we distinguish four genders: masculine (to denote males), feminine (to denote females), neuter (to denote things), common (for words which can denote either males or females, e.g. 'child '). Sometimes the feminine may be formed from a masculine stem by inflection, e.g. 'priestess' from' priest'. In Greek, gender has to do with the form of the words and has little to do with sex. There are masculine, feminine and neuter forms, but 'bread' is masculine, 'head' is feminine, and' child' is neuter.

8

[E.G. 10] .

CASES

10.

CASES

Case is the form or function of a word which shows its relation to some other word in the sentence. Five cases are to be distinguished: nomi­ native, vocative, accusative, genitivea-aild dative. In English, case in­ flection is usual only in the genitive. 's in such phrases as 'the apostle's brother' is a case ending, and 'apostle's' is an inflected form. A some­ what fuller inflection survives in the pronoun 'he' (nominative), 'him' (accusative), 'his' (genitive). In New Testament Greek all five case forms are still to be found. But although English virtually has only two case forms, the five case functions are still to be distinguished.

(1) Nominative: (a) The subject of the verb is in the nominative case.

(b) The complement to an intransitive verb is in the nominative case.

Note. When one noun follows another to explain or describe it more fully, the two words are said to be in apposition, and are in the same case. Thus in 'John the Baptist was fasting', 'John' (the subject) and 'the Baptist' (in apposition to ' John ') are both nominative.

(2) Vocative is the case of address, e.g. 'Master, I am coming',

'0 Lord, save me'. (3) Accusative is the case of the direct object of a transitive verb. (4) Genitive is the case of possession, e.g. 'The apostle's brother', 'the brother of the apostle'. (This account of the accusative and genitive will need some modification when we come to study their uses in Greek.) (5) Dative is the case of the indirect obJect. Consider the sentence:

'The owner gave him the donkey.' That which is directly affected by the action of the verb is the donkey; it was the donkey that the owner gave. So 'the donkey' is the direct object and is accusative. 'Him' is the person to whom or for whom it was given. This is the indirect object and is dative. It could equally well have been expressed: 'The owner gave the donkey to him.'

9

INFLECTION: TENSE

II.

INFLECTION

OF

THE

VERB

[E.G. II-I2]

Greek verbs are set out according to this pattern:

I loose Thou loosest (Modern English: You loose) He looses We loose You loose They loose

The first three are of course singular and the last three plural.

Person

, I' and 'we' denote that the person who is speaking is doing the action, and they are said to be .in the first person. 'Thou' and 'you' denote that the person spoken to is doing the action, and they are said to be in the second person. 'He' (also 'she' and 'it') and 'they' denote that the person spoken about is doing the action, and they are said to be in the third person. It will be observed that in the older English there were two inflected forms, 'loosest' and 'looses', whereas in modern English the separate forms for the second person singular have almost disappeared. In Greek there are usually six distinct forms. Verbs which are not used in the first and second persons, but only in the third, are known as impersonal verbs, e.g. 'it is lawful', 'it is necessary'.

12.

TENSE

Tense is concerned with two things:

The time at which an action takes place. (2) The state or nature of the action. The English tenses may be set out as in Table I (opposite). Except for the future tense, the tenses in Greek are concerned almost wholly with the nature and state of the action, and not with time.

It will be noticed that the English tense system is built up by the use

and 'to have', which act as auxiliary verbs: 'I was

of the verbs' to be'

10

[E.G. 12-14]

VOICE

MOOD

loving', 'I had loved'. In Greek the verb 'to be' is used, but only for the comparatively uncommon periphrastic tenses. (See Leswn 37.)

Table 1. The English tenses

Time

Past

Present

PRESENT

Future

FUTURE

State

IMPERFECT

CONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

Continuous

I

was loving

I am loving

I shaH be loving

1 used to love

 
 

PAST

SIMPLE

PRESENT

SIMPLE

FUTURE

SIMPLE

Simple

I loved

I love

I shall love

 

PLUPERFECT

PERFECT

FUTURE

PERFECT

Complete

I had loved

I have loved

I shaH have loved

Continuous-

PLUPERFECT

PERFECT

FUTURE

PERFECT

complete

CONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

I had been loving

I have been loving

I shall have been loving

13.

VOICE

Voice is an inflection of the verb which denotes whether the subject does the action or is acted upon.

Active:

They loose the colt.

Passive:

The colt is loosed by them.

It will be observed that when a sentence in the active is put into the passive, the direct object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. A complete table of tenses in the passive voice can of course be con­ structed to correspond with the table of active tenses in the previous section: 'I was being loved', 'I am being loved', etc.

14.

MOOD

Mood is the form of the verb which indicates the mode or manner in which the action is to be regarded. There are four moods:

(I) The indicative makes a statement or asks a question: 'He goes', 'were you listening?'

II

MOOD: PARTICIPLES

[E.G. 14-15]

(2) The imperative gives a command, entreaty or exhortation:

'Go', 'make haste', 'let him come'. (3) The subjunctive expresses a thought or wish rather than an

actual fact.

It is the mood of doubtful assertion, e.g. 'God save the king',

'thy will be done', 'if I were you, I would not go', 'so that I may arrive',

'in order that I might succeed'.

Contrast the Indicative: I shall be at home (certainty) with the Subjunctive: I should be at home (uncertainty).

The infinitive expresses an action generally, i.e. without reference to a particular person or thing. It is normally prefaced by the word' to', e.g. 'he wanted to stay'. Sometimes, however, 'to' is not found, e.g. 'he can stay (i.e. he is able to stay)', 'he saw me come'.

As a verb it will have tense and

voice, and it m;y have an object or a qualifying adverb, e.g. 'to lov~

(Present Infinitive Active) animals (object) greatly (adverb),. As a noun it can itself be the subject or object of another verb, e.g.

The infinitive is a verbal noun.

As subject:

To err is human ('to err' is virtually equivalent to the

As object:

noun 'error '). They desire to live (Le. they desire' survival ').

'To err' and 'to live' are short noun phrases. Such phrases, which do the work of a noun, can be of any length, e.g. They desire to live in the

castle happily ever after.

15.

PARTICIPLES

Participles are verbal adjectives. Being verbs they have tense and voice and they may have an object. Being adjectives they can qualify nouns. There are two participles in English-the Active Participle ending in -ing and the Passive Participle which usually ends in -ed, e.g. 'loving', 'loved'. Participles can be formed by the use of auxiliaries:

e.g.

having loved (Past Participle Active) having been loved (Past Participle Passive), etc.

The principal use of the participles in English is to form (with the help of auxiliary verbs) the continuous and complete tenses of the verb,

12

[E.G. 15-17]

SENTENCES: CLAUSES

e.g. 'I am loving', '1 have loved'. Its simple adjectival use may be seen in an expression like' his loving wife'. In Greek the participle has a wide range of uses which will be studied in due course. The Indicative, Imperative and Subjunctive make up the finite verb, while the Infinitive and Participle bel~ to the verb infinite.

