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1 Introduction • Gypsum is a mineral naturally found in nature. • Dental applications: –

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Introduction

• Gypsum is a mineral naturally found in nature.

• Dental applications:

– Impression materials

– Constructing casts and dies

– Making replicas

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Ideal properties of die materials

• Dimensional accuracy.

• Ease of use.

• Accurate reproduction of fine detail.

• Inert.

• Good strength.

• Inexpensive.

• Abrasion resistant.

• Good color contrast

3 GYPSUMGYPSUM ProductProduct UseUse inin DentistryDentistry GYPSUMGYPSUM == calciumcalcium sulfatesulfate ==
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GYPSUMGYPSUM
ProductProduct UseUse inin DentistryDentistry
GYPSUMGYPSUM == calciumcalcium sulfatesulfate ==
naturallynaturally occursoccurs asas dihydratedihydrate
HeatHeat removesremoves waterwater andand convertsconverts
dihydratedihydrate toto hemihydratehemihydrate
[Gypsum[Gypsum Powder]Powder] ++ [H[H22O]O] [Gypsum][Gypsum] ++ [Heat][Heat]
CalciumCalcium SulfateSulfate HemihydrateHemihydrate
CalciumCalcium SulfateSulfate DihydrateDihydrate
DIRECTDIRECT versusversus
INDIRECTINDIRECT PROCEDURESPROCEDURES
DentalDental AmalgamAmalgam
DentalDental CompositesComposites
Inlays,Inlays, Onlays,Onlays, Crowns,Crowns, andand BridgesBridges
PartialPartial andand FullFull DenturesDentures
TemporaryTemporary AppliancesAppliances
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Properties and behaviour

Properties and behaviour • Chemical properties : (exothermic reaction) Ca sulfate dihydrate • Ca sulfate hemihydrate

• Chemical properties: (exothermic reaction)

Ca sulfate dihydrate

Ca sulfate

hemihydrate The production of various types of gypsum is basically the same:

– If the heating process occurs in atmospheric pressure at 115°C, the powder particles are porous and irregular (b hemihydrate, plaster). – if heating process is under pressure, powder particles are regular and less porous (a hemihydrate, or dental stone).

heat

and less porous (a hemihydrate, or dental stone). heat water loss ground 5 – A further

water loss ground

(a hemihydrate, or dental stone). heat water loss ground 5 – A further increase in pressure

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(a hemihydrate, or dental stone). heat water loss ground 5 – A further increase in pressure

– A further increase in pressure and refining of the powder by grinding results in denser stone, high-strength or die stone

– When stone is mixed with silica: dental investment, a material that can withstand high heat and stress produced when molten metal is forced into molds to form indirect restorations

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GYPSUMGYPSUM

SettingSetting ReactionReaction

[Gypsum[Gypsum Powder]Powder] ++ [H[H22O]O] [Gypsum][Gypsum] ++ [Heat][Heat]

AcceleratorsAccelerators

[[CaSOCaSO44--(1/2)H(1/2)H22O]O] ++ [(3/2)H[(3/2)H22O]O] [[CaSOCaSO44--(2)H(2)H22OO]] ++ [Heat][Heat]

CalciumCalcium SulfateSulfate HemihydrateHemihydrate

Calcium Calcium Sulfate Sulfate Hemihydrate Hemihydrate Retarders Retarders Calcium Calcium Sulfate Sulfate

RetardersRetarders

CalciumCalcium SulfateSulfate DihydrateDihydrate

Calcium Calcium Sulfate Sulfate Dihydrate Dihydrate 7 GYPSUM GYPSUM PRODUCTS PRODUCTS : : • • Plaster

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GYPSUMGYPSUM PRODUCTSPRODUCTS::

PlasterPlaster StoneStone HighHigh strength/lowstrength/low expansionexpansion stonestone HighHigh strength/highstrength/high expansionexpansion stonestone

SpecialtySpecialty StonesStones InvestmentInvestment MaterialsMaterials

Stones • • Investment Investment Materials Materials Edentulous Edentulous Cast Cast Orthodontic Orthodontic

EdentulousEdentulous

CastCast

OrthodonticOrthodontic

ModelModel

WorkingWorking

CastCast

Orthodontic Model Model Working Working Cast Cast Working Working Cast Cast with with Removable Removable
Orthodontic Model Model Working Working Cast Cast Working Working Cast Cast with with Removable Removable

WorkingWorking

CastCast withwith

RemovableRemovable

DiesDies

RemovableRemovable

DieDie withwith

WaxedWaxed InlayInlay

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Gypsum products

Plaster of Paris
Plaster of Paris

Heated in open kittle

(110-120°C)

