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CICIND

Manual for Inspection and Maintenance

of

Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys February 1993

Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys February 1993 COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DES CHIMINÉES INDUSTRIELLES

COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DES CHIMINÉES INDUSTRIELLES INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL CHIMNEYS INTERNATIONALER AUSSCHUSS FÜR INDUSTRIESCHORNSTEINE

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

page 49

ANNEX 1

CHIMNEY RECORD BOOK

For free standing chimneys in industry - shell: concrete, brickwork - lining: steel, brickwork

Identification of the chimney:

DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF THE CHIMNEY RECORD BOOK

1. It is advisable to have a separate chimney record book for each free standing chimney.

2. All descriptions concerning the conditions of the plant, civil engineering drawings, calculations, etc., must be included in the book.

3. A chimney must be inspected regularly, depending on the requirements of the plant. The results of the inspec- tions are to be entered in the relevant forms and included in the chimney book. Depending on the load of each individual chimney, the period between inspections can be extended or shortened.

4. Inspection must be carried out by a specialist.

5. It is important for the correct maintenance of chimneys that chimney record books are kept carefully.

6. The chimney record book consists of the following sections:

a. Chimney characteristics This section includes all design data together with all the materials used. This also includes all drawings, cal- culations and specifications. These must be added to the book in the form of an annex.

b. Important static data for the chimney This section includes a summary of the maximum stresses which occur in the main components of the chim- ney. The consequences of some types of damage for strength and stability are to be listed in general terms.

c. Changes to the chimney This section provides information on all the changes to process management, materials, constructions, etc.

d. Inspection report This section gives the report on one inspection. A completely new inspection report is drawn up for each new inspection. The report consists of:

*checklist,listing the parts of the chimney. If damage is ascertained when the inspection is made, then refer- ence is made to an "explanation", * explanation list, in which all types of damage are described in as much detail as possible. The size of this list will vary depending on the condition of the chimney * conclusions listing and summarising the inspection information.

e. Maintenance advice In this section, recommendations are made on the measures to be taken and is the result of the inspection report. Each inspection report must lead to a maintenance advice.

f. Repair report This part contains the report on the repair work carried out. This part is always important, but particularly if measures other than those recommended in the maintenance advice have been taken.

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHIMNEY SHELL LINING Height above land level: m m Diameter at top:
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHIMNEY
SHELL
LINING
Height above land level:
m
m
Diameter at top:
m
yes/no
yes/no
Height supply opening
m
Height total
Diameter at top
Lining in section
Loose lining
Heat insulation
m
yes/no
Year of construction:
Year of start operation:
Kind of fuel and quantity per hour:
Flue gas (composition):
Flue
gas
quantity:
N/m 3 /sec
Temperature at chimney bottom:
°C
Temperature at chimney top:
°C
Gas velocity in chimney:
m/sec
Continuous operation:
yes/no
.
Intermittent operation:
time/periods/year
Changes of chimney loads, (like flue gas, quantity, composition, temperature):
Start operation in new situation from:
(date)
Description of changes:
Number(s) of drawing(s):
Number(s) of calculation(s):
Number(s) of specification(s):
 

DIMENSIONS

MATERIAL

MANUFACT./TYPE

REMARKS

Foundation

         

Socle

       

Shell

       

Lining

       

Supporting structure of lining

       

Mortar

-

shell

       

- lining

       

Joints

-

shell

       

- lining

       

Coverplate

         

Fluegas inlet

         

Funnel

-

condensate

       

-

ash

       

Insulation

       

Top platform

         

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHIMNEY (continued)

DIMENSIONS MATERIAL MANUFACT/TYPE REMARKS Platforms at level m m m m - outside Ladders -
DIMENSIONS
MATERIAL
MANUFACT/TYPE
REMARKS
Platforms at level
m
m
m
m
- outside
Ladders
- inside
- outside
Coating/plastering
- inside
Electric provisions
- lightning protection
- aircraft warning lights
- earthening
- inside illumination
Measuring arrangements
-
temperature
-
fluegas
-
-
Several
-
connection hooks
-
climb safety provisions
-
straps
-
ventilation provisions
-
doors/manholes
-
duct entries
-
drains
-
sprayers
-
compensators
-
-
-

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

IMPORTANT STATIC DATA OF THE CHIMNEY

     

Maximum stress (N/mm 2 )

   

Part

Material

concrete

brick

steel

Location

act.

allow

act.

allow

act.

allow

Site

               

Foundation

               

Socle

               

Shell

               

Lining

               

Supporting structure for lining

               

IMPORTANT DYNAMIC DATA OF THE CHIMNEY

Measured resonance frequency

Parts

Year

Frequency

Shell

Lining

Remarks:

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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CHANGES OF THE CHIMNEY

Year of changes:

Reasons for changes:

CHANGES OF THE CHIMNEY Year of changes: Reasons for changes: Description of changes (dimension, material etc.):

Description of changes (dimension, material etc.):

Year of changes: Reasons for changes: Description of changes (dimension, material etc.): Descriptions of changes (others):

Descriptions of changes (others):

Year of changes: Reasons for changes: Description of changes (dimension, material etc.): Descriptions of changes (others):

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

INSPECTION REPORT

Number:

Name of inspector:

Company of inspector:

CHECKLIST

1.

SHELL

1.1

Uniform deterioration

1.2

Local deterioration

1.3

Wear

1.4

Cracks

1.5

Joints

1.6

Coating

1.7

Sweating/colour changes

1.8

Sundries

2.

TOP

2.1

Coverage

2.2

Shell

2.3

Lining

2.4

Insulation

2.5

Coating

2.6

Lightning protection

2.7

Top platform

2.8

Cageladder

2.9

Fastening structures

2.10

Sundries

Date:

No

Explanation

remarks

number

2.8 Cageladder 2.9 Fastening structures 2.10 Sundries Date: No Explanation remarks number

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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CHECKLIST (continued)

3.

INSIDE OF LINING (flue gas side)

3.1

Brickwork

3.1.1

Uniform deterioration

3.1.2

Local deterioration

3.1.3

Cracks

3.1.4

Joints

3.1.5

Expansion joints (including posterior parts)

3.1.6

Cakes of ash

3.1.7

Sweating/colour changes

3.1.8

Sundries

3.2

STEEL

3.2.1

Uniform deterioration

3.2.2

Local deterioration

3.2.3

Uniform rust deposit

3.2.4

Local rust deposit

3.2.5

Cracks

3.2.6

Welded seams

3.2.7

Expansion joints

3.2.8

Wall thickness

3.2.9

Coating

3.2.10

Fastening structures

3.2.11

Cakes of ash

3.2.12

Condensate

No

Explanation

remarks

number

3.2.10 Fastening structures 3.2.11 Cakes of ash 3.2.12 Condensate No Explanation remarks number

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

CHECKLIST (continued)

3.2.13

Sundries

4.

ACCESSIBLE AIR SPACE

4.1.

Inside shell

4.1.1

Uniform deterioration

4.1.2

Local deterioration

4.1.3

Cracks

4.1.4

Joints

4.1.5

Condensate

4.1.6

Drains

4.1.7

Movable parts (doors, man-holes, etc)

4.1.8

Ventilation provisions

4.1.9

Sundries

4.2

Outside brickwork lining

4.2.1

Uniform deterioration

4.2.2

Local deterioration

4.2.3

Cracks

4.2.4

Joints

4.2.5

Expansion joints (including posterior parts)

4.2.6

Supporting structure

4.2.7

Sweating/colour changes

4.2.8

Condensate

4.2.9

Insulation

4.2.10

Sundries

No

Explanation

remarks

number

changes 4.2.8 Condensate 4.2.9 Insulation 4.2.10 Sundries No Explanation remarks number

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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CHECKLIST (continued)

4.3

Outside steel lining

4.3.1

Uniform rust deposit

4.3.2

Local rust deposit

4.3.3

Cracks

4.3.4

Welded seams

4.3.5

Expansion joints

4.3.6

Wall thickness

4.3.7

Coating

4.3.8

Fastening structures

4.3.9

Condensate

4.3.10

Insulation

4.3.11

Sundries

5.

PLATFORMS

5.1

Deterioration (uniform, local)

5.1.1

- Upper side (steel) structure

5.1.2

- Lower side (steel) structure

5.1.3

-Grating

5.1.4

-Handrail

5.1.5

- Stays and supports

5.2

Rust deposit (uniform, local)

5.2.1

- Upper side (steel) structure

5.2.2

- Lower side (steel) structural

5.2.3

- Grating

5.2.4

- Handrail

No

Explanation

remarks

number

- Lower side (steel) structural 5.2.3 - Grating 5.2.4 - Handrail No Explanation remarks number

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

CHECKLIST (continued)

5.2.5

- Stays and supports

5.3

Cracks

5.4

Welded seams

5.5

Coating

5.6

Fastening structures

5.7

Slope of floors and drains

5.8

Sundries

6

FLUE GAS INLET

6.1

Expansion provisions at inlet

6.2

Supporting structure flue gas ducts

6.3

Compensator

6.4

Condensate and ash funnel

6.5

Condensate collecting spout

6.6

Drains

6.7

Sundries

7.