16.

SIMPLE, MULTIPLE

AND

COMPLEX

SENTENCES

A simple sentence is a sentence which contains a single subject and a

single predicate.

A double (or multiple) sentence is a sentence which contains two

(or more) statements of equal value; that is to say, neither is subordinate to, or dependent upon, the other, e.g. 'he went out and he wept'. In this case 'he went out' and 'he wept' are of equal status and are said to

be co-ordinate.

A complex sentence is a sentence which contains a main clause

and a subordinate clause which is dependent upon it, e.g. 'he wept (main clause), because he had been faithless (subordinate clause)'.

There are three classes of subordinate clauses: noun, adjective and adverb clauses.

17.

NOUN

CLAUSES

Noun clauses are subordinate clauses which do the work of a noun in relation to some part of another clause:

e.g. as subject:

That he is coming is certain.

as

object:

He said

that he was king.

as

complement:

He asked how it happened. He told him that he must go. My hope is that you may succeed.

in apposition to a noun: I had no idea that you would oppose me.

With verbs of saying, what is said may either be given in direct speech, i.e. the very words of the speaker are recorded and put within inverted commas, e.g. 'He said, "I am going away''', or they may be given in indirect speech, in which case the meaning is preserved but the form of the words is altered, e.g. 'He told them that he was going

away'.

13

CLAUSES

[E.G. 17-19]

The same principle applies to a whole range of verbs of saying or thinking, and includes such verbs as 'to feel', 'to learn', 'to know', 'to see'. The three examples of object clauses given above represent three types of indirect speech:

When a noun clause which is the object of a verb states a fact, it is called a dependent (or indirect) statement: 'He said that he was king.' When it begins with an interrogatory word, it is called a dependent (or indirect) question: 'He asked how it happened.' When it gives the words of a command, it is called a dependent (or indirect) command: 'He told him that he must go.'

;~

18.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

Adjective clauses are subordinate clauses which do the work of an adjective in relation to some part of another clause. They are introduced either by a relative pronoun or by a word which is equivalent to a relative pronoun, e.g. 'when', 'where' in such expressions as: 'the time when (at which) we meet', 'the town where (in which) I was born'.

19.

ADVERB

CLAUSES

Adverb clauses are subordinate clauses which do the work of an adverb in relation to some part of another clause. There are eight classes:

(I) Purpose (often called final) clauses: 'He ran that he might get

home soon.'

(2) Time (or temporal) clauses: 'He ran when he reached the road.'

(3)

Place (or local) clauses:

'He ran where the road was level.'

(4)

Causal clauses: 'He ran because he was late.'

(5) Consequence (or consecutive) clauses: 'He ran so that (i.e.

with the result that) he got home early.'

(6)

Conditional clauses: 'He ran if he was late.'

(7)

Concessive (or adversative) clauses, which denote contrast:

'fIe ran although he was early.'

(8) Comparative clauses: 'He ran faster than she could.'

14

[E.G. 20]

PARSING: TEST PAPER

20.

PARSING

To parse a word completely is to say the following things about it. If it is a noun, it is necessary to give its number, gender, case and

part of speech:

e.g. He gave it t~thewomen.

women:

plural, feminine, dative, noun.

If it is a pronoun, the person must be added and the kind of pro­

noun: e.g. He gave it to them.

them: third person, plural, feminine, dative, personal pronoun.

If it is a verb, it is necessary to give, person, number, tense, mood, voice and part of speech:

e.g. He gave it to the women.

third person, singular, Past Simple, Indicative, Active of the verb 'to give'.

In the case of a participle which is a verbal adjective, gender and case will have to be given in addition to its characteristics as a verb. Thus:

Avwv (Iuon) , loosing':

gave:

singular, masculine, nominative of the Present Participle Active of the verb Avw, 'I loose'.

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR

TEST

PAPER A

1. Set out the words of the following sentence in a vertical column and determine the part of speech of each, giving your reasons: 'Alas I You have never truly repented of your wicked sins because you are proud.'

2. Give examples of the four kinds of nouns.

3. Write two sentences illustrating the difference between the

reflexive and the emphasising pronoun.

4. Explain the difference between the attributive and predicative uses

of the adjective. 5. Explain the function of the four moods, illustrating by short sentences, using the verb 'to loose'.

15

THE GREEK LANGUAGE

[1]

6. 'Give the names of the tenses in past time which represent the

following states: continuous, simple, complete, continuous-complete.

What is the first person singular of the verb 'to loose' in each tense?

7. Give an example of a final, a consecutive and a concessive clause.

8. What do you understand by the following terms: syntax, imper­

sonal verb, auxiliary verb, finite verb, dependent question?

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR

TEST

PAPER B

1. What are the nine kinds of pronouns? Give one example of each.

2. Explain the terms transitive and intransitive, active and passive.

3. Describe the functions of the five cases.

4. Give the names of the tenses in present time which represent the

following states: continuous, simple, complete, continuous-comp1ete.

What is the fitSt person singular of the verb 'to loose' in each tense?

5. Give two examples of the verb infinite.

6. What are the characteristics of verbs of saying and thinking?

7. Give an example of a local, a conditional and an adversative clause.

8. What do you understand by the following terms: predicate, verb

of incomplete predication, antecedent, elative superlative, morphology?

LESSON 1

The Greek Language The alphabet, pronunciation and writing

THE

GREEK

LANGUAGE

Greek is a living language with an immensely long history. Its emer­ gence from the parent stock of the Indo-European languages is lost in antiquity. But its written history may be traced from the time of Linear B (c. thirteenth century B.C.); through the period of the great . ojassical writers, lik~_!i~~~ !~~_eighth .c;ntury B.C.), Plato (fourth century B.C.) and many others; through the I:!ellenistic Age, when the

16

[1]

THE ALPHABET

Old Testament was translated into Greek (the so-called Septuagint version comes probably from the second and third centuries B.C.) and the New Testament was written; through the B.~~I1!i~~~p~riod(begin­ ning c. sixth century A.D.), right into modern times. In spite of many changes Greek has been recognisab.",. one language for more than 3000 years. In the classical period different dialects, such as Attic, Ionic and Doric, existed side by side. Of thes~','Attic became the foremost literary dialect, and it was adopted as the official language of the Macedonian Empire after the conquests of Alexander the Great. Alexander himself ardently desired to propagate Hellenistic culture throughout his domains, and in time Greek became the lingua franca of the civilised world. Thi~ 'common '_(':S~.~Y

4,oine.E.!1!~{~e

less

2lU~~~g~}he so~calle~

siInp

Ie!:., (and sgII1.et.!!?l

es

~_~r:.~?EEor~~~.