High strength stone
High strength
stone
Dental stone
Dental stone

Heated under pressure

125°C

Made from densite, boiled in 30% CaCl 2, then washed with water and ground

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Physical properties

, then washed with water and ground 9 Physical properties Type W/P Porosity Compressiv Abrasion Setting

Type

W/P

Porosity

Compressiv

Abrasion

Setting

e strength

resistance

expansion

plaster

0.45

High

8.8 MPa

Low

High

Stone

0.30

moderate

20.6

MPa

Moderate

Moderate

High strength stone

0.23

Low

34.3

MPa

High

Low

High strength

0.20

Low

48.0

MPa

High

High

High-

 

expansion

stone

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Physical properties (cont.)

Physical properties (cont.) • Strength and hardness : Affected by – Porosity – Shape of particles

• Strength and hardness: Affected by

– Porosity

– Shape of particles (large irregular particles don’t condense well leading to decreased density).

– Amount of water mixed with the powder. Higher porosity requires more water to be mixed to produce a cast which will be weaker.

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• Dimensional accuracy:

a cast which will be weaker. 11 • Dimensional accuracy: – The higher the setting expansion,

– The higher the setting expansion, the lower the accuracy.

– Setting expansion results from the growth of crystals as they join.

• Solubility:

– Set gypsum is not highly soluble

– The greater the porosity the greater the solubility.

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• Reproduction of detail:

• Reproduction of detail: – Greater porosity decreases surface detail production – The impression material should

– Greater porosity decreases surface detail production

– The impression material should be compatible with the gypsum to improve detail reproduction. The best compatibility is between silicon and polyethers and gypsum

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is between silicon and polyethers and gypsum 13 Classification of gypsum • Impression plaster (Type I)

Classification of gypsum

• Impression plaster (Type I) *seldom used*

• Model plaster (Type II):

plaster (Type I) *seldom used* • Model plaster (Type II): Impression (negative replica), poured into gypsum

Impression (negative replica), poured into gypsum to make a cast (positive replica

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used for

– Diagnostic cast

– Articulation of stone cast

– Art portion of working cast

– Flasking procedure for acrylic dentures (cast end)

The mix produces a weak cast compared to dental stone. It’s available is fast and regular sets.

• Dental stone (Type III): used for making

– Full or partial denture models

– Orthodontic models

– Flasking procedure for acrylic dentures (teeth end) It requires less water, stronger than plaster

(teeth end) It requires less water, stronger than plaster D e n t a l s
(teeth end) It requires less water, stronger than plaster D e n t a l s

Dental stone casts

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• Dental stone, high strength (Type IV):

– Known as die stone, used in fabricating wax patterns of cast restorations (crown &bridge)

– Implants

– Precision attachments work

– Often colored pink or green

– Almost 2 times stronger than type III stone

or green – Almost 2 times stronger than type III stone Die stone used in the

Die stone used in the fabrication of cast crown restoration

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• High strength, high expansion dental stone (Type V) – Colored blue or green –

• High strength, high expansion dental stone (Type V)

– Colored blue or green

– Most costly of all gypsum materials

– Lowest W:P ratio, higher compressive strength

– The need for higher expansion was to compensate for the solidification shrinkage of some alloys used as base metals used for dental casting

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Manipulation

used as base metals used for dental casting 17 Manipulation • Selection: based on the desired

• Selection: based on the desired properties and dental application. e.g.:

– For a diagnostic cast, plaster can be used.

– For a working cast, strength is required and accuracy, dental stone is the gypsum of choice

– Working models for cast restorations require die stone

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Manipulation (cont.)

Manipulation (cont.) • Proportioning (W:P ratio) – Golden rule : Manufacturer instructions should always be followed.

• Proportioning (W:P ratio)

Golden rule: Manufacturer instructions should always be followed.

– Variations in W:P ratio affect the set materials’ properties such as strength and accuracy.

• Too much water?

• Too little water?

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and accuracy. • Too much water? • Too little water? 19 Manipulation (cont.) • Mixing: –

Manipulation (cont.)

much water? • Too little water? 19 Manipulation (cont.) • Mixing: – Manual: Rubber bowl and

• Mixing:

– Manual: Rubber bowl and spatula.

Powder is sifted into water to ensure good wetting and avoid clumps, and avoid air bubbles

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Mechanical (also used with vacuum)

Mechanical (also used with vacuum) 21 Manipulation (cont.) • Initial setting time-working time – Working time

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Manipulation (cont.)

