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12.

1 The Function of Circulation


-trillions of specialized cells in a multicellular organism are organized into functional, structural units, such as organs and tissues -these individual cells need nutrients and oxygen to perform the task theyre supposed to do, and must rid themselves of wastes -an efficient system of transporting materials within the body is necessary; this system is called the circulatory system -blood, nutrients and waste are transported with this system Main Functions of the Circulatory System -has three main functions: 1. transports gases (from respiratory system), nutrient molecules, and waste molecules (from digestive) 2. regulates internal temperatures and transports chemical substances that are vital to health from one part of the body to another 3. protects against blood loss from injury and against disease-causing microbes or toxic substances introduced into the body Major Components of the Circulatory System -three major components: the heart, blood vessels and blood -the heart is a muscular organ that continuously pumps the blood through the body and generates blood flow -the blood vessels are a system of hollow tubes through which the blood moves -together, the heart and blood vessels work together as the cardiovascular system -blood is the fluid that transports nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and many other materials throughout the body The Two Types of Circulatory System -many invertebrates have an open circulatory system -an open circulatory system is the circulatory system in which vessels open into the animals body cavity -blood makes direct contact with organs and tissues -no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid -in invertebrates, the mixture of the blood and the interstitial fluid that surrounds the cells is called hemolymph -hemolymph is pumped through a single vessel that runs from the head to the abdomen -in the abdomen, the vessel divides into chambers that function as the insects heart -ostia, tiny holes in the heart wall, allow the hemolymph to enter the hearts chambers from the body cavity -the hemolymph is pushed from one chamber to the next by muscle contractions -nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the hemolymph and cells -then the wastes are passed back into the transporting vessel to be eliminated from the body -vertebrates have a closed circulatory system, the circulating blood is contained within vessels and kept separate from the interstitial fluid -blood follows a continuous, fixed path of circulation -confined to a network of vessels that keeps the blood separate from the interstitial fluid The Human Circulatory System: The Heart -located slightly left of the middle of the chest -walls of the heart are made of a unique type of muscle called cardiac muscle -cardiac muscle cells are arranged in a network that allows the heart to contract and relax rhythmically without becoming fatigued -a healthy heart ensures that blood keeps flowing in one direction and that oxygenated blood is kept separate from deoxygenated blood The Structure of the Heart -has four chambers; two top chambers and two bottom -top chambers are known as the left and right atrium (plural atria) -they fill with blood returning from the body or the lungs

-bottom chambers are known as the left and right ventricles -they receive blood from the atria and pump it out to the body or lungs -the atria and ventricles are separated by a thick muscular wall called the septum -atria only hold the blood where the ventricles pump it out to the body/lungs The Four Chambers of the Heart -right side receives blood coming back from the body (deoxygenated), and then pumps this blood out to the lungs -two large vessels known as the vena cavae (sing. vena cava) open into the right atrium -there is the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava -the superior vena cava collects the deoxygenated blood from the tissues in the head, chest and arms -the inferior vena cava collects deoxygenated blood from the tissues from the rest of the body -deoxygenated blood flows into the pulmonary trunk, then to the left and right pulmonary arterieslarge blood vessels that carries blood from the heart to the lungs -are the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood -the left side does the reverse; receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body -oxygenated blood flows from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium -the only veins that contain oxygenated blood in the circulatory system -left atrium pumps blood into the left ventricle and then to the largest vessel in the body, the aortaan artery that carries blood directly to the heart to other arteries -the heart has four valves, they ensure that blood flows in the correct direction -the atria and ventricles are separated by two valves called atrioventricular valves -the atrioventricular valve on the right side is called the tricuspid valve, since it is made up of three flaps -the atrioventricular valve on the left is called the bicuspid valve, since it has two flaps -the other two valves are called the semilunar valvesa valve between the ventricle and the large arteries, carries blood away from the heart Blood Vessels -three main types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins -arteries carry blood away from the heart, veins carry blood towards the heart -smaller diameter arteries are called arterioles, smaller diameter veins are called venules -a network of capillaries joins the arteries and arterioles with venules and veins -one-cell thick capillaries are the sites where gases, nutrients and other materials are transferred from the blood to tissue cells, and from tissue cells to blood -arteries have highly elastic walls which allow them to expand as a wave of blood surges through during the contraction of the ventricles -also keeps blood flowing in the right direction and provides an additional pumping motion to help move blood through the blood vessels -your pulse is the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery as blood moves through it -veins have thinner walls than arteries and a larger inner circumference -they do not contract; rely on the contraction of muscles to keep the blood in the veins flowing towards the heart -have one-way valves that prevent the blood from flowing backward -very important in the legs since they ensure that the blood flows upward, towards the heart, against the downward pull of gravity -capillaries are the smallest blood vessels -are spread throughout the body in a fine network -capillary walls are only one-cell thick, the diameter large enough for only one blood cell to pass through at a time The Mammalian Circulatory System: A Closer Look -a mammals circulatory system must be able to deliver oxygen rapidly in large amounts in addition to carrying waste products away from cells quickly -mammals keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flowing separately though a double circulatory system -called double since blood is pumped through one circuit between the heart and lungs, and another between the heart and the rest of the body -pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the heart to the lungs, then back to the heart -blood flowing from the heart to the lungs carries carbon dioxide, a waste produced from cells