1!~s~fr

forms than the

q!fJJ3l?:JAev:elopt!~.~2l11:ewhat

Attic Greek and,

diale~ts.

But in the days

of St Paul it was a

medium through which

throughout the length and breadth of the Mediterranean world. wrote to the Christians in Rome, not in Latin, but in Koine Greek.

he could communicate his message freely

He

THE ALPHABET

The Greek Alphabet consists of 24 letters, a good many of which are identical with the corresponding letters of the Latin alphabet which we still employ. Both alphabets were derived from the Phoenician alphabet, from which the Hebrew alphabet also took its origin. The letters given in the second column on pages 18-19 are now used only as capital letters in printed Greek books, but originally letters like these were used in all Greek writing. They are generally ca1!~,~ letters, and all the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament are called uncial manuscripts, because they are written throughout in these letters. About the ,tenth century A~D. another style of writing was perfected somewhat like the letters in the third column. These were called cursive or running letters, because, like our modern handwriting, they could be written without raising the pen from the paper. This type of writing has remained in use ever since, both in manuscripts and printed books.

17

~lncial

NQ~ad~1!!!:I.~

fir~t letter ot~_paragr~

!!:E~

E.!:,

THE ALPHABET

l!.s

~~~1n

QE.eek

fOE.£rope:X:_!!Q!l:~~

~!l.~Jor

[ r]

the

and to mark the beginning of a_c:iJ~<::L9.11()ta­

They are not generally

used at the beginning of each new sentence. The small letters are, there­ fore, of far greater importance than the capitals and should be mastered first. The capitals will be left till Lesson 2. The student should learn by heart the list of the names of the letters down the first column, so that he may be able, when the time comes, to find the words in a lexicon as quickly as possible. (' Lexicon' is the term generally used for a Greek-English dictionary.)

tion, where_~

EK~~sE_wo~!~ ~_c:.~~~~~!!:£5~!E:!l':~'

Name of

letter

Alpha

Beta

Gamma

Delta

EpsIlon

Zeta

Eta

Theta

Iota

Kappa

Lambda

Mu

Nu

XI

OmIcron

PI

RhO

Sigma

'!;~

Capital

letters

A

B

r

Ll

E

Z

H

e

I

K

A

M

N

.::.

0

II

P

~

Small

letters

a.

f3

'Y

S

,

1)

0

I(

,\

fJ,

v

e

0

7T

p

a,s

Tire alpMb"

English

equi­

valent J

! f;llQl~'

Pronunciation

a

b

g

d

e

z

e

th

k

I

m

n

x

0

P

r

s

like a in French 'ida' like English b

hard g as in

like English d

like e in 'met'

like English dz or z like in 'fete' like th in 'thin' like i in 'hit' like English h like English 1 like English m like English n

like English x like 0 in 'not'

like

like English r

like

'get'

English p

s in 'house'

18

Notes

(1)

(2)

(3)

(2)

(4)

(2)

(5)

[r]

Tau

UpsIlon

Phi

Chi

PsI

Omega

Notes.

193 ff.)

T

1

$

X

'f

n

THE ALPHABET

'T

v

rp

X

w

'"

t

u

ph

ch

like English t

'* like 00 in 'book'

-""'"

ps '.

0

(6)

(7)

like English ph or f

like ch in

'loch'

(8)

like ps in 'lips'

like 0 in 'tone'

(2)

(For illustration of the points made, see Vocabularies, pp.

(I) Before another gamma, 'Y is sounded like n, hence: dy'Y€~os, 'angel' (Vocab. 5); €t3ayyEAwv 'evangel'. 'gospel' (Vocab. 7). (It is also pronounced n before 1(, X, e, but words of this type are rare.)

(2) Note that there are two letters to represent the English letter e,

and two to represent the letter o.

short. Eta and omega (' big 0 ')

Epsilon and omicron (' little 0 ') are

are long.

(3) ,is properly dz, e.g. aO:;,w, 'I save' (Vocab. 3); but when it is the initial letter, it is usually pronounced z, e.g. '1)'Tlw, 'I seek' (Vocab. 4).

in proper nouns like

'l)]O'ovs, 'Jesus' (Vocab. 6) or 'IovSa~os, 'Jew' (Vocab. 1\). in which case it is pronounced like yin' yes' .

0' is used when the letter occurs

at the beginning or in the middle of a word, s when it is the final letter,

e.g~ ·I1)O'ovs.

(4)

L can

also be

used as

a consonant,

e.g.

(5) There are two forms of sigma.

(6) 'Tau' (the name of the letter) is pronounced as in 'taught',

(7) In English words derived from Greek, v becomesy, e.g. V7TOl(p~'T'fJS becomes 'hypocrite' (Vocab. 9). (Our capital Y has come from the Greek capitall through Latin.) €v, however, sometimes becomes ev, e.g. €t3a.yy€AtOV,'evangel'.

(8) It is worth making the effort to distinguish the pronunciation of K and X, even if one feels self-conscious in aspirating the ch, since it is a great help to correct spelling. 'Chi' (the name of the letter) is pro­ nounced as in 'kite'.

19

( /

PRONUNCIATION

WRITING

THE

are

PRONUNCIATION OF DIPHTHONGS

sounds

produced

by

two

vowels

Diphthongs

together.

being

sounded

Pronounce

aL

as

ai

in

aisle

EL

el

veil

OL

Ot

oil

av

au

Faust

ov

ou

route

EV, 1)V

eu

feud

VL

ui

quit

No distinction in pronunciation is to be attempted between 1)

Note.

and EL, or between EV and 1)V.

"'"

WRITING

THE

SMALL

LETTERS

Writing should be practised with the help of two lines. Most letters should be written without removing the pen from the paper. Copy the following example, noticing carefully what parts of the letter are written above and what parts are written below the line. The asterisk denotes the point at which to begin.

the line. The asterisk denotes the point at which to begin. Distinguish carefully v with the

Distinguish carefully v with the pointed base and v with the rounded

base.

Note that L is not dotted.

EXERCISE I

Having learnt the names of the letters in their proper order fluently:

(I ) Write out the small letters of the Greek alphabet with the English equivalent for each letter. (2) Write out the English alphabet and give the Greek small letter equivalent for each letter as far as possible. These exercises should be repeated until perfect.

20

LESSON 2

Capital letters, breathings and other signs

~

­

CAPITAL

"

LETTERS

Most

valents, or

have been mastered, there are only ten capital letters that require

notice.

U can be easily remembered since a river delta is so called from its

resemblance in shape to U.

P and X are very like the small letters p and X' but need to be distin­

