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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL Water is one of an important basic need for human being. Only three percent of freshwater is located in streams, lakes and reservoirs and rest 97 percent is available as ground water. Today all the rural areas are undergoing development with all kinds of needs. With the same, these areas are provided with water supply from various sources such as well, river, reservoir etc. A huge quantity of water is treated and pumped to the required area of demand with a huge investment. The reduction and control of water loss is becoming even more vital in this age of increasing demand and changing weather patterns that bring droughts to a considerable number of locations in the world. Many water utilities have been developing new strategies to reduce losses to an economic and acceptable level in order to preserve valuable water resources. In an urban society, water is supplied by a public or a municipal water system, and this is usually the best assurance of an uninterrupted supply of economical and safe water to our people in cities. The components of water demand are residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional or public water uses, and unaccounted system losses and leakages The annual volume of water loss is an important indicator of water distribution system efficiency, both individual years and as a trend over a period of years. High and increasing water losses are an indicator of ineffective planning and construction, and of low operational and maintenance activities.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Purposes of water loss analysis and reduction are: Saving the production costs of the water and to save the valuable treated water Increasing revenues through sales of water saved. Deferring the system expansion and capital expenditures through the capture of lost water, and Reducing increases in utility rates, and thus maintaining better consumer relations.

2. DESCRIPTION OF WATER LOSS


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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

2.1 THE VICIOUS LOSS CYCLE Commonly Heard Explanations, Excuses from the water maintenance division We meet the norm, no problem. Its mostly illegal consumption. Our system needs total replacement. Politicians do not allow disconnection. Capacity expansion is politically more important than rehabilitation. Dont have the right kind of staff. Intermittent supply keeps losses low. The Sad Reality: The International funding agencies, including World Bank, intended to attack losses in their projects: Made reducing losses a stated priority. Included non revenue water reduction components. Had targets for reduced non revenue water as a conditionality. Many projects were not as effective.

Fig 2.1: The Sad Reality (Source: http// www.iwahg.org)

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

2.2 THE WATER BALANCE. Loss of water defined as the assessment of the capacity of total water produced by the Water Supply Authority and the actual quantity of water distributed throughout the area of service of the Authority, thus leading to an estimation of the losses. The water balance is generalized as follows Volume of water = Volume of water + volume of water wasted Produced Consumed

Table 2.1: Water Balance Chart Billed Authorised Authorised consumption Billed Unmetered Consumption Unbilled Metered Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption Unauthorised Consumption Customer meter inaccuracies Nonrevenue & data handling errors Leakage on Transmission & Water Distribution Main Leakage & overflow from the utilities storage tanks. Leakages meter. on service connections upto the customer Billed Metered Consumption Revenue Water

Consumption Unbilled Authorised consumption System Input volume Apparent (Commercial Losses) Real Water Losses (Physical Losses)

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

2.2.1 Calculating a Water Balance Following are the steps to be followed for the preparation of water balance Steps 1 Determine system input volume Step 2 Determine authorized consumption Billed authorized consumption Unbilled authorized consumption Step 3 estimate apparent (commercial) losses Water theft, fraud Meter under-registration Data handling errors Step 4 calculate real (physical) losses 2.2.2 The problems and improvements in Water Balance Water Balance is an important tool for understanding inflow, consumption & losses, however, there are problems: Often general lack of data Difficult to quantify commercial losses No information on nature and location of leakage

Water Balance to be improved with two other methods: Real (physical) loss component analysis Leakage measurements in the system

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

2.3 IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOSSES OF WATER. The cause of water losses may differs greatly from one town to another, as regards the rate of volume of water loss as well as extent and variation of the cause. Little understanding of nature of losses. No appreciation of the impact of losses. Poor project design. Grossly under estimated costs of water loss reduction. Proper communication" to obtain international funding. Failure to realise that water loss reduction is: Not just an isolated technical problem. Tied to overall asset management and operation. Not a one-off activity, but one requiring long term commitment.