-as this blood flows through the respiratory surfaces, gas exchange takes placecarbon dioxide leaves the blood and oxygen moves into the blood -then the oxygenated blood goes back to the heart, into the second circuit that transports it throughout the body -systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the heart to other tissues and organs throughout the body -after circulating throughout the body, the blood returns to the heart, carrying carbon dioxide waste, then goes through pulmonary circulation once again -between 80 to 90 percent of the time, your body is in systemic circulation -the heart itself is supplied by blood vessels that are in the heart muscle -cardiac circulation is the movement of blood through the heart tissues Blood and Its Components -average adult human has 5 litres of blood -blood is sometimes considered connective tissue since it links all the cells and organs in the body -consists of two distinct elements: a fluid portion and a solid portion -the fluid portion is called plasma and it consists of water, dissolved gases, proteins, sugars, vitamins, minerals and waste products -makes up approximately 55 percent of the blood volume -the solid portion is called the formed portion, consists of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets -these cells and platelets are formed inside the bone, in the bone marrow Plasma and Its Functions -clear, yellowish fluid composed of 92% water and 7% dissolved blood proteins -remaining 1% consists of organic and inorganic substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate -main proteins in blood are albumin, globulins and fibrinogen -other substances transported by blood include nutrients (glucose, fatty acids and vitamins), respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) and the waste products of metabolism Component Major Functions Water -dissolves and transports other substances Plasma proteins -maintain fluid balance in plasma, in cells and in spaces between cells -help maintain slightly alkaline (basic) pH -fibrinogen helps with blood clotting -globulins (antibodies) strengthen immunity Salts (bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, -maintain fluid balance in plasma, in cells and in spaces between cells magnesium, potassium and sodium) -help maintain slightly alkaline (basic) pH -assist in nerve and muscle function Red Blood Cells and Their Functions -also called erythrocytes -make up 44 percent of the total volume of blood -specialized for oxygen transport -oxygen-carrying capacity is dependent on the amount of RBCs present and the amount of hemoglobin in each RBC -disk shaped cell with no nucleus, packed with about 280 million iron-containing molecules of hemoglobin -hemoglobin has special properties that allow RBCs to pick up or chemically bind with oxygen -then it releases oxygen in the presence of cells that need it -hemoglobin also transports some of the carbon dioxide waste from the cells White Blood Cells and Their Functions -also called leukocytes -are a part of the bodys response to infection -make up about 1% of the total volume of blood, may increase when fighting an infection -they fight infections and cancer -some of these WBCs attack pathogens (bacteria/virus that can cause disease) in a process known as phagocytosis, where they engulf an destroy the pathogens -cells that carry out phagocytosis are called phagocytes -five main types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes -neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes and are found in the body tissues as well as in the blood