Mechanical (also used with vacuum) 21 Manipulation (cont.) • Initial setting time-working time – Working time

• Initial setting time-working time

– Working time start after mixing for 1 minute

– Initial setting time: time elapsed from the start of mix until loss of gloss (8-10 minutes)

– 6-10 minutes of working time are available to pour the gypsum.

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GYPSUM GYPSUM Setting Setting Mechanism Mechanism Dissolution Dissolution of of hemihydrate hemihydrate Precipitation

GYPSUMGYPSUM

SettingSetting MechanismMechanism

GYPSUM GYPSUM Setting Setting Mechanism Mechanism Dissolution Dissolution of of hemihydrate hemihydrate Precipitation

DissolutionDissolution ofof hemihydratehemihydrate

Dissolution Dissolution of of hemihydrate hemihydrate Precipitation Precipitation of of dihydrate dihydrate

PrecipitationPrecipitation ofof dihydratedihydrate

Precipitation Precipitation of of dihydrate dihydrate Crystal Crystal expansion expansion and and interlocking

CrystalCrystal expansionexpansion andand interlockinginterlocking

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MANIPULATIONMANIPULATION

ofof GypsumGypsum ProductsProducts

ProportionProportion PP andand LL

Products Products Proportion Proportion P P and and L L Bulk Bulk P P Transfer Transfer

BulkBulk PP

Proportion Proportion P P and and L L Bulk Bulk P P Transfer Transfer to to
Proportion Proportion P P and and L L Bulk Bulk P P Transfer Transfer to to

TransferTransfer toto impressionimpression

and L L Bulk Bulk P P Transfer Transfer to to impression impression Microstone Pre Pre
Microstone
Microstone

PrePre--packagedpackaged PP

and L L Bulk Bulk P P Transfer Transfer to to impression impression Microstone Pre Pre
and L L Bulk Bulk P P Transfer Transfer to to impression impression Microstone Pre Pre

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• Final setting time: is reached when the materials can be safely handled, the gypsum is cool (exothermic reaction is over).

• Setting expansion: Results from crystal growth during setting. Can be decreased by the addition of potassium sulfate, sodium chloride, borax.

• Hygroscopic expansion. If gypsum soaked during setting, water fills pores and increases volume

• It’s recommended to separate the cast from impression after 1 hour.

• Strength increases 2-3 times after 24 hours

1 hour. • Strength increases 2-3 times after 24 hours 25 Tests for initial setting, and

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Tests for initial setting, and final setting times

hours 25 Tests for initial setting, and final setting times • Loss of gloss test for

• Loss of gloss test for initial setting time: loss of gloss occurs as water is taken up by gypsum to form the dihydrate. The materials does not have measurable compressive strength.

• Initial Gillmore test for initial set: needles are used to indent the material until no indentation can be seen = initial setting time.

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00:000:00:000:00

GYPSUMGYPSUM

SettingSetting StagesStages

MixingMixing

TimeTime WorkingWorking 00:000:01:001:00 TimeTime 00:000:07:007:00 SettingSetting TimeTime 00:00:10:0010:00
TimeTime
WorkingWorking
00:000:01:001:00
TimeTime 00:000:07:007:00
SettingSetting
TimeTime
00:00:10:0010:00
MixingMixing WorkingWorking SettingSetting IntervalInterval IntervalInterval IntervalInterval
MixingMixing
WorkingWorking
SettingSetting
IntervalInterval
IntervalInterval
IntervalInterval
IntervalInterval IntervalInterval IntervalInterval Initial Initial Set Set = = Working Working Time Time

InitialInitial SetSet == WorkingWorking TimeTime

FinalFinal SetSet == SettingSetting TimeTime

Time Final Final Set Set = = Setting Setting Time Time LOSS LOSS OF OF GLOSS

LOSSLOSS OFOF GLOSSGLOSS

LargeLarge GilmoreGilmore NeedleNeedle SmallSmall GilmoreGilmore NeedleNeedle
LargeLarge
GilmoreGilmore
NeedleNeedle
SmallSmall
GilmoreGilmore
NeedleNeedle

TIMETIME

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• Vicat penetrometer (A) for setting time: used for the next stage of setting (refer to figure) after loss of gloss, the plunger rod is released onto the mix. Time elapsed until the rod no longer penetrates is the setting time.

• Gillmore test (B) for final setting time: a heavier Gillmore needle to determine final setting time.

A
A
B B
B B
time. • Gillmore test (B) for final setting time: a heavier Gillmore needle to determine final

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29 Ready for use criteria • The ability to judge readiness of gypsum to be

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Ready for use criteria

29 Ready for use criteria • The ability to judge readiness of gypsum to be handled

• The ability to judge readiness of gypsum to be handled improves with experience.