EQUIPMENT

7.1

Cage ladders

7.2

Climb safety provisions

7.3

Connections hooks/fastener

7.4

Tapes and closures

7.5

Coating

7.6

Lightning protection leads

7.7

Aircraft warning lights

7.8

Inside illumination

7.9

Measuring arrangements

7.10

Sundries

No

Explanation

remarks

number

7.8 Inside illumination 7.9 Measuring arrangements 7.10 Sundries No Explanation remarks number

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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INSPECTIONREPORT

Number:

Name of inspector:

page 59 INSPECTIONREPORT Number: Name of inspector: company of inspector: Date: Explanation number: Item:

company of inspector:

Number: Name of inspector: company of inspector: Date: Explanation number: Item: Remarks: Item:

Date:

Explanation number:

Item:

Remarks:

Item:

Remarks:

number: Item: Remarks: Item: Remarks: INSPECTION REPORT Number: Name of inspector: Company of

INSPECTION REPORT

Number:

Name of inspector:

Remarks: INSPECTION REPORT Number: Name of inspector: Company of inspector: Conclusions Explanation: This must

Company of inspector:

REPORT Number: Name of inspector: Company of inspector: Conclusions Explanation: This must include all the
REPORT Number: Name of inspector: Company of inspector: Conclusions Explanation: This must include all the

Conclusions

Explanation:

This must include all the information obtained from the investigations and laboratory tests so that it is possible to issue a maintenance advice on the basis of this information. This must at least include the following

- The general impression of the condition of a component

- The interpretation of conclusions from investigations and laboratory tests

- Determining the nature and extent of the damage (see figure Annex 1 -1 )

- Determining the rate of ageing of the damage parts

MAINTENANCE ADVICE

Number of inspection report:

Name of consultant:.

Company of consultant:

report: Name of consultant:. Company of consultant: Advice Explanation: Date The maintenance advice is the
report: Name of consultant:. Company of consultant: Advice Explanation: Date The maintenance advice is the
report: Name of consultant:. Company of consultant: Advice Explanation: Date The maintenance advice is the

Advice

Explanation:

Date

consultant:. Company of consultant: Advice Explanation: Date The maintenance advice is the result of the inspection

The maintenance advice is the result of the inspection report in which recommendations are made with regard to the measures to be taken. This must contain at least the following:

- The probable cause of damage

- The probable cause of damage

- The anticipated development of damage and the residual life required of the part which is damaged

- The residual life required

- Possible repairs and anticipated life

- Short-term and long-term costs - Planning

- Recommendation with reasons

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

Utilities Chimney : concrete shell Plan of damages crack through the concrete crack at the
Utilities Chimney : concrete shell
Plan of damages
crack through the concrete
crack at the inner side
crack at the outer side
position ot core
corroded steel
Figure annex 1-1

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

REPAIR REPORT

Number of inspection report:

Name of inspector/supervisor:

company of inspector/supervisor:

Report

Explanation:

Date:

page 61

The repair report is a report on the repair work carried out. This must at least include the following:

- Repair methods

- Extend of repair work

- Quality of the result

- Conditions during the work

- Costs of the repair work

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

Demolition of chimneys

Contents:

1. Introduction

2. Restriction

3. Technical aspects

4. Decision to use method A or B

5. Method A

6. Method B

ANNEX 2

7. The demolition of huge chimneys

8. The demolition of chimneys in a poor condition.

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

page 63

1. Introduction It is inevitable that chimneys have to be demolished. The main reason is that their service life ends because of the cessation of the operational unit(s) to which they are connected. It is rarely that chimneys have to be demolished for construction or safety rea- sons.

The existing condition of the chimney is relative to its mode of demolition.

A brickwork chimney could have an impressive

appearance and an architectural beauty. Happily enough there are still several chimneys preserved and well maintained for that beauty, but as far as known it never happened to a concrete chimney.

Sometimes a chimney makes news, that is especially the case when something goes wrong, especially if it falls in the wrong direction. Shortcomings in prepara- tion and/or investigations, by the demolition team could be the cause.

We have to deal with two main methods of demolition:

A:

to demolish a chimney piece small,

B:

to demolish a chimney by making it fall over in an indicated direction.

2.

Restrictions

This article deals with reinforced concrete and brick- work chimneys only and is meant as a guide and not

as a complete manual. In general, brickwork chim-

neys have a height of 30 to 100 metres and rein-

forced concrete chimneys of 60 to 210 metres.

Because of its height, safety plays an important role

in the demolition of a chimney. Safety aspects and

measures to be taken must be fully considered and not be sacrificed due to expense, which in some cases are considerable.

Some technical safety details are given in the next chapters, each belonging to the subject discussed and adding in some cases to the restrictions.

Chimneys higher than 130 metres are a real chal- lenge to demolish. The manner of execution is partic- ularly restrictive to the top part (higher than 130 m) and its costs could equal the erection cost. To date little experience has been obtained.

When working on any height of chimney, weather conditions and emissions of nearby chimneys must be evaluated.

3. Technical aspects

3.1 General It is necessary to deal with some technical aspects of the chimney which are important demolishing is con- sidered.

3.2 Demolishing the internal construction.

3.2.1 A internal construction consisting of the lining

either without or with a small (narrow) cavity can in method A be demolished at the same height as the shell or with a platform hanged from the top of the

shell and going down with lining level demolition.

Attention must be paid to the result and dust (which can be polluted) and protective measures must be taken on behalf of the operatives. In method B it goes down with the shell.

3.2.2 An internal construction consisting of a broad

cavity, in most cases accessible, and regularly pro- vided with reinforced concrete platforms supporting

the lining and the steel structures with ladders.

In carrying out method A it is rather difficult to reach the internal construction from the working platform outside, with pneumatic tools.

In some cases the insulating materials are so weak that they can just be pushed down with stakes.

Otherwise, the best method is to install a scaffolding consisting of small elements because of the narrow- ness of the cavity and manholes in the supporting concrete platforms, starting at the top.

The lining materials to be demolished, using suitable equipment, can be pushed inwardly. When work pro- gresses the scaffolding is dismantled and be used again on a lower level. We assume that the lowest part of the chimney has no lining; generally, the lining starts at a higher level, somewhat below the level of the (first) flue gas inlet.

In this way the falling debris cannot damage the lower lining causing it to collapse in an uncon- trolled, manner If a lining is present in the lowest part, it is advisable to pull this lining down first, so creating space for the work to be carried out and storage for the debris.

The foundation floor is to be cleared away regularly. The falling debris can form a compact heap of rub- ble, difficult to remove and thus it could block the exit. For several reasons, it is not recommended to demolish with explosives the inner construction.

For B is advisable to dismantle the steel steps with its supporting constructions first, because it can add an unbalancing factor.

3.2.3 The internal construction with a broad accessi- ble cavity is provided with ladders, platforms and in some cases a lift, together with the lining construc- tion, with an insulation at the cavity side.Following either method A or B the whole inner construction and lining must be dismantled first.

The ladders and platforms could be of value and useful in case method A is followed, provided that

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

this construction can be protected from damage by falling debris.

3.3 The external shape

The external shape of a chimney is to be considered when deciding upon the manner of its demolition (fig annex 2-1).

Some details are outlined in the following chapters.

4.

Use of method A or B

4.1

It is necessary to decide which of the two meth-

ods is either possible or desired. This decision is

simple for felling a chimney. If method B is chosen it

is essential to consider the following aspects:

an adequate and totally empty area must be avail- able including a margin (as advised by an expert of the blasting company) for angle and landing.is chosen it is essential to consider the following aspects: the chimney must have a sound

the chimney must have a sound condition and not be badly cracked. In case the chimney has no stability, it may not fall in the correct direction.by an expert of the blasting company) for angle and landing. an opening at the bottom

an opening at the bottom can play a decisive role (see fig annex 2-4).has no stability, it may not fall in the correct direction. environmental objections and unknown (not

environmental objections and unknown (not calcu- lable) vibrations of the subsoil affecting nearby buildings.at the bottom can play a decisive role (see fig annex 2-4). after felling the debris

after felling the debris must be cut into removable pieces and be carted away by heavy equipment with suitable access.lable) vibrations of the subsoil affecting nearby buildings. generally, it is difficult to keep spectators away,

generally, it is difficult to keep spectators away, so the whole area must be made secure.and be carted away by heavy equipment with suitable access. 4.2 Conclusion If any of these

4.2 Conclusion

If any of these conditions are not available, possible nor desired, it is necessary to abandon method B.