2.3.1 Classification of losses of water Following are the classification of losses of water 2.3.1.1 Real/ Physical Losses Losses occurring in the systems components: a. Damaged pipes Damaged pipes means cracks or splits on the pipes so that water flows out b. Mechanically Damaged pipes or as the Result of outside Influence. Meaning that cracks occur in the pipes as the result of or the working of too great mechanic or similar power on the pipes. This power may be caused by: Unequal carrying capacity of the ground, earthquake, etc . The thickness of damage, especially for the installation of pipes under busy traffic lanes.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

Water hammer caused by sudden reverse of pressure.

c. Imperfect connection of pipes or their accessories. Imperfect connection of pipes can result in losses, even though at the time of connecting or testing, no loss occurs. 2.3.1.2 Apparent/ Commercial Losses Apparent loss of water cannot be seen, but can be detected from calculations or recordings of water distributed to consumers. This apparent loss of water covers various mistakes and administrative and managerial weaknesses and the systems accessories weaknesses and errors. The errors and weaknesses are, among others: a. Error in Reading or Recording the Meter Inexperienced meter reader sometimes makes mistakes in reading or recording the meter. b. Lack of Discipline on the part of Meter Reader Non-disciplined meter reader sometimes makes mistakes when recording water volume used lower than actual. c. Errors/Weaknesses in Water Meter Inaccuracy of water meter often results in water losses. Old water meters or those that have never been calibrated and the water meter glass surface that has turned opaque makes it difficult to read , resulting in the error of recording smaller volume of water consumed than actual. d. Illegal connection or Theft Illegal connection may occur without the knowledge of the authority, and may also occur with the knowledge of the authority personnel. e. Unpaid for Usage

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

Use of water through taps and for fire fighting. f. Error in Billing The billing section often makes mistakes in transferring the figures (stand meter) from the meter records to the bill. Also very often there is no measuring instrument in the system, the volume of distribution is determined and calculated on the basis of the pump capacity, readable on the pumps label, while technically, it is known that the capacity of the flow depends on the Head of the pump, which in turn depends also on the diameter and the type of the pipe. Without describing the curve of the system head, it is not possible to say exactly the capacity of the pump. This kind of error in calculation may involve significant percentages, so that administratively it is recorded large but it may actually be less. Records of studies and observations indicate that commercial losses are larger than the physical ones because of greater possibilities and opportunities.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

3. WATER LOSSES ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION


An effort to reduce losses of water is now, a must in each water supply authority because the problem of water losses from the water supply system is very detrimental, technically as well as administratively. 3.1. METHODS OF REAL LOSS ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION 3.1.1 Leakage Loss Analysis Large quantity of water is wasted through leaking pipes, joints, valves and fittings of the distribution systems either due to bad quality of materials used, poor workmanship and corrosion, age of the installations or through vandalism. This leads to reduced supply, loss of pressure and deterioration in water quality. The objective of leakage control programme is to reduce the wastage to a minimum and minimize the time that elapses between the occurrence of a leak and its repair. The volume of water lost through each leak should be reduced by taking whatever action is technically and economically feasible to ensure that the leak is repaired as quickly as possible. Leak Volume is a Function of Time and Flow Rate Leak m3 3 Leak m

Leak Duration Leak Duration Leak Duration

A A

L L
Time Time

R R

Leak Volume = Time (A+L+R) x Flow Rate

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

Where, A: Awareness, L: Localisation, R: Repair Time Makes the Difference Reported mains burst 75 m3 75 m3 m3/ d 1 day

Reported service connection burst 350 m3 25 m3 m3/ d 14 days

A L R Undetected service connection burst >9000 m3 25 m3 m3/ d 365 days Time

A 3.1.2. Pressure Loss Analysis

Data loggers are used to record the pressure and flows. It is an instrument which stores the raw data electronically so as to be able to transfer it to the computer with a data cable link. In the absence of electronic equipment, the pressures can be ascertained by tapping and providing a pressure gauge. Flows can be assessed by using meters on a bypass line. Reduction of losses in distribution system using this method constitutes the most simple and quick method, because it does not involve detection of leaks. However, this requires prior studies. Reduced pressure can be achieved through various methods such as pump pressure reduction, installation of pressure brakes in tanks, and the most popular is the use of Pressure Reducing valve.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

Fig 3.1: Data Logger (Source: O & M of water supply systems, CPHEEO, 2005) Pressure / Leakage Relationship The higher/lower pressure the higher/lower leakage 10% more pressure = 10% more leakage Pressure management an essential tool for leakage reduction Pressure level and pressure cycling strongly influence burst frequency Pressure/Burst Frequency Relationship Reducing pressure obviously reduces burst. Even more important is the reduction in burst frequency Asset lifespan can be extended! Pressure cycling, sudden changes in pressure, and pressure pikes (water hammers), increases the occurrence of bursts even further. 3.1.3. Passive Reduction of Leakage This method uses the least energy in water supply enterprise, but in many cases the level of leakage is the highest. In this method, no measuring or detection of leakage is

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

made and usually only in the form of leakage reported as stagnant water on the ground or consumers complaints and low pressure. This condition is usually reported by