-eosinophils are found in the lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts -basophils aid in immunity by secreting substances that attract phagocytes to destroy pathogens -some lymphocytes produce proteins called antibodies that allow pathogens to be easily detected and destroyed -monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for a few days before they specialize and become macrophages, which destroy bacteria Platelets and Their Functions -also called thrombocytes -are the third major substance in the formed portion of the blood -are membrane-bound fragments of cells that form when larger cells in the bone marrow break apart -do not contain nuclei and break down within 7-10 days after theyve formed -play a key role in clotting blood, which prevents excessive blood loss after injury -blood clotting involves several steps: when a blood vessel is broken due to injury, it releases chemicals that attract platelets to the site of injury

platelets rupture, releasing chemicals that combine with other chemicals in the plasma to produce the enzyme thromboplastin as long as calcium ions are present, thromboplastin reacts with prothrombin (protein made by liver) to produce another enzyme called thrombin thrombin reacts with fibrinogen to product fibrin -fibrin is an insoluble protein that forms a mesh over the site of injury, which prevents the loss of blood cells and solidifies to form a clot The Cellular Components of Blood
Point of Comparison Origin Cells per mm3 of blood (approx) Relative size Function Life Span Red Blood cells Red bone marrow 5,500,000 (male) 4,500,000 (female) Small To carry O2 and CO2 to and from cells 120 days White Blood Cells Granulocytes Agranulocytes Red bone marrow Thymus, red bone marrow 6000 200 Largest To engulf foreign particles A few hours to a few days Large To play a role in the formation of antibodies Unknown Platelets Red bone marrow, lungs 250,000 Smallest To play a role in the clotting of blood 2-8 days

The Functions of Blood Transport -blood is closely connected to the function of the digestive system -blood in the capillaries in the walls of the small intestine absorbs many of the nutrients that are the end products of digestion -blood also absorbs nutrients that are synthesized by cells in parts of the body other than the digestive tract -these nutrients are carried to the liver, where theyre converted into storage products for transport to other parts of the body -blood also picks up chemicals and gases through the respiratory system and carries them throughout the body to where theyre needed -also transports and removes the waste products of cellular processes -carries excess amounts of various mineral ions (end products of protein metabolism) and other waste products to the kidneys for processing and excretion -also carries carbon dioxide, another waste product of cells, to the lungs, where it is then released Temperature Regulation -involves balancing the loss of heat from the body with the production of heat by metabolic processes -a mammals circulatory system can control heat loss by changing the volume of blood flowing near the body surface -blood vessels can expand/constrict to carry more/less blood

-an increase of blood flow by widening or dilating the blood vessels is called vasodilation and occurs when the core of the body becomes hot as a result of vigorous activity or high external temperature -vasodilation helps the body to lose heat more rapidly -the body can also release heat by sweating -a decrease in the flow of blood by narrowing of the blood vessels near the surface of the skin is called vasoconstriction -reduces the amount of heat that is dissipated from the skin, helps to conserve heat -at the same time, waves of muscle contraction, shivering, increases the production of heat by cellular metabolism -the heat that is produced is spread throughout the body -vasodilation and vasoconstriction are controlled by many factors -can be triggered by the brain in response to changes in blood pressure -is blood pressure is too high, vasodilation will decrease it; if blood pressure is too low, vasoconstriction will increase it -can also be triggered by increased metabolic activity -exercise results in vasodilation to increase blood flow to the tissues -alcohol and nicotine promote vasodilation and causes blood to rush to the surface of the skin -under normal circumstances, a counter-current heat exchange system helps to maintain a steady temperature in the core of the body -this system works since the deep arteries and veins entering and leaving the bodys extremities lie adjacent to one another -the warmer blood that flows from the body core exchanges heat with the cooler blood retuning from the extremities to the body core -the temperature of the bodys extremities and the skin are significantly lower than the internal core temperature