letters are very like either their small equi­

When the small letters

of the

the

capital

equivalent English capital.

guished from the English P and X.

Hand 1 are 1) and v, not the English Hand Y.

rAE :E Q

have forms unlike any English letters and different from

their small equivalents.

Capital letters are all of the same height, and all rest upon the line.

BREATHINGS

It will be noticed that there is no sign for the letter h in the Greek alphabet. The want of such a sign is made up by the marks called breathings, one of which is written over every vowel or diphthong that begins a word. The rough breathing '(turned like the opening comma in inverted commas) is sounded like our letter h; d is pronounced hO, a is pronounced ha. The smooth breathing' (turned like the closing comma in inverted commas) indicates that the vowel is to be sounded without the h sound. If the word begins with a diphthong, the breathing is placed over the second vowel, and not over the first. Thus

in Vocab. 3 it is fi:UpMJKW, I find, not €VpUJKW. p at the beginning of a

word has a rough breathing, e.g. p1)fJ-a (Vocab. 29); cf. our English

word 'rhododendron' (Vocab. 7). No attempt should be made to

3

2I

WE

PUNCTUATION

[2]

pronounce the rough breathing when used with p. With vowels, how­ ever, breathings must be written and the rough breathing pronounced carefully. I

IOTA SUBSCRIPT

A

small, is often written under the letters a., Tj, w, especially when one

of

these letters ends a word. It is called the iota subscript and is a relic

of

an ancient diphthong. It is not pronounced, but it must always be

written. Several examples may be seen in the opening verses of 8t John's

Gospel, which is used in Exercise 2. I below, e.g.

dpXTl

o.tmp

al<O'T£q

PUNCTUATION

The comma

,

as in English

The full-stop

as in English

The semi-colon

(above the line)

The question-mark

ELISION

AND

DIAERESIS

An apostrophe (the same sign as the smooth breathing) is used to show that a vowel has been elided, i.e. dropped out, before a vowel or

In Exercise 2. I (which

diphthong at the beginning of the next word.

is taken from John 1. 1-I4) there are examples of

 

3,'

written for 3,0. (verse 3)

and

d.\.\'

written for d.\.\o. (verse 8).

) is occasionally placed over

the second of two vowels to show that they do not form a diphthong, but are to be pronounced separately, e.g. 'naive'. There is an example

in Exercise 2.2, where (at John 1. 23) the word 'Hao.i:o.s (the Greek form

of 'Isaiah ') occurs. This is four syllables: 'H-ao.-£-o.s, not three:

'H -ao.,-o.s.

I In the case of words which begin with a capital letter, the breathing is placed in front of the word. Thus: 'I"lGovs, 'Jesus'; 'lo"o",os, 'Jew'; 'PwJL"l, , Rome'. With a diphthong, the breathing is written over the, second vowel as usual. Thus: Tios, 'Son'.

In both English and Greek a diaeresis (

22

[2)

ACCENTS: STRESS

ACCENTS

In modern printed texts the great majority of words have at least one accent; either acute ('), grave (') or circumflex r or "'). As stated in the preface, these are to be completely ig~ed, except on the rare occasions (which will be mentioned as they arise) when differences in accent are useful for distinguishing differences of meaning.

STRESS

There are different systems in use for deciding which syllable of a word is to be stressed. It is best simply to take care to pronounce each syllable clearly (particularly to be careful to distinguish the long and short vowels), and then let stress take care of itself.

EXERCISE 2

I . Write out the following in small Greek letters, inserting breathings where necessary. The English letter h at the beginning of a word denotes a rough breathing. The vowels e and 0 are marked with a stroke over the line when they are long; when not marked they are short. Care must be taken to use the proper Greek letter for them. The letter i in brackets denotes that an iota SUbscript is to be written under the pre­ ceding vowel. An apostrophe (denoting elision) should be reproduced by an apostrophe in Greek. en arche(i) en ho logos, kai ho logos en pros ton theon, kai theos en ho logos. houtos en en arche(i) pros ton theon. panta di' autou egeneto kai choris autou egeneto oude hen. ho gegonen en aut5(i) zoe en, kai he zoe en to phOs ton anthropon. kai to phos en te(i) skotia(i) phainei, kai he skotia auto ou katelaben. egeneto anthropos, apestalmenos para theou, onoma auto(i) ioannes' houtos elthen eis marturian, hina marturese(i) peri tou phOtos, hina pantes pisteusosin di' autou. ouk en ekeinos to phOs, all' hina marturese(i) peri tou phOtos. en to phOs to alethinon, ho photizei panta anthropon, erchomenon eis ton kosmon. en Wei) kosmo(i) en, kai ho kosmos di' autou egeneto, kai ho kosmos auton ouk egno. eis ta idia elthen, kai hoi idioi auton ou parelabon. hosoi de e1abon auton edoken autois exousian tekna theou genesthai,

23

3'2

EXERCISE

[2]

tois p"isteuousin eis to onoma autou, hoi ouk ex haimati5n oude ek thelematos sarkos oude ek thelematos andros all' ek theou egennethesan. kai ho logos san:: egeneto kai eskenosen en hemin, kai etheasametha ten doxan autou, doxan hos monogenous para patros, pleres charitos kai

aletheias. The student may correct his exercise by comparing it with John I. 1-14intheBible Society's GreekTestament (2nd edn., Nestle-Kilpatrick text). There are a few capital letters in the Nestle-Kilpatrick text. In correcting the exercise the corresponding small letter may easily be checked from the alphabet table. This exercise should be done several times until perfect.

2. Write out the Greek of John 1. 19-28 in English characters. (Be

careful to give the correct English equivalents of . and ;.)

3. Write the following in small Greek letters. (Do not try to

insert breathings.) The exercise may be corrected from Matthew 6. 21-4. (It will be seen that iota subscripts have also been ignored.)

OIlOY rAP E:ETIN 0 0H:EAYPO:E :EOY, EKEI El::TAI KAI H KAP~IA l::OY. 0 AYXNO:E TOY :EQMATO:E El::TIN 0 OcD0AAMO:E. EAN OYN H 0 OcD0AAMO:E :EOY AIlAOY:E, OAON TO :EQMA :EOY cDQTEINON E:ETAL EAN ~E 0 OcD0AAMO:E l::OY IlONHPO:E H, OAON TO l::QMA tOY l::KOTEINON El::TAL EI OYN TO cDQ:E TO EN :EO! :EKOTO:E E:ETIN, TO l::KOTO:E IlO:EON. OY~EI:E ~YNATAI ~Yl::I KYPIOIl:: ~OYAEYEIN' H rAP TON ENA MIl::H:EEI KAI TON ETEPON ArAIIH:EEI, H ENOl:: AN0E8ETAI KAI TOY ETEPOY KATAcDPONH:EEI· OY ~YNA:E0E 0EQ ilOYAEYEIN KAI MAMQNA.