• Technically, the material is considered ready when compressive strength reaches 80% of the strength attained after 1 hour.

• Most products are ready to use in 30 minutes.

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• Clinical tip: before separating cast from impression, ensure that no part of the tray is connected to the gypsum

• Clinical tip: if alginate impression dried before cast separation, soak in water for 15 minutes.

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How to control setting time

soak in water for 15 minutes. 31 How to control setting time 1. Changing water :

1. Changing water : powder ratio

Increasing water

Decreasing water

Retarded setting

Shorter setting time

Weaker model or cast

Mix difficult to manipulate

Inaccurate model

Bubbles inclusion in mix

--------

Inaccurate model

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2. Spatulation: rapid and prolonged spatulation accelerates setting and also increases setting expansion. 3. Temperature:

2. Spatulation: rapid and prolonged spatulation accelerates setting and also increases setting expansion.

3. Temperature: increasing water temperature to a certain level will accelerate setting.

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temperature to a certain level will accelerate setting. 33 4. Accelerators and retarders: – Manufacturers add

4. Accelerators and retarders:

– Manufacturers add accelerators or retarders to gypsum. These chemicals increase or decrease gypsum solubility respectively which will alter setting time accordingly.

– Clinicians can add accelerators such as potassium sulfate or set gypsum (slurry water), they act as sites for crystallization.

– Setting reaction retarders: blood, saliva, alginate. If left on impression, can affect surface details of impression. Impression surface need to be properly rinsed before being poured.

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• Pouring of the cast: the cast is composed of two parts which are prepared separately

– The anatomical part (hard and soft tissue), impression poured using a vibrator

– Art portion or base, which is important to aid in handling and articulating the casts. Can be poured in different ways:

to aid in handling and articulating the casts. Can be poured in different ways: 35 1.
to aid in handling and articulating the casts. Can be poured in different ways: 35 1.

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1. Double-pour method

to aid in handling and articulating the casts. Can be poured in different ways: 35 1.
1
1
2
2
3
3

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2. Single step

2. Single step • Both anatomical and art portions of the cast are prepared at the

• Both anatomical and art portions of the cast are prepared at the same time. This method requires skill and accurate timing. Difficulty encountered:

– If mix is too runny? – If mix started to initially set?

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3. Boxing method

A strip of wax is fitted around the impression then gypsum is poured. The wax border should extend at least 0.5 inch above the highest point of the impression.

then gypsum is poured. The wax border should extend at least 0.5 inch above the highest
then gypsum is poured. The wax border should extend at least 0.5 inch above the highest

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Storage and clean up

Storage and clean up • Gypsum should be stored in airtight dry area. Prolonged exposure to

• Gypsum should be stored in airtight dry area. Prolonged exposure to moisture can retard setting due to decreased solubility of powder.

• Relevant equipment should be kept clean to avoid unwanted acceleration of setting by set gypsum.

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Infection control

acceleration of setting by set gypsum. 39 Infection control • Casts should have set for 24

• Casts should have set for 24 hours before being disinfected if necessary.

• Spray rather than immerse

• Disinfectants commonly used:

– Sodium hypochlorite

– iodophors

– Chlorine dioxide

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Trimming

Trimming • Plaster bass are recommended since trimming them is easier than dental stone. • If

• Plaster bass are recommended since trimming them is easier than dental stone.

• If base is made from stone, it should be soaked in water for 5-10 minutes to soften it before trimming. Important considerations when trimming?

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Trimming considerations

• Proportion of base to anatomical part

• Parallelism

• Use of wax bite registration

• Outer border of cast

• Shaping of anterior part of upper and lower arches

• Use of wax bite registration • Outer border of cast • Shaping of anterior part
• Use of wax bite registration • Outer border of cast • Shaping of anterior part

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Other types of Die stone

Other types of Die stone • Metal plated die stone: silver or copper plated to increase

• Metal plated die stone: silver or copper plated to increase abrasion resistance

• Epoxy die stone: resin is used as a hardener

• Resin reinforced die stone: resin is incorporated into the gypsum material to increase abrasion resistance.

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Investment materials

• Used to form metal casting through the lost wax technique

increase abrasion resistance. 4 3 Investment materials • Used to form metal casting through the lost
increase abrasion resistance. 4 3 Investment materials • Used to form metal casting through the lost

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References

References • Dental materials, clinical applications for dental assistants and dental hygienists. Chapter 12 •

• Dental materials, clinical applications for dental assistants and dental hygienists. Chapter 12

• Phillips’ science of dental materials.

Chapter10

for dental assistants and dental hygienists. Chapter 12 • Phillips’ science of dental materials. Chapter10 45

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