5. Method A (see conditions 4.1)

Demolishing a chimney piecemeal from top to bottom

is possible for all types (I,II,III and IV, fig annex 2-1).

5.1 The use of method A makes it necessary to use

a working platform. This can be achieved in two dif-

ferent ways:

5.1.1 - using a complete scaffold around the shell,

suitable for all the types (I,II,III and IV, fig annex 2-1).

5.1.2 - using a flying scaffolding for the tapering

types i.e. only for I and IV/I

ad 5.1.1 Demolishing a shell when using a complete scaffold around the shell is a good solution, it pro- tects the workers, the environment and supervision, however it is expensive.

Platforms can be arranged wherever needed using wooden or metal (aluminium) planks. The original ladder and platforms on the outside can also be

used, provided they are approved for that purpose and that they run from bottom to top.The demolishing work can start as soon as all equipment, tools and safety precautions is installed and approved.The ironcap on the chimney-top must be dismantled first and hoisted down.Then the demolishing can start using pneumatic tools or other methods such as a concrete saw and the debris simply be thrown down the bore.The reinforcement bars must be cut regular- ly and be thrown down internally or hoisted down in secure bundles.

The scaffolding and the original parts of the ladder must be taken down as work proceeds. The planks of the working platform must be lowered likewise for a floor on a lower level.

ad 5.1.2 Demolishing a shell using a hand operated flying scaffolding is only possible for tapering chim- neys. It is necessary that the original ladder with plat- forms on the outside of the chimney is in good condi- tion. For installing the equipment at the top, a hoist- ing gear is necessary. First a firm flat working plat- form at the top of the chimney must be installed. Next 3 cables can be assembled around the top, each provided with a hand operated pull lift installed near the ladder. Then the separate yokes are hoisted up to be suspended onto the 3 cables. The number of yokes must be sufficient to be able to work later on at lower height as diameter of the chimney increas- es, taking into account the distance between each yoke and the carrying capacity of the planks. The cables are now drawn tight and the platforms can be completed. The tension of the cables is converted by hard wood rolling clamps into a horizontal force on the shell which ensures that the cables do not sag. By stretching the cables, one at a time, by one pull only on the pull lift, it allows the scaffolding to descend at a steady rate. This amount descent depends on the angle of the taper. The top platform and iron cap can now be lowered down. Apart from the movement of the platform the demolition work is about the same as described in 5.1.1

5.2 Notes on safety.

It is necessary to fix the planks on the working plat- forms, to prevent them from blowing away when bad weather conditions occur.is about the same as described in 5.1.1 5.2 Notes on safety. Using the flying scaffolding,

Using the flying scaffolding, the fixed planks have to be loosened when descending. After reaching the new level the planks must be refixed at the end of each working day. When mounting the flat working platform on top, the workers must use safety belts firmly attached at the top of the ladder. When assembling the cables around the top and when placing yokes, the safety belts must be attached at a fixed point in the middle of the flat working platform.to fix the planks on the working plat- forms, to prevent them from blowing away when

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

page 65

Tarpaulins are useful when used upon workingand Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys page 65 platforms and also mounted on the railings

platforms and also mounted on the railings to pre- vent the debris from falling and spreading around, also they create better conditions for the workers.

A disadvantage is that tarpaulins catch a lot of

wind thus forming a danger. Spread on working platform floors they not only cause a lot of work but

also hide the location of the planks.

When throwing down debris from any height it is necessary to close the door opening at the bottom securely. If all openings are not closed, pieces of stone, concrete and iron can escape through the opening and could harm (even kill) passers by.a lot of work but also hide the location of the planks. It is also very

It is also very necessary that a suitable area

around the chimney is covered with wooden safety shields. Moreover, this area must be made out of bounds for all except the workers involved.

The workers must be experienced craftsman used to work at any height, willing to follow the safety instruc- tions and regulations it is essential that they use the safety equipment which is available for them. It is normal to permit them to carry out a safety audit.

6. Method B (refer to the conditions of chapter 4.1) To demolish a chimney by making it fall in an indicated direction.

6.1 Introduction. For the execution of this method B, it necessary, to discuss technical details, (see chapter 6.2) mainly to be sure the chimney will fall in the correct direction and also because chimneys always break into sec- tions while falling. It is generally not known, that the introducing of a concrete chair for the chimney to sit on at one side, is the safest way in making a chim- ney fall in the correct direction. The best known methods to make a chimney to fall are:

(6.3.2)- to blow it up after inserting explosives of dif- ferent forces and explosive time at either side of the base, (6.3.1)- to blow it up at one side only after demolish- ing a calculated part of the concrete at the other side and providing the chimney with a concrete chair to sit on at the other side, (6.3.1)- to make it fall after demolishing a calculated part of the concrete at the bottom of one side, to pro- vide the chimney with a concrete chair to sit on at that side and finally demolish the concrete at the other side. The calculated part must be accompanied by a stability calculation.

6.2 There are some technical details to be investigated first in order to maintain the surveyability.

6.2.1 The concrete chair (see fig annex 2 - 2 and 3).

Point 1 (see fig annex 2 - 21) is the chosen point on the chimney circumference just opposite to the felling direction. To make a concrete chair, the demolition

must start in the axle at point 1, marked and num- bered clearly with paint on the chimney wall. The points 2,3 and 4 are also to be painted and num- bered clearly. At either side of point 1 the demolition starts proceeding only up to the points 2. The vertical reinforcement is to be cut. The first part of the chair is to be poured using rapid hardening cement. After the concrete has hardened (say after 2 days) both parts between points 2 and 3 must be demolished simultaneously up to the point 3. The chair concrete

is to be completed, after cutting the vertical reinforce-

ment, (see fig. annex 2-2.2)

The parts on both sides between the points 3 and 4 must be left untouched. The height of the chair depends on the height of a gate when situated in this part. The best idea is to give the total chair the height of that gate in order to maintain a good and neces- sary balance. The concrete must be poured at least 100 mm higher than the upper side of the cut-away concrete, also allow the concrete to rise sufficiently at the inward side. In this case the gate is incorporated, so the inner side of the chimney is not accessible.

6.2.2 The situation of a gate in the circumference at

the bottom part of a chimney.

When studying figures annex 2-2.1 and annex 2-2.2 again, it is impossible to have a gate between the points 3 and 4 (see fig annex 2-2.1). This could be named "neutral zone" or the "required balancing part" Fig annex 2-4 explains the effect of this situation, causing two NO options.

The place of the bottom gate, as sketched prevents the possibilities of falling in the directions "NO" with- out any precaution.

The directions noted "NO" can however be overruled by creating another opening symmetrically on the desired axis of fall. In every case the bottom of the shell must be symmetrical (figure annex 2-4-A)

6.3 Causing the chimneys to fall over.

6.3.1 Having seen the details of 6.2 it is easier to dis-

cuss the last details. After making the concrete chair for the chimney to sit on, two possibilities remain:

a To blow up the chimney, by inserting explosives at the opposite side. These explosives have to be cal- culated for weight, force and timing by the expert of the blasting company, and inserted in holes in the concrete of sufficient diameter and depth, evenly distributed between the points 4. (fig annex 2- 2.1,2.2,3) After detonating the explosives the chim- ney will fall in the correct direction.

b To make it fall over by demolishing the concrete at the opposite side, between the points 4. (fig annex 2-2.1,2.2,3). We have to introduce point 5 (see fig annex 2-5) as the starting point of the demolition of

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

the concrete by the use of hand operated pneu- matic tools. The system is, to work in the direction of the points 4, maintaining on both sides of the newly made gap exactly the same distance to the points 4, doing the same work on both sides such as cutting the same amount of vertical reinforce- ment bars. Maintaining this balance, proceeding to the points 4, it is necessary to stop and listen fre- quently during the demolition work. When a crack- ing sound is heard (even faint) the work is ready, leaving the workers enough time to leave the area, (at right angles to the axis of fall). After a while the chimney will fall in the correct direction.

6.3.2 To make it fall by blowing it up. It is necessary to insert explosives on both sides.

That means total dependency on the skill of the blasting team and experts( see figure annex 2-6). The direction of the fall must be discussed first, then

it must be indicated with painted points on the chim-

ney-surface, giving the directions of axes A-C and B- B. The expert has to calculate the amount of explo- sives (see 6.3.1) etc. There will be a difference in explosives inserted in parts BAB and BCB. (see fig. annex 2-6) If direction A is wanted. Then part BAB gets the heaviest load, causing the concrete almost to powder and the reinforcement to break. Part BCB

will get a far lesser load with an explosion detonating

a fraction of time later, causing the reinforcement to break and leaving the concrete crumbled. The chim- ney will over after detonation in direction A.