4. Read as much as possible of the Greek Testament aloud, paying

great attention to the breathings and the length of the vowels. Students who are working alone and who have no one to whom they can read aloud are recommended to put portions of the Greek into English letters, and to put them back into Greek letters after an interval. It is most important to be able to read the characters accurately and quickly before proceeding further.

24

LESSON 3

The Present Indicative Active of AUW Questltt.ps

THE PRESENT

INDICATIVE ACTIVE OF Auw

Re-read carefully Introduction: English Grammar, Sections 9, I I, 12, 13, 14· The present indicative active of the verb AUW 'I loose' IS as follows:

I st singular 2nd singular 3rd singular 1St plural 2nd plural 3rd plural

A

A

Avr'

plural 2nd plural 3 r d p l u r a l A A Avr' A

A

A

A

I am loosing or I loose you are loosing or you loose he, she or it is loosing or looses we are loosing or we loose you are loosing or you loose they are loosing or they loose

Movable v

The so-called '~ovable v":at the end of the third person plural is found as a termination of several Greek forms, which will be noticed as they are reached. The student is advised always to include it, though he will sometimes find it omitted in the New Testament.

Inflection

Each of the Greek words in the table above may be divided into two parts:

(I) A stem AU, which never changes and which denotes the funda­

mental meaning of the verb, i.e. 'loose'.

(2) An ending w, HS, H, etc., which changes with every person. As

nearly every Greek verb has the same endings in the present tense, it is easy to conjugate the present tense of any other verb by first taking off the final w of the 1st person singular to find the stem, and then adding

the endings to this stem.

25

'THOU' AND 'YOU'

[3]

Th~ words in the table above, when compared with their English equivalents, furnish a good example of one of the principal differences between Greek and English, namely that one word may be sufficient to make a statement in Greek, where two or three words are necessary in English. This is because the endings of words are changed in Greek to denote changes in the meaning of the words, while in English these variable endings have almost entirely disappeared. For example, in the English Present Simple tense the only form which retains its personal ending is the third person singular' looses'. Conse­ quently it is necessary to insert a personal pronoun 'I', 'you', 'they', etc., before the verb, to avoid confusion and to show the person and number of the subject of the verb. But in Greek the person and number of the subject of the verb are already made sufficiently clear by the variable eI:\Qing, and so there is no need to add a personal pronoun unless special emphasis is required.

The second person singular

In spoken English we do not now use the ,old secon"c!~~.!2.l) '.;!lOU' in addressing a single person, but we use the form 'you'. In Greek the second person singular is always used in addressing a single person, and the second person plural is kept for addressing more than one person. The old English use could make important distinctions very con­ cisely. For example, at Luke 22. 3 I, 32 our Lord declared: 'Satan

But I have

prayed for thee (singular: Simon Peter).' But, as one of the purposes of learning Greek is to enable the student to get behind the well-known phraseology of his English version, it seems best to abandon 'thou' and 'thee' altogether. In the early exereises the distinction between singular and plural is always to be clearly indicated. Where' you' is to be trans­ lated into Greek, the number required ('sing.' or 'pI.') will be shown. In rendering Greek into English, the student must similarly say whether 'you' is singular or plural. This practice will be followed as far as Exercise 6, after which the student may use, in ambiguous cases, whichever form he likes.

hath desired to have you (plural: the twelve disciples)

26

~.ingular

[3]

PRESENT TENSE:

QUESTIONS

TRANSLATING THE PRESENT

TENSE

It will be noticed that two English equivalents are givcn for one Greek form of the Present tense. This is because there are more tenses in English than in Greek, and one Gre~tense has to do the work of two

English tenses. T~e Greek Present, corresp.,o!lt!s-.!!!ore closel:y in meaningJo the English Present Continuous than to the Present SimpJe

The forms of the Present Continuous tense illustrate another difference between English and Greek, namely that in English we freely employ auxiliary verbs to form our tenses (in this case the Present tense of the verb 'to be' is used) while in Greek a single word is used. Another form of the English Present uses the verb' to do' as an auxiliary, e.g. 'I do know'. In a statement this is emphatic, but in questions it is often the normal use, e.g. we say, 'Do I know?' not 'Am I knowing?' or 'Know n' Similarly 'do' is frequently used with the negative, e.g. 'I do not know', 'he does not go'.

QJlESTIONS

In Greek there is ~~ffeE.~E_ce ~er in the form ~f a statement and the form of an ordinary question. The existence of a question is indicated solely by the presence of the question-mark (;). The student will need therefore to look at the punctuation-mark at the end of a sentence before deciding how to translate it.

EXERCISE 3

Learn Vocabulary 3 on p. 193. The words given in this and the following vocabularies are words which occur frequently in the New Testament. The number written after each word is the approximate number of times that the word is used in the New Testament. It is hoped that the student will be encouraged to learn the words diligently by realising that when he has learnt the first vocabulary he will be familiar with about 4259 words in the Greek New Testament! The words given in brackets after the English meanings are memory aids. Most of them are derived directly from the Greek words. For the sake of clarity and simplicity the English equivalents of the