6.4 During the felling, a chimney, it will break. Some

details are given in fig. annex 2-7,8,9.

The chimney will always break at least into two parts.

The upper part cannot follow the falling-velocity of the lower part, (see fig. annex 2-9). It is often the spot where a double vertical reinforcement is changed into

a single or a reduced double reinforcement.

7. The demolition of huge chimneys

7.1 Huge reinforced concrete chimneys are consid-

ered to be higher than 130 metres. These objects belong to important capital investments and conse- quently they are well maintained.

7.2 However, in present times several reinforced concrete chimneys with a height of 130 up to 150 metres have already been demolished. The demol- ishing work is executed in a suitable modern way, strongly different from what has been discussed in the previous chapters. In principle, two huge hoisting cranes are erected and are made stable for opera- tion. One crane is used for the operator having his seat in a cabin hanging on the first crane, which is provided with modern electronically operated steer- ing gear and transmitters. The operator in his cabin, is able to bring himself in a good working position and is able to operate the second crane, which

remains unmanned. The second crane equipped with electronic receivers conducting the modern hydraulic equipment is able to bite, to snip, to cut etc., with enough energy to demolish thick reinforced concrete- structures. The demolished pieces must be lowered down. In case the lining construction is of steel, it is advisable to remove that inner lining first (as earlier described). Generally there is no problem to demol- ish an inner brickwork lining at the same time as the demolishing of the shell. It is inevitable that bits of rubble will fall uncontrolled from any height. When falling from a height of 140 metres it has a velocity of 187 km/h when landing. The impact of this is enor- mous. Consequently corresponding safety measures must be taken. With the use of this kind of modern equipment it is no problem to pick up the debris and to load trucks for its removal.

7.3 The demolition of chimneys higher than 150 metres. What has to be done and which method have to be followed to pull them down is a problem for the future and it is suggested that this is a subject of later dis- cussion.

8. The demolition of old chimneys in a bad structural condition. When touring around a country, several chimneys can be found having a bad structural condition, sometimes amidst abandoned factories, for example brick factories. Most of them are made of brickwork and not higher than 60 metres. When pulling down comes into discussion, it is likely to be impossible to do it the way, described in the foregoing chapters. The blowing down using evenly distributed charges of explosives around and into the base, could be the best solution, causing the chimney to collapse. Another possibility is to execute the demolition work by means of adjusted modern equipment, as described in chapter 7, being safe, no workers around, and reasonably rapid.

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THE BEST KNOWN TYPES OF CHIMNEYS-FORMS ARE GIVEN BELOW:

I Tapering II Straight III Kinked IV+ 1,11 or III with services basement V Huge
I Tapering
II Straight
III Kinked
IV+ 1,11 or III
with services
basement
V Huge (> 130 metres)
with services
basement

FIG. ANNEX2-1

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FIG. ANNEX 2.2.1 Firstly Secondly Blasting charges or to demolish with pneumatic handtools Concrete chair
FIG.
ANNEX
2.2.1
Firstly
Secondly
Blasting charges
or to demolish with
pneumatic handtools
Concrete chair
(unreinforced
To be left intact fo r stability
on either side
circumference
of the
UNREINFORCED CONCRETE CHAIR

FIG.

ANNEX

2_2.2

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys page 69 FIG. ANNEX 2-2.2a

FIG.

ANNEX

2-2.2a

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Limit of charges or demolishing UNREINFORCED CONCRETE CHAIR FIG. ANNEX 2-3 The situation of the
Limit of charges
or demolishing
UNREINFORCED CONCRETE CHAIR
FIG. ANNEX 2-3
The situation of the bottom gate as sketched prevents
the possibilities of falling in the directions "NO"

FIG.

ANNEX2-

4 a

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If you are in thi s case
If you are in thi s case

You create on opening symmetricall y and you con use thi s fallin g directio n

FIG. ANNEX 2.4b

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D=simu1taneous demolishing from point 5 to point 4 FIG. ANNEX2_ 5 Falling direction FIG. ANNEX
D=simu1taneous
demolishing
from point 5
to point 4
FIG. ANNEX2_ 5
Falling
direction
FIG. ANNEX 2 _6

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This crack will often arise

on the spot where the original double vertical reinforcement is changed

into single or reduced

double reinforcement

FIG. ANNEX2-7

into single or reduced double reinforcement FIG. ANNEX2-7 Fierce blow fierce blow of black (to come)
Fierce blow fierce blow of black (to come) dusty air. Collapsing of shell causes fierce
Fierce blow
fierce blow
of black
(to come)
dusty air.
Collapsing of shell causes
fierce blows at both ends.
Brickwork chimneys are likely to break while falling
into more than two parts due to the absence of
reinforcement.
FIG. ANNEX 2-8

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Graphical approach of the behaviour of a falling chimney.
Graphical approach of the behaviour
of a falling chimney.

FIG. ANNE X 2-9

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ANNEX 3

DRYING. PRE-HEATING AND COOLING OF CHIMNEYS FOR START UP. MAINTENANCE. PROCESS STOPPAGES AND SHUTDOWN

1. INTRODUCTION

When preparing schedules for drying, heating, cool- ing or shutting down chimneys, all relevant factors must be taken into account, the most common of which are described in clauses 2 and 3 below.

Chimneys are sometimes pre-heated, but are usually

dried and fired. The main aim of pre-heating is to cre- ate a draught in the chimney before start up. The aim

of drying and firing is to dry the materials from which

the chimney duct is constructed and prevent inad- missible stresses as a result of fast temperature changes or high water vapour pressures.

The drying, firing, and cooling period for a chimney

normally to coincides with that of furnaces or boilers. These periods are usually different for chimneys compared with furnaces or boilers so that special facilities, such as valves, shut off valves, dampers, etc. are necessary in order to control the temperature

in the chimney.

Practice has shown that the life of a chimney can be increased considerably if drying, firing and cooling procedures are planned and carried out properly.

2. INFLUENCE OF THE INSTALLATION

2.1 Furnaces

A furnace installation, including the corresponding

heat-exchangers, usually constructed with with dense, brickwork, has to be fired and cooled slowly. Heat absorption and heat emission are greatly influ- enced by whether there is a charge (for instance in metallurgic and ceramic industries) in the furnace or not. The presence of water or steam cooled parts also has an effect.

2.2 Boilers

A boiler installation usually has no lining, or only a

thin brick-layer, and therefore has a small heat con- tent. Also, apart from the medium in the pipe system, there is no charge. Bearing in mind the properties of the lining material, firing and cooling of the installa- tion can take place relatively quickly. Shutdowns,

occur more frequently with boiler installations than with furnaces. Consequently, facilities must be avail- able at the inflow aperture of the chimney in order to prevent rapid temperature changes (e.g. in the form

of valves or draught apertures, see figure annex 3-1).

During cooling of the chimney, back-up firing may be necessary to prevent a too rapid temperature drop.

3.

EFFECT OF THE OPERATING MODE

It

is clear that the frequency of shutdowns and the

corresponding cooling and firing period greatly affects the life of the lining and shell of the chimney. The construction of the lining, the choice of material

and also accessibility, must suit the type of operation concerned, taking unexpected shutdowns and tem- perature deviations into account. This applies in par- ticular if there is no possibility for "keeping hot" the lining system (see 4 below). It is evident that there are design and material differences between a chim- ney in continuous operation at a constant tempera- ture of approximately 250°C and a chimney with sev- eral shutdowns a year.

Shutdowns may be necessary for inspection and repairs. However, more frequently they are the result of the shutdown of other installation parts. Consequently, the length of the shutdown may range from a few hours to a few months. In the case of the latter, special measures have to be taken as dis- cussed in point 6.

4. GUIDELINES

4.1 Keeping hot

Keeping the installation hot, for both short and long downtimes, ensures the least risk. Condensation and damage to both construction and material will be pre- vented at a temperature of approximately 100°C, measured at the outlet. If sulphurous fuel is used then the'temperature must be approximately 150°C because of the potential for the condensation of SO 3 . The energy costs for keeping the installation hot may be very high. Therefore, a temporary reducing of the outlet aperture is recommended, as is the use of waste heat from nearby installation.

4.2 Pre-heating

Pre-heating can be used for a new construction or after a long down time, but contributes very little to the drying of the chimney. The principle aim of the pre-heating process is to create a draught in order to expel the cold air.

The minimum capacity of burners in furnaces or boil- ers is usually much too high to achieve the relatively low temperatures in the chimneys for pre-heating and drying. Consequently, the use of auxiliary burn- ers or hot air heaters is recommended. These can be installed in front of a man hole or draught aperture at the bottom of the flue gas duct (see figure annex 3- 1). It is necessary to measure the temperature of the covering in the vicinity of these burners in order to prevent overheating. The temperature must not be higher than 100°C - 150°C. The gate valve or valves in the furnace or draught aperture must be slightly open. When a draught is detected (usually within a few hours), the pre-heating process is stopped and the installation or chimney is then dried and fired. It is important for the mortars used to be completely set before drying and firing.

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4.3 Drying and firing Drying and firing is necessary after completion of a new-construction or after a long downtime.

Generally speaking, chimneys are dried and fired at the same time as the installation connected to them. The drying and firing time depends on the degree of moisture and the thickness and mass of the materi- als used for the covering, amongst other things. The ratio between shell height and diameter is also important. It must be remembered that water vapour is released when the installation is being dried. As this vapour has to escape via the chimney, there is every chance that the moisture content of the lining will increase considerably instead of decreasing. Getting rid of moisture (condensation) is very difficult. First of all, during drying and firing, the moisture will be displaced towards the coldest part, that is the out- side of the lining. Particularly in the case of older chimneys, this condensation is highly pollutant and aggressive, so that new damage may occur. An ideal method is drying from the outside to the inside, but this can only be done with chimneys which have an open or accessible cavity between lining and shell.

All brick and ceramic covering materials which will become hotter then 100°C must be dried slowly. During the drying, the temperature of the lining must remain just above 100°C in order to remove the moisture. Only than can the temperature be increased for firing. It is clear that a drying and firing schedule must be prepared first; this must include all the necessary measures and provisions. Considerable experience and skill is required for preparing a schedule of this type.

The diagram of figure annex 3-2 shows the principle of a drying and firing schedule, for which the follow- ing basic parameters have been used:

- the chimney is dried and fired independently of other parts of the installation,

- the temperature curve applies to the surface tem- perature of the inside of the covering, - the time required for drying must be long enough so that no further drop occurs in the moisture content of the gas (for example, for a chimney 150 metres high, with a diameter of 5 metres and a wallthick- ness of 0.2 metres, approximately 15,000 litres to 20,000 litres of moisture have to be removed),

- the required setting period depends on the plan- ning and may be much longer than 72 hours.

It is clear that it is not possible to provide a general schedule for drying and firing because numerous fac- tors and circumstances have to be taken into account.

5. CONTROL MEASUREMENTS In order to minimise both risk and energy costs dur- ing drying and firing as much as possible, control measurements of the moisture content of the gases

and the temperature of lining should be carried out. The measurements must be made from the begin- ning of the drying period to the end of the firing peri- od. The most important points where the measure- ments are to be made are immediately above the inlet or burner and approximately 2 metres below the top of the chimney. Additional intermediate measure- ment may also be necessary, depending on the height of the chimney.

The measured data must be recorded continuously, so that stand-by equipment must be already installed or available. It must be possible to record the mea- sured data by recorders or monitors in a safe place, preferably in a control room. Therefore, it is neces- sary to design provisions for the installation of the measuring equipment, cables and access to equip- ment before the chimney is built. The moisture con- tent of the waste gases must be measured in the gas flow. The temperature must be measured on or a few centimeters from the inside of the lining. In the case of a very thick or a composite lining, it is recommend- ed that a number of thermo-couples are set in the wall so that the temperature gradient can be con- trolled accurately. At least 2, but preferably 3 mea- suring points near the top, halfway and near flue gas inlet must be included in the circumference of the shell for both temperature measurements at each level in the chimney. (See figure annex 3-1)

6. INFLUENCE OF "SETTING TO COLD" In the case of chimneys which are taken out of oper- ation for a long time, i.e. set to cold, in principle, the same drying and firing conditions apply as described above. However, when chimneys are set to cold, damage may effect the lining and the shell because through the effects of moisture, causing reactions between the used material and the aggressive com- ponents from the flue gases which have penetrated it. Moisture can occur after setting to cold as the result of condensation, rain or snow.

Protective measures to prevent penetration and attack by moisture and condensation on the brick- worklining, concrete shell or steel lining must be therefore taken immediately after the installation has been taken out of operation. Rain, snow and frost must be prevented from entering by fitting a top cover. Various solutions are possible and all must be considered from the point of view of feasibility and safety.

Starting up and firing a cold "chimney" involves many risks, in spite of all the measures taken. Consequently it is necessary to check the condition of the lining materials, coating, joints and concrete or steel walls beforehand.

The measures required may be expensive both in terms of money and of time.

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Drying- and firing-diagram

for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys page 77 Drying- and firing-diagram Figure annex

Figure annex 3-2

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Temperature- and moisture measurements (T and M) must be done on two or three places along the chimney-circumference on a certain height.

Depending on the height and the construction of the lining, more measuring-points must be installated
Depending on the
height and the construction
of the lining,
more measuring-points
must be installated
(e.g. on each 30 m
of the height)
of the lining, more measuring-points must be installated (e.g. on each 30 m of the height)

Figure annex 3-1

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ANNEX 4

STRUCTURAL MEASURES CONNECTED WITH CHANGING OPERATION CONDITIONS THROUGH THE INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE DESULPHURISATION OF FLUE GASES

1.GENERAL

Chimneys are designed for certain operating condi- tions. If these change, then it has to be considered whether the construction is still suitable and if neces- sary changes may have to be made.

As the chimney is usually a part of an existing process, and as a rule processes change very little, structural changes occur relatively seldom as the result of changes to the type of operation.

However, as the result of installations added later, e.g. installing flue gas desulphurisation equipment at existing power stations at a later date, it is becoming more and more necessary to adapt the chimney accordingly.

2. OPERATING CONDITIONS CREATED BY DESULPHURISATIONINSTALLATIONS In power stations, the flue gas desulphurisation process takes place between the fly ash filter and the chimney, on the cold side of the flue gas flow.

Of the various methods available, the so-called wet method, based on limestone, is the most common. (The present market share of this method is approxi- mately 90 %.)

Dry or semi-dry methods are usually used in industry, central heating installations and refuse incinerators.

The specific feature of this method is that the desul- phurisation installation is installed upline of the elec- trostatic filter. The desulphurised flue gases pass through the electrostatic filter first and are only then introduced into the chimney. The flue gas tempera- tures at the chimney inlet are 130°C and higher, and the flue gases contains less water than in the case of the wet method.

With the wet method, the operating conditions and the flue gas characteristics are important for the chimney. They differ fundamentally from the usual flue gases conditions from fossil fuel combustion processes.

The most important difference is that during the absorption process, the flue gases pass the water saturation point and therefore contain water droplets in addition to water vapour. This phenomenon occurs because in addition to high excess air.the remaining solid particles in the flue gases act as condensation nuclei in the scrubbing process, resulting in water droplets.

Well constructed scrubbing towers have double drip

separators which limit droplet formation to 200 mg/m 3 maximum. The behaviour of the droplets varies. Droplets with a diameter of 25μ maximum evaporate relatively quickly to form an water vapour. However, they can lead to local con- densation. Even after these gases have been re- heated upline of the chimney inlet, the flue gas tem- perature is still close to the dew point. Although the flue gases are desulphurised with the aid of (basic) lime in a water saturated vapour state, the conden- sate reacts in a very aggressive, acid form.

The following details need to be known in order to assess the flue gases:

- the remaining solids (fly ash) in the flue gases, in order to obtain an idea of the scale and amounts of water.

- the minimum and maximum flue gas temperature of the purified gas at the chimney inlet,

- the relative humidity and the sulphuric acid still pre- sent in order to be able to calculate the dew point. As is known, a small amount of sulphuric acid is sufficient to allow the dew point to increase to approximately 50°C.

Condensation can occur due to droplets in the flue gases or through unfiltered combustion residue or scaling of the drip separator or regeneration of the pre-heaters, released in the course of the scrubbing process, leads to congestion or scaling. In the case of a chimney with a brickwork lining, there is the pos- sibility of attack and moisture infiltration of the brick- work.

The installation of flue gas desulphurisation equip- ment causes extra problems for the chimney. The chimney must always be able to transport the uncleaned flue gases from a conventional unit. This occurs if the scrubbing installation (suddenly) fails as the result of insufficient maintenance or a fault. In this case, just like previously, unpurified flue gases with a temperature of 130°C to 180°C are transported through the chimney. On the other hand, the chimney must be able to carry the flue gases, which are satu- rated with water, purified and re-heated and have a temperature of 70°C to 90°C, without damage.

These rapid temperature changes cause static forces (alternating compressive and tensile stresses) and thermo-dynamic forces in the brickwork. Water vapour occurs during high temperatures and conden- sation during low temperatures.