27

,J

-EW

VERBS

[3]

verb are given in their Present Simple form, despite the fact that the Present Continuous is nearer to the fundamental meaning of the Greek Present tense.

A

T ransIate mto

E

I' h

ng IS:

A'

\

\ ,-

\ "

\

I'

.

UE~, I\UO/UV, I\tlOUaw, I\UE'TE, I\UE~S. EUptaK­

."­

./.r'

0fLEV,

p

fJal\I\OfLEV,

ypCUPH,

8 '"

/3(J).AE'TE·

l

/3A€'ITHS,

\

";

EYHpoua~v. I\Eyouaw;

p"

'y

aW;,0fLEV,

,II

fLEVEI.

\J'

"\ \

Ea ~W, 7TEfL7Toua~v, l\afLfJaVE'TE,

,

/

KptVE'TE,

,,'

EX€tS;

,I

y~vwaKw;

8

'

€pa7T€UE'T€.

B

Give the Greek for: We loose, they loose, you loose (sing.), you loose (pl.), he looses, they are loosing, she is loosing. Do you have (pl.)? He is saving; are they healing? I am throwing; she raises, we judge, you remain (sing,), you judge (pl.); does he send? You are writing (pl.),

Do you say

you are eating (sing.), he finds, we are taking, they see. (sing.)?

LESSON 4

-EW verbs

There are many verbs whose stems end in E

to such stems, certain contractions take place:

When endings are added

E

combines with

E

to give Et

E

combines with

0

to give ou

coming before a long vowel or a diphthong drops out.

Thus the Present Indicative Active of <p~AEW 'I love' is conjugated as follows:

q>lAW

for <P~AW

I am loving or I love

 

you are loving or you love

q>lAE7'

he, she or it is loving, loves

<PtAOfLV

we are loving or we love

q>lAii"'t'E

<ptA'T

you are loving or you love

q> LMUCH(v)

<p~I\.EOlJa~(v)

they are loving or they love

28

[4]

EXERCISE

These three very important rules of contraction of -EW verbs may be represented diagrammatically thus:

E +€

+0

-+ E~

OlJ

~

(E)+long or diphthong.

EXERCISE 4

Learn Vocabulary 4 on pp. 193-4. Note.

With verbs of this type the

vocabularies~_~~i~_I?l_~m alwa.Y~_'&!Yt:.,!ht:J~r.t'.U>,~t.:s~n:>i~K.ularin

its uncop.tr~£t~J:~~) form, so that its method of conjugation may be recognised at once. This is the form in which these verbs should be learnt. But in the New Testament the first person singular will of course always be found in its contracted (-w) form.

A

AaAOVfL€V, al'TEis, 'T7]POUUtV, 7TOt€Vr€. fL€'Tavoii; fLap'TUPOVUW, '7]'TE'i''T€,

KaAw' 8€WPOUfLEV, 'T7]pEis, fLtaw. /3Aau<PTJfL€t; EVAoyoUatV, <ptAOlJ{J.€V,

/3al\.J\E'T€, ytVWUKW,

Ey€tp€ts.

EXOUUtV; 8Epa7T€UEt, KPtV€'T€, fL€VOfL EV ,

uw'ouaw.

B

They are seeking, he asks, you (sing.) call, we are bearing witness, I speak; you (pI.) keep, she makes. Do you (pI.) look at? We love, they

are calling, she asks, they do, we are seeking, they bear witness, he is

looking at

Are they blaspheming? She is repenting. We hate; you

(pI.) bless.

I call. We write, they eat, she is finding, it judges, you

(sing.) send.

29

LESSON 5

Second Declension nouns in -Ot; The nominative, vocative and accusative cases

Re-read Introduction: English Grammar, Sections 2, 7, 9, 10.

SECOND

DECLENSION

NOUNS

IN -os

Nouns, like verbs, are much more fully inflected in Greek than in English. AOYOS (stem AOY), meaning 'word', is typical of a large class of nouns (mostly masculine) which make up the Second Declension in -os. It is declined as follows:

,"'"

Singular

Plural

Nominative

Vocative

AOYOS

AOY"

"

a word o word

a word o word

Accusative

Koyov

a word (object)

Genitive

A6yov

of a word

Dative

to or for a word

Nominative

Abyo,

words (subject)

Vocative

A6yo,

o words

Accusative

Myous

words (object)

Genitive

Abywv

of words

Dative

to or for words

w o r d s D a t i v e to or for words the

the iota subscript which is always found in the dative singular of

the first and second declension.

There is no indefinite article in Greek. When, therefore, a word

But it can mean

simply 'word'. The right translation is nearly always obvious from the context.

like AOYOS stands alone, it usually means 'a word).

It is not sounded.)

NOMINATIVE

AND

ACCUSATIVE: SUBJECT AND

DIRECT OBJECT

In English if we want to show that a word is the subject of a sentence, we nearly always put it before the verb, while the word which is the

3 0

[5]

NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE

(direct) object of the sentence is placed after the verb. If we invert the order of the words, we invert the meaning of the sentence. In the sentence' An angel finds a man', 'an angel) is the subject of the sentence, and' a man' the object. On the other hand in the sentence' A man finds an " 'a man' is the subject of ~ sentence, and 'an angel) the object. \Ve have inverted the order of the words, and, in doing so, we have also inverted the meaning of the sentence. The first of these two sentences would be, in Greek: aYY€AOS €Vp,1,K€'

the

nominative case, and that av(Jpw1l'0v is the object by putting it in the accusative case. In Greek the of the sentence is still the same if we invert the order of the words and write dvOpw1l'ov EVPWK€' dYY€AOS, because in Greek it is not the order of the words, but the case form, which decides which word is the subject or the object. This means that a Greek writer is much freer than we are in the arrangement of words. He can put them down more or less in the order in which they come into his head. When a writer wishes to emphasise a word, he will often either bring it forward to the beginning of the sentence or leave it till the end of the sentence. Before translating an English sentence into Greek it is necessary to know which word is the subject of the verb, and which is its direct object, if it has one. The subject can always be found by putting' who?' or 'what?) before the verb. In the first sentence given above-' An angel finds a man'­ we ask, 'Who finds?' The answer is 'an angel). 'An angel) is therefore the subject. In the same way we can easily see that 'a man) is the subject of the second sentence. We can find the direct object by placing' whom?' or 'what? ' after the verb. In the case of the first sentence we say, 'An angel finds whom?' Answer: 'a man'. Therefore' a man' is the object of the sentence.

We show that aYY€AOS is the subject by putting it in

Transitive and intransitive verbs

Many verbs, such as J.L€VW 'I remain', cannot have a direct object. Verbs which cannot have a direct object are called intransitive verbs. Verbs