The different flue gas characteristics (cold, wet gases or hot, dry gases) also influence the pressure ratios

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in the chimney. These are affected by not only differ- ent flue gas with its different specific gravities but also the volume at the different temperature gradi- ents are the cause of the fact that different flue gas speeds, and therefore different pressures, occur within the same cross-section.

For example, with a chimney with a diameter of 6.0 metres at the top and 8.6 metres at the flue gas inlet, and with a height of 130 metres between the two cross-sections, an underpressure can occur in nor- mal operation with flue gases of 160°C and an over- pressure can occur at a temperature of 70°C when the desulphurisation equipment is used.

If desulphurisation equipment is to be installed in an existing power station at a later date, or connected to an existing chimney which was intended for a con- ventional unit, then the chimney must be adapted to the new operating conditions.

3. ASSESSING THE EXISTING CHIMNEY In order to be able to determine which measures are necessary, the chimney must be inspected very carefully. An analysis of the chimney and its materi- als is then made on the basis of this. In addition to the investigations described as necessary in other parts of this report, the following information is also required:

- material test on the brickwork: apart from acid solu- bility and water absorption capacity, the infiltration into the brick caused by the actual operation condi- tions must be analysed and determined. condition of joints. An assessment of the joints is essential. Material tests need to be carried out on the mortar. Portland cement mortar is unsuitable. fly-ash deposits, places where fly-ash accumulates must be examined. The extent and layer thickness of these must also be determined. Any caking must be analysed. steel linings which should have a covering (e.g. coating) must be checked very carefully for rust formation, pitting or other forms of damage. expansion joints, compensators: these structural parts are to be assessed from the point of view of their function, and also for their capacity to with- stand different operating conditions. exposed steel structures of suspended equipment, straps, auxiliary structures, chimney copings and cap, parts of the lightning protection system, steps, ladders, etc. must be inspected thoroughly, repaired and protected. the strcuture should be assessed with any new conditions in mind. Particular attention must be paid to the following parts: possibility of inspecting and checking the lining, flue gas speeds, pressure ratios and corrosion protection.

4. MEASURES TO BE TAKEN Any measures to be taken have to be established on the basis of the before mentioned investigations and assessments. With the present state of the art, the following are recommended (naturally to be adapted to the local conditions).

4.1 Lining In the past, experience with different types of opera- tion has resulted in the opinion that the best materi- als for linings in chimneys are brickwork or steel.

4.1.1 Brickwork linings In this case, particular attention must be paid to the stresses and changing pressure ratios caused by temperature changes. Brickwork constructed with cement or cement-lime mortar is unsuitable for a flue gas desulphurisation installation.

Up to now, potassium silicate cements have proved successful. Synthetic resin cement can also be used within certain temperature limits

Condensation must be drained away properly, partic- ularly at expansion-joints and above the flue gas inlet. The hopper shaped floor of the lining must be acid-proof and provided with an acid drain of more than 200 mm in diameter.

Old scale, e.g. fly ash, must be removed. It is sug- gested to coat the inside of the lining with a water- repellent coating to prevent condensation penetration.

Expansion joints: it must be assumed that overpres- sure will sometimes occur in the chimney. Therefore, the expansion-joints must be made similar to a com- pensator. Fluorine rubber has been used as an elas- tic material with good results. The material is vulcan- ised on the spot and can be attached by means of stainless steel strips which are secured to the brick- work with screws and rawl plugs.

4.1.2.Steel linings Up to now, opinions have differed with regard to the need to apply a corrosion protection layer. This is because the coatings known at the moment are not very suitable for these conditions. The temperatures range between 70°C (wet scrubbing) and 160°C - 180°C (normal operation). If the air pre-heater fails, the temperature may even rise to a maximum of 250°C. If the maximum fluegas temperature in the chimney can be limited, good results can be achieved with rubber or synthetic resin coatings.

It is extremely important that the substrate is treated very carefully by shot-blasting, flame jets, etc. The atmosphere when the treatment is carried out (tem- perature and atmospheric humidity) is also a very important factor which has to be taken into account.

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4.2 Chimney top As soon as the flue gases leave the chimney at the

top, the cold, purified, supersaturated flue gases con- dense in the atmosphere. This means that the outside

of the part of the shell right at the top also has to be

protected against condensation. If the shell is made of concrete, the top section must be protected approximately 5 to 8 metres below the top of the chimney. Before the treatment, the substrate has to be treated very carefully by shot-blasting or with a flame jet.

Steam cleaning and cleaning with high pressure

water jets is not recommended. A good form of corro- sion protection is a synthetic resin coating, consisting

of an undercoat and a top coat, applied in one or sev-

eral (three) layers, based on a 2 pack epoxy resin. Condensation forming at the top may lead to ice form- ing in winter, which can be dangerous if lumps of ice fall off The installation of a hot-air jacket, at the top or electrically heated matresses can be a solution for preventing this; considering that, up tillnow, a hot-air jacket is a better solution than an electric heating.

In the case of chimneys with an accessible cavity and

a brickwork lining, it is recommended that the top is

re-built so that the lining is extended to a height equal

to at least half the diameter of the shell. The height of

the shell is then increased to the same extent with the aid of acid resistant brickwork and pointed with syn-

thetic resin cement, so that the outside of the chim- ney-top is also protected against acid attack.

Another advantage of this construction is that the plume of flue gas detaches itself from the chimney more easily and the condensation can be collected and removed by means of a drain through the acces- sible cavity. Remember that this drain must be able to function in winter.

Metal in the vicinity of the top of the chimney, used for ladders, vents, steps and measuring points, etc. must be stainless steel.

Up to now, material no. 1.4577 has been used, which is then also coated with a plastic protective layer. Experience has shown that higher alloys are needed. Tests have already been carried out with Hasteloy. Plastic vents and grids have also proved successful.

5. SUMMARY

When wet desulphurisation plant is installed, flue gases are produced which essentially differ in behav- iour and properties from flue gases in power stations, etc. before installation of this type of equipment.

An exception are chimneys at chemical installations which are designed for this type of operation. If an existing chimney is connected to a desulphurisation installation, it must be renovated. The necessary pro- visions or treatments need to be determined and car- ried out on the basis of careful analysis.

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ANNEX 5

ANNEX 5. BUILT-IN PROVISIONS FOR INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE WORK ON CHIMNEYS

General When designing chimneys, attention must be paid to making provisions which:

allows measured data to be obtained (e.g. flue gas composition and variations of these) to support damage-analyses gives safe, efficient access for people and materi- als/equipment used for inspection and maintenance

limits the period when the chimney is out of use.

The right provisions should be conducive to proper and regular maintenance work on the chimney.

In this connection, the following facilities should be considered in detail:

ladders and steps, facilities for hoisting work, connections, flue gas detection points, thermocouples for measuring flue gas temperature.the following facilities should be considered in detail: Ladders and steps Cageladders are to be constructed

Ladders and steps Cageladders are to be constructed in such a way that:

the vertical distance between landings and/or hori- zontal balconies is not more than 20 m, sufficient space is available between laddertreads and shell for safe use (minimum 20 cm), above each stop, the cage is partly open over a height of approximately 2.2 m and is provided with

a safety chain(s),

the top of the chimney is also accessible.

Balconies are to be built in such a way that:

if necessary, aircraft warning lights can be mount- ed and connected,

the tread grids are interchangeable, the steel ties of both the innermost and outermost polygon are linked,

if required, lifting gear can be suspended from the

radial steel sections, to guarantee strength/stability diagonal bracing should be provided, sufficient working space is created for maintenance of aircraft warning lighting, flue gas detection and vertical access, toe boards and handrails are provided.

All the steelwork mentioned above must be properly protected, for example by means of hot dip galvanis- ing plus a paint system. Care must also be taken to

ensure that the steelwork mentioned is properly secured.

For hoisting It is recommended to attach a (simple) hoisting sys- tem to the shell where balconies are provided. In this case, a swivelling davit with lock is usually used, where the suspension point for the pulley usually projects approximately 50 cm beyond the rail. A device of this type can be used for the vertical lifting of materials and equipment for inspection and main- tenance work.

Connections (steelwork to concrete) In order to fasten the steelwork to the concrete chim- ney shell, cast-in inserts are preferred in places where forces of any significance need to be transmit- ted. On the other hand, the lightning protection instal- lation for example can be secured by means of post- drill inserts. The cast-in type of insert must be made in such a way that:

a secure connection is made so that tensile forces

a

secure connection is made so that tensile forces

are applied behind the external reinforcement. In this connection, reference is made to various

reports published about forces transmitted by cast-

in

inserts.

the right choice of materials is made, i.e. with regard to corrosion as a result

the right choice of materials is made, i.e. with regard to corrosion as a result of flue gases and/or an industrial atmosphere. In practice, bronze or stainless steel (AISI 316) is often used, preferably bronze.

the inserts can be properly secured behind the reinforcement in the correct location within toler-

the inserts can be properly secured behind the reinforcement in the correct location within toler-

ances as specified and, where applicable, can be fixed to formwork. In this connection, inserts, pro- vided with anchor bars tied behind the vertical rein- forcement are recommended. The baseplates of steelwork for the ladders, steps, davits, etc., need

to be provided with slotted holes to give tolerances

to allow for actual position of built-in inserts. Sets

of inserts e.g. for fastening one or two baseplates,

are often linked together and attached to the rein- forcement as a single unit.

Flue gas detection points Flue gas detection points, required by national or local environmental organisations, are intended to allow (random) measurements to be carried out for determining the flue gas composition. The following recommendations apply for the design or implemen- tation of these detection points:

they must be well sealed. Flue gases must not be allowed to escape into the atmosphere. Also, the flue gases must not be able to penetrate into theflue gas composition. The following recommendations apply for the design or implemen- tation of these detection

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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insulation and vapour-proof layer as described in Appendix 5 behind the brickwork (chemical attack,

"'' They must be easy to open, even after long-term exposure to the atmosphere. The seals must fit

properly and the caps must be greased. They must problems regarding chimney-damage, have good insulation properties. Two insulated

stainless steel sleeves are often used in order to prevent overheating (through conduction) of both

the insulation layer and the concrete. recording in the control room.

Thermocouples for measuring flue gas temperature

In addition to information concerning the flue gas composition, information on flue gas temperature and changes is essential for a correct analysis of

and changes is essential for a correct analysis of Consequently, thermocouples are often installed near the

Consequently, thermocouples are often installed near the flue gas inlet with continuous temperature

near the flue gas inlet with continuous temperature ANNEX 6 DUTCH SAFETY-INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXECUTION OF WORKS

ANNEX 6

DUTCH SAFETY-INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXECUTION OF WORKS

For the execution of civil and architectural work in Holland, there are a number of statutory directives or regulations for control of work practices - the so called "P-sheets". P-sheets relevant to the execution of chimney maintenance work include the following:

p79

Requirements for mobile ladders

p80

Manually operated lifting equipment

p81

including tackles, jacks and racks Steeplejacks

p82

Winches

p83

Demolition work

p87

Goods hoist

p

112-1

Respiratory protection

p

112-3

Respiratory protection, choice table

p113

Dangerous substances, introduction card

p114

Lifts and lifting gear with guides, for the vertical transport of personnel

p

115-1

Hoist, legal provisions

p

115-2

Hoist, construction, strength, testing and maintenance

p

115-3

Hoist and lifting tackles; safety hoists

p116

Asbestos, general

p

116-2

Working with asbestos in the construction industry

p

116-3

Working with asbestos (general)

p117

Installation work, fabricating and erecting

p119

components** Mobile scaffolding, use and maintenance

p120

Mobile scaffolding, design and manufacture

p123

Concrete hoists

p125

Mobile cranes

p127

Rail tracks for towercranes

p128

Erection of steelwork

p131

Scaffolding fittings

p137

Explosives

p138

Hearing protection

p144

Working from cradles suspended from a crane

p146

Electric tools, electrical engineering regula-

p151

tions Mobile scaffolding

p154

Steel props

p156

Hoisting cranes, checking and testing

CP4

Temporary electric equipment

V3

List of equipment allowed by the work

V4

inspectorate Safety at work report

OP 20

•Maximum concentration at workplace values - basic data for recommendations

As an example, the most important directives of the Dutch P-sheets concerning hoisting activities are given in the following:

-check cables and ropes for kinks and breaks

use only certified ropes and fittings with original parts

use only certified or approved platforms and scaffolding

use electrically operated climbing gear with double hoist wire and free fall safety protection gear

when using platforms, work always with a sepa- rately attached safety line combined with approved safety harness

only transport people using double hoist wire winches with free fall safety protection gear and winches with double dead man's switch (hand and foot) and overload cut-out (thermal)

provide all scaffolding and platforms with adequate rail protection

establish a safety area around the chimney and ensure that the entrance to the chimney at ground level is covered.

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

ANNEX 7

EXAMPLE OF A CHIMNEY REPAIR SPECIFICATION

INTRODUCTION The following example of a chimney repair contract is based on the assumption that the chimney repair contractor is fully familiar with chimney repair work.

It assumes also that the order issued to the repair con- tractor for the work is based on a performance specifica- tion, rather than on resources employed as the choice of these is left to the initiative of the repair contractor.

Example

The enquiry documents sent to the repair contractor will typically include the following:

administrative and commercial contract docu- ments, covering, in particular, guarantees, penal- ties insurance.the repair contractor will typically include the following: The enquiry may also include a technical specification,

The enquiry may also include

a technical specification, setting out all technical

a

technical specification, setting out all technical

requirements for undertaking the repair of the chimney

quality assurance document concerning the quality

quality assurance document concerning the quality

of

the supplies and services to be provided,

administrative and service specifications, applica- ble to service contracts executed on plant in opera-

administrative and service specifications, applica- ble to service contracts executed on plant in opera-

tion, and including, in particular, all clauses relating

to health and safety.

Apart from the technical specification, the documents may not be suitable for international use and must be drafted specifically taking due account of legislation in force in each couintry concerned.

The only technical document included hereafter is therefore the Technical Specification.

MODEL CHIMNEY REPAIR CONTRACT

DOCUMENT No.1 Contract No.:

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

CONTENTS

SECTION I

PURPOSE

Purpose

SECTION II

CHIMNEY CHARACTERISTICS Chimney construction details and dimensions Gas analysis and quantity Fuel details

SECTION III

OPERATING CONDITIONS Operating conditions Environmental conditions and site specific criteria

SECTION IV

CHIMNEY REPAIR WORKS Repair of external shell Repair of masonry lining Repair of steel lining Repair of paintwork Repair of accessories

SECTION 1 -

1.

1.1

PURPOSE

This Special Technical Specification concerns repair work on the chimney for units Nos. and of the power station at

SECTION 2 -

chimney for units Nos. and of the power station at SECTION 2 - 2. 2.1 CHIMNEY

2.

2.1

CHIMNEY CHARACTERISTICS

This chapter must define:

CHIMNEY CHARACTERISTICS This chapter must define: chimney characteristics, gas characteristics, fuels used

chimney characteristics, gas characteristics, fuels used operating conditions in the local environment.

SECTION 3 -

3.

OPERATING CONDITIONS AND CHIMNEY ENVIRONMENT

3.1

.Operating conditions

Electric power generation plant chimneys are used to carry flue gases for discharge to the atmosphere at a height at which they are dispersed.

The flue gases principally comprise hot air, water and aggressive substances (generally acids).

Flue gas temperatures can vary according to the process employed, from a cold level of about 30°C, to a hot level of between 140° and 190°C, in some cases up to 200°C.

3.2. Environment

This chapter must define:

environment in which the chimney is situated and which influences the chimney,

chimney design and maintenance work to be executed,

constraints imposed by local admini- stration and which can require the installation of instruments for measuring dust, SO 2 and NO 4 discharge rates,

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

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and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys page 85 SECTION 4 maintenance according to climatic conditions

SECTION 4

maintenance according to climatic conditions and the environment in which the chimney is located (industrial zone, rural area, sea coast, etc.).

4 CHIMNEY REPAIR The repair defined in this chapter, and which takes due account of the conclusions of the inspection report (referenced) and the maintenance-advice-report, must be executed in accordance with standards and regulations currently in force, special rules laid down by owners, national rules (safety) and general rules as applied in the profession.

Particular the following repairs are described:

external shell internal masonry lining internal steel lining repainting repair of accessoriesprofession. Particular the following repairs are described: The repair must be executed in compliance with all

The repair must be executed in compliance with all clauses of this Special Technical Specification.

4.1 REPAIR OF EXTERNAL SHELL All repair work undertaken on the concrete shell must ensure:

elimination of all degraded materials, reconstruction of the shellrepair work undertaken on the concrete shell must ensure: and concerns the internal and external faces

and concerns the internal and external faces of the shell.

4.1.1 Elimination of degraded materials For all parts where:

insufficient cover to the steel reinforcement, corrosion of the steel reinforcement, formation of cracks, inhomogeneity are observed, the following work must be carried out:

are observed, the following work must be carried out: preparation of all degraded parts, elimination of
are observed, the following work must be carried out: preparation of all degraded parts, elimination of

preparation of all degraded parts, elimination of all material degraded as a result of defective adhesion, inhomo- geneity or corrosion of metal parts, brushing and cleaning of all parts (concrete and steel reinforcement).