3 1

TRANSITIVE AND

INTRANSITIVE

[5]

Some verbs,

EXERCISE

which can have a direct object are called transitive verbs.

such as AaAEW, can be used either transitively or intransitively:

EXERCISE 5

Learn Vocabulary on p. 194. From now on, attention will not be called

to the new vocabularies. The student should automatically look to see if

there are any new words to learn as SO~tilShe has completed the lesson.

e.g.

Transitive:

AaAovfLEv AOYOVS

We speak words

Intransitive:

AaAovfLEv

We talk

(It will be noticed that in the vocabulary only one English equivalent is normally given for each Greek word, e.g. AaA€W, 'I speak'. But in fact two words in different languages are seldom, if ever, precisely equi­ valent. A word may have several possible translations. AaA€W, for instance, can be translated 'speak', 'talk', 'say', 'utter'. In due course the student will have to learn to use his own judgement in choosing the best rendering. But in the meantime he should adhere to the equivalents given in the vocabularies, in order to impress upon his mind the most generally useful translation.)

Number

Verbs agree with their subject in number.

If the subject of the verb is a noun in the singular, the verb will be in the third person singular; if it is a noun in the plural, or two or more nouns joined together by 'and', the verb will be in the third person plural: e.g.

,:!~~

A man raises a stone

avOpW7TOS €YEtPE£A'OOV

I./,Oov

Men raise a stone

A man and an angel raise a stone

AtOov

VOCATIVE

Vocative is the case of address. As in English, it may be preceded by w, 'O!' (Whether wis used or not is largely a matter of the writer's taste.) Thus:

1

o Lord, you save

A

I.

'Q'Iapa7]A, eavaTOV '7]T€tTE;2. aYYEAOS" Aaov aW'H.

KVpLOS"

AOYOVS.

4.

5. <I>apwCtto/,

aW'H. KVpLOS" AOYOVS. 4. 5. <I>apwCtto/, T7]P€/,T€VOfLOVS. 6. O€WPEtTEaypovs. €Opovov. 7. 8.

T7]P€/,T€VOfLOVS.

6.

O€WPEtTEaypovs.

€Opovov.

7.

8.

fL WEt

3.

ypaq;Et

Xp/,aTov;

KoafLov Ka/, '7]TEt q;/,AOV. 9. AE7TPE, {JAaaq;7JfLE/,S; 10. y/,vwaK­ OfLEV 8avarov. II. (JaMW AtOOVS". 12. D/,aKovOt fLapTvpoVatv.

13. EVAOyovfLEV DtDaaKaAOvs. 14. a7T0aToAos eEpa7TEVE£ 7Tapa­ AvnKOv; 15. 'IovDa£o/, Ka/, <I>ap/,aaw/, alTovaw q;/,AOVS. 16. oq;eaAfL­ ovs OEpa7T€V€17. q;o{JOS AafL{JaV€/aDEAq;ovs Kat Aaov.

18.

'7JT€/,S

7Tp€a{Jvr€19. 7TOLOVfL€V7T0TafLov.

20.

€XOPOlJS.

L An angel calls a man.

B

2. A brother has a field.

6. Christ judges men and angels.

10. Lord, you remain.

3. Lords send

5. Are you (pI.) finding

a stone?

keep laws? 8. A man and an angel seek a place. 9. We bear

1 I. Apostles

speak and servants have fear. 12. Do you (sing.) make a throne?

13. They hate Christ and love death. 14. An elder speaks.

IS. He saves lepers and paralytics and heals eyes.

16. Do Pharisees

write laws? 17. Jews, we know Christ. 18. Does she judge

witness and a people repents.

7. Do you (sing.)

messengers. 4. They are writing words.

avOpw7T0/, €YEtpovcnv

avOpW7TOS Kat, aYYEAOS EY€t,pCvow

KVP/,E, aw'€/,s

words?

19. I am looking at a river. 20. She looses a friend.

or wKvp/,€,

aw'EtS J =

Lord, you save.

2 1. You (pI.) are seeking a world. 22. Israel says, 'Does Christ

save?>!

I There are no inverted commas in Greek. the comma.

Simply use a capital letter after

3 2

33

LESSON 6

The genitive and dative cases The definite article Declension of' I Yjaou~

THE

GENITIVE

CASE

The genitive case can generally be translated into English the preposition 'of', or by adding's to the noun,

the use of

e.g.

oix:oS" aVepW7TOV

means

a house of a man

 

or

a man's house.

THE DATIVE

CASE

The commonest use of the dative case is to denote the person to or for whom anything is done, i.e. the indirect object,

e.g.

ypa<pEt vOP.OVS" Aa'}'. p.ap7'1.!pE£ avBpw7T'}'.

THE

DEFINITE

He writes laws for a people. He bears witness to a man.

ARTICLE

laws for a people. He bears witness to a man. ARTICLE The definite article (' the

The definite article (' the ') is declined in Greek like a noun. The forms that go with words in the masculine gender arc as follows:

Singular

N.

A.

G.

D.

0

7'OV

7'01.1

7''}'

Plural

N.

ot

A.

7'OVS"

G.

7'WV

D.

7'018

It will be noticed that the endings, except the nominative singular, are the same as those of Aoy0S"' There is, of course, no vocative. The definite article is always in the same case and number and gender as the noun to which it is joined,

e.g.

7'01.1 aVepW7TOV

of the man

7'O£S" UVepW7TO£S"

to the men.

'The man's house' is sometimes written in the following or~er: 0 7'01.1

aVBpW7T01.! oix:oS".

34

[6]

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Special uses of the article

There arc four examples of the use of the article in Greek where it is not used in English.

(I) 0EOS" usually has the article,

e.g.

0 YloS" 7'01.1 0EOV

"t<\

the Son of God.

(2) dVOPW7TOS", when it refers to tylen as a whole class, usually has the

article,

e.g.

0 vtoS" 7'01.1 UVBPW7TOV at vio£ 7'WV UVepW7TWV

the son of Man the sons of men.

(3) Abstract nouns (e.g. love, truth, peac~l.often have the article,

e.g. ~ aya7TYJ P.EVE£ Love remains (for uya7T'r], see

Vocab. 8).

J t~

i

There is one important exception to this rule. It will be recalled that the function of a noun in Greek (unlike English) is indicated by case ending rather than by word order. When two nouns in the nominative are linked by the verb 'to be', it may not be clear which is subject and which is complement. Thus

oAoyoS' Junv & 0EOS"

could be either or

The Word is God God is the Word.

In such cases ~he complement usually drops the article, and is _,~ly placed before the verb.

0EOS" Junv 0 AoyoS"

can

be

The Word is God. I

So in the case of abstract nouns we have

6 0EOS" aya7TY) JaTW

God is love.

(1

John 4. 8,

I6)

r In ancient manuscripts which did not differentiate between capital and small letters, there would be no way of distinguishing between €leoS' (' God ') and Oeos (' god '). Therefore as far as grammar alone is concerned, such a sen­ tence could be printed: Oeos daTI" .; 11.0'10:;, which would mean either, 'The 'Word is a god', or, 'The Word is the god'. The interpretation of John 1. I will depend upon whether or not the writer is held to believe in only one God or in more than one god. It will be noticed that the above rules for the special uses of the definite article are none of them rigid and without exceptions. It is wiser not to use them as a basis for theological argument until the student ,has reached an advanced stage in the knowledge of the language. For a full treatment, see

Blass-Debrunner-Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament, Part III, 8,

especially para. :il73; Moulton-Turner, A Grammar of New Testament Greek,

1II, 18:i1 ff.

3S

'I1]uoVS : EXERCISE

[6]

(4)' The name 'hIUOVS prefers the article,

e.g.

0 'I1JuovS Aaftf3av€t 'TOV ap'Tov

Jesus takes the bread.

With proper names in general, however, it seems to be largely a matter of the author's whim whether he uses the article or not. Sometimes the article is added, sometimes it is left out.

DECLENSION OF 'I1JUOVS

Tl}uoVS follows a slightly modified form of the Second Declension, having no separate form for the vocative and dative, both of which

follow the genitive:

N.

'I1JuoVS

A.

'I1JuoVV

G.V.D.

'I1JuOV

,,';>

EXERCISE 6

A

I. rpa4>€t TOV V0ftoJ! 'TOV Kvpwv. 2. or dV()pW7TOt '1JTOVUW 'TOVS

dyy€Aovs.

dod4>os 'TOV SovAov f3A€7T€t 'TOV olKov.

8€ov.

ot

5. 'T1JPOVUW 'TOV Aoyov TOV

3.

oovAot

7TOLOVUW

ooov

T«J

KVPt«J.

4.

0

6. 0' 'I1JuovS' €VAoy€t TOV apTOJ! Kat TOV olvov 'TOV EX()pOV.

7. 0' Staf3oAos fttU€t TOV 'TOV 8€Ov vaov.

0' Kvptos UW,€t uftapTwAovs. 10. 01, 'Iovoatot 7TOWVULV U'TavpOV 'T«J 'I1Juov. II. 7Tap()€VOt YWWUKOVUW 'TOVS' AOYovS 'TOV 0XAov. 12. 0' ~AtOS Kat 0' av€ftOS ()€pa7T€VOvuW. 13. 0 voftoS

8. EUet€T€ 'TOV Kap7TOV;

'T«J IWUft«J Eunv.

14. fttu()OS Eunv 0 olvos.

B

Does time remain? has a reward for the son. writes laws for the world.

7. The devil seeks a time for Christ's temptations.

the apostles' words and repent.

you love God?' 10. The apostles know the Lord. II. Does the

Son of God seek heaven? 12. They hate temptation. 13. Have

9. Jesus says to the crowd, 'Do

8. Sinners see

6. The man's slave is making bread.

3. James 5. The angel

1.

2. Are you (pI.) seeking heaven?

4. We

see

a desert.

3 6

[7]

SECOND DECLENSION NEUTER NOUNS

you (sing.) a house and fields, bread and wine? 14. We are finding

the place for a temple.

fruit.

IS. A man and a servant take the elder's

16. God is the reward and the reward is God.

LESSON 7

Gender Second Declension neuter nouns

GENDER

Re-read Introduction: English Grammar, Section 9 (2). In English all nouns denoting men or male animals are masculine; all nouns denoting women or female animals are feminine; all other nouns are neuter. But in Greek the rule is not so simple. Nearly all nouns denoting men or male animals are masculine, and nearly all those denoting women or female animals are feminine; but other nouns may

be either masculine, feminine or neuter. T~~'~~r~der is usually to be inferred from the ending. As we have seen, ~o~,tnouns~,!l~i.!lKi,!lw:?S.in the Second Declension are masculine. lIii:t;:ouns e-;;di~g"i;;:'~~;reneuter. This includes such words as 1Ta,StOv and 'T€KVOV, both of which mean' child'.

SECOND

DECLENSION

NEUTER

NOUNS

EPYOV 'work' is declined as follows:

Singular

N.

EPYOV

Plural

N.

V.

Ehov

V.

A.

lpyov

A.

G.

(pyov

G.

D.

EPy«J

D.

€pya

lpya

tpya

tpywv

€Pro£S'

,I

Note that the nominative, vocative and accusative ~ses have the~,sa!'E:.e

~l}~ing.

4

37

WE

NEUTER PLURAL SUBJECTS

[7]

The definite article that goes with neuter nouns is declined as follows:

Singular

N.

A.

G.

D.

TO

'TO

'TOV

'T<{J

Plural

N.

A.

G.

D.

'To.

TO.

'TWV

'Tots

That is to say, the definite article follows the endings of EPYOV exactly, except for the nominative and accusative singular, which are 'TO, not 'TOV,

(TOV is accusative masculine.)

Neuter plural subjects

There is one exception to the rule that verbs agree with their subject in

subjects are followed bl': singular verlJs.

In other words neuter plural subjects are treated as though they were singular ~ollective nouns,

number.

~euJ

e~J>lural

e.g.

'To. 7TaL8La dJpLaKH TO. fN3Ata

The children find the books.

This rule is not kept ve!1 strictly (especially when the subjects con­ cerned are persons), but it should always be followed by a student when translating into Greek.

EXERCISE 7

A

GVVE8pwv IJ.Ml0VGtV 'TOV 'I1]aow. 2. 'To.

OaLjWVLa ywwaKEL 'TOV XpLa'TOV Kat EXEL 4>o(3ov. 3. ot a7Toa'ToAot AaAovaw 'TO EvaYYEAwv KVptOLS Kat 80vAms. 4. 'T1]pOVJkEV 'To. aa(3(3aTa. 5. or OLOaaKaAoL AaAovaw 'TOLS 'T€KVOLS 'To. Jkva'T1]pta 'TWV ovpavwv. 6. or av{)pW7TOt €xovaw 7Tpo(3a'Ta KaL 7TAowv.

{)EWp€tS 'TO 'TOV 'I1]aov 7TpoaW7TOV; 8. ot ()ovAot AaJk(3avOVGLV

TO. O€Vopa 'T<P 'IaKw(3<p.

1.

Ot

4>apLaaWt

'TOV

9. 0 a8€A4>os '7]'T€L 'TO 'TOV 7Tat8LOv JkV1]Jk€WV.

oi 'Iov8aLoL ypa4>ovaw

(3L(3ALa. IZ. (3A€7TOJk€V 'To. G'T]JkELa 'TWV Katpwv. 13. EvpLaK€t apyvpLov. 14. 01 OtaKOVOt 'T7]povaw TO. 7TO'T7]pLa 'TOU [€POV

10.

7TOLELTE 'To.

Epya 'TOt) OLa(3oAov.

II.

'I€poaoAuJkwv.

IS.

7Tap{)EVOS 7TOt€t 'Jka.'TWV'T<p 'I7]aov;

JkvaT7]pwv Evayy€Awv la'TW.

16. TO

3 8

[8]

FIRST DECLENSION FEMININE NOUNS

IN -7]

B

In this and subsequent exercises, the student is free to translate' you' as either singular or plural, unless the number is determined by the context.

1. Christ blesses the cup of wine and the bread.

the signs of the Son of Man? 3. The Lord saves men and children.

4. The children ask the elders for garments. 5. Do you see the

Do you know

~"'.

'II>

2.

H /)I"

sheep? 6. We bear witness to the gospel of God. 7. The Jews love the sabbath and Jerusalem. 8. Angels see the face of God.

9. Do the demons love the tombs? 10. The Sanhedrin judges

sinners. II. Children know the mysteries of heaven. 12. Jesus

sends the boat. 13. We love the temple'S books. 14. We see a

place of trees. 15. God hates the works of the devil and of sinners.

16. Have the apostles money? 17. The Sabbath is the sign of God.

LESSON 8

First Declension feminineEuns i~~'

There are three closely related forms of the First Declension feminine. An example of the first is apX7] 'beginning' :

Singular

N.V. apx~

A .

G.

D.

,r

apX7]v

apX7]>