4.1.2 Reconstruction of the shell Materials used for the repair of concrete chimney shells are as follows:

for the repair of concrete chimney shells are as follows: poured concrete, shotcreting mortar, smoothing mortar

poured concrete, shotcreting mortar, smoothing mortar incorporating

synthetic resin or not, synthetic resin for injection. For the selection of repair materials the following parameters must be taken into account:

the following parameters must be taken into account: coefficient of elasticity, coefficient of expansion,

coefficient of elasticity, coefficient of expansion, shrinkage, creep and relaxation, compressive and tensile strength, waterproof and water-resistant characteristics, high and low temperature performance, prevention of corrosion.

The repair work consists of applying materials, suitable for the types of repair involved, duly complying with applicable utilisation and application specifications.

Repair of steel reinforcement:with applicable utilisation and application specifications. passivation of steel elements after removal of concrete

passivation of steel elements after removal of concrete overlay and rust and smoothing with waterproof mortar incorporating synthetic or composite resins.

Isolated concrete repair:

smoothing with appropriate conventional mortar.

Surface repair of large areas:

shotcreting to obtain:

full adhesion to the sound concrete base structure,

adequate cover to the steel reinforcement.

Major repair (part reconstructed):

application of appropriate poured concrete.

Repair of cracks:

injection or filling.

4.1.3

Preventative maintenance on the concrete shell For this purpose, generally the shell is coated.

4.2

REPAIR OF INTERNAL MASONRY LINING The repair work must cover:

OF INTERNAL MASONRY LINING The repair work must cover: elimination of degraded material, reconstruction of the

elimination of degraded material,

reconstruction of the lining

4.2.1 Elimination of degraded materials Removal of the following:

Elimination of degraded materials Removal of the following: crumbling, broken or worn bricks, bricks, where their

crumbling, broken or worn bricks, bricks, where their volume has been reduced,

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

brickwork adjacent to cracks, removal of upper brick-layers to re-establish expansion clearance leve with the expansion joints, removal and replacement of damaged expansion joints.and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys 4.2.2 Reconstruction of brickwork Replacements of parts or

4.2.2 Reconstruction of brickwork Replacements of parts or sections of brickwork lining Readjustment of expansion joints

Replacement of all expansion joints Repair of cracks in brickwork:

Filling and smoothing of small cracks using a synthetic resin mortar resistant to chemicals. Partial repair of the masonry with major, full depth cracks (incorporation of flue gas detection points in the case of chimneys with accessible air space).of all expansion joints Repair of cracks in brickwork: 4.2.3 Repair of thermal insulation of brickwork

4.2.3

Repair of thermal insulation of brickwork linings

4.2.4

Preventative maintenance

4.3

REPAIR OF INTERNAL STEEL LINING

4.3.1

Repair of corroded parts

Isolated or minor repairs:INTERNAL STEEL LINING 4.3.1 Repair of corroded parts repair by welding new sheet sections in the

repair by welding new sheet sections in the same grade of steel as the existing lining.

Major isolated repairs:sections in the same grade of steel as the existing lining. addition of an outer lining

addition of an outer lining comprising four segments.

Extensive repairs (loss of shell thick- ness due to intensive corrosion):addition of an outer lining comprising four segments. reinforcement of the weakened part using IPN steel

reinforcement of the weakened part using IPN steel girders placed inside the metal lining, and forming a circular mesh system.

4.3.2

Repair of thermal insulation

4.3.3

Preventative maintenance Cleaning of the internal lining for inspection purposes, is completed by passivation (Hutter process), followed by flushing.

4.4

REPAIR OF PAINTWORK

Paintwork repair operations comprise, in particular:

elimination of defective coatings, preparation of base structures,

elimination of defective coatings,

preparation of base structures,

application of protective and finishing coatings in accordance with the specification, covering coating work, issued by the owner and to which the contract is subject.

4.5

REPAIR OF ACCESSORIES

4.5.1

Repair of ladders, platforms and steps This chapter must define all accessories for which the replacement of defective elements is required, and all accessories subject to maintenance work.

4.5.2

Repair of lightning protection

4.5.3

Repair of beacons

4.5.4

Repair of coping

4.5.5

Repair of ventilation

Repair of ventilation

Cleaning of ventilation orifices and baffles.

Execution of draught tests.beacons 4.5.4 Repair of coping 4.5.5 Repair of ventilation Cleaning of ventilation orifices and baffles.

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

page 87

ANNEX 8

STRAIGHTENING OF BENT BRICKWORK CHIMNEY

The bending of a brickwork shell can have several causes. Humidity, resulting in local expansion of the brickwork can be considered as the most important cause of the bending phenomenon.page 87 ANNEX 8 STRAIGHTENING OF BENT BRICKWORK CHIMNEY The straightening of bent brickwork shells often

The straightening of bent brickwork shells often is required, when - for instance - a new lining or lin- ingsection must be built. This lining or lining sec- tion can consist of steel or brickwork.as the most important cause of the bending phenomenon. The execution of this work requires a

The execution of this work requires a specialised contractor with extensive experience, in this type of work.or lining sec- tion can consist of steel or brickwork. The straightening-work start s with the

The straightening-work start s with the making of one or more horizontal incisions on the convex side starts with the making of one or more horizontal incisions on the convex side of the chimney (see figure annex 8-1).

In these incisions steel o r wooden wedges o r hydraulic jacks are placed in n these incisions steel or wooden wedges or hydraulic jacks are placed in order to maintain ver- ticality during the operation. These wedges or jacks are placed during the cutting out of the incision(s), starting in the mid- dle of the incision(s) and next alternatingly on the left and the right side of the starting point. (see figure annex 8-1)

Next the width of the incision(s) is diminished by carefully hammer-the right side of the starting point. (see figure annex 8-1) ing out, little by little,

ing out, little by little, the wedges or by lowering, little by little, the jacks. This activity will be done in the reverse sequence as for that of the placing of the wedges or jacks, (see figure annex 8-1)

Because of the flexibility of the brickwork, small unequal move- ments of the shell along the inci- sion(s) will not cause damage.the placing of the wedges or jacks, (see figure annex 8-1) DRAWIN G OF STRAIGHTENING OF

DRAWING OF STRAIGHTENING OF BENDED BRICKWORK CHIMNEYS

Longitudinal section Bend-Graph Detail Brickwork Shell lining steel or wooden wedges corbel "A" View
Longitudinal section
Bend-Graph
Detail
Brickwork
Shell
lining
steel or wooden
wedges
corbel
"A"
View "A"
steel or wooden
wedges
incision width
shell
Cutting
Area of horizontal
incision below the
corbel
direction
Top - View
Straightening
direction
Start
Finish
8
6
4
2
1
wedges or jacks
3
Bendinq
5
7
Horizontal
9
incision
Finish
Start
direction
Straightening
direction
Cutting
Finish
start

The number of wedges or jacks to be placed, depends on the per- missible stress of the brickwork.During the work , steel ring ban- dages around the shell will be installed directly

During the work , steel ring ban- dages around the shell will be installed directly above and work, steel ring ban- dages around the shell will be installed directly above and below the incision(s) to limit radial defor- mation during the procedure.

After the straightening work , the wedges or jacks are taken out work, the wedges or jacks are taken out

and replaced by packs of steel

plates to fix the position of the

shell.

Next the incision(s) is fully closedreplace d by packs of steel plates to fix the position of the shell. with new

with new high quality masonry.

Figur e annex 8-1

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CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

ANNEX 9

ADJUSTMENTOF DAMAGED EXPANSION-JOINTS IN BRICKWORKS LINING

Reduction of expansion clearance is due to expan- sion of the masonry cylinders. This expansion caus- es an increase in the height and diameter of the cylinders. Restoration of functional clearance between two lining-sections as shown in the exam- ples given in the figures 1,2 and 3, therefore involves dismantling the brickwork forming the upper part of each lining section.

In case of a structure of the type, shown in figures 1 and 2 in compliance with the required functional radi- al clearance, over the full height of the joint, must be ensured. In the event of unacceptable radial defor- mation, this means that the masonry must be recon-

structed over a height exceeding that of the joint, in order to obtain a profile compatible with the correct mechanical strength of the cylinder.

Readjustment of clearances is essential, and must be conducted on a systematic basis. Clearances are measured cold. Where they are held within the toler- ances stipulated by the manufacturer, these clear- ances allow for expansion, without generation of mechanical stresses applied to the linings, expansion joints and concrete corbels. Destruction of the joints, brickwork and even the corbels, is consequently avoided.

EXPANSION JOINT Inside of chimney
EXPANSION JOINT
Inside of
chimney

Figure annex 9-1

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

page 89

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys page 89 Figure annex 9-2

Figure annex 9-2

page 90

CICIND Manual for Inspection and Maintenance of Brickwork and Concrete Chimneys

EXPANSION JOINT Inside of chimney
EXPANSION JOINT
Inside of
chimney

Figure annex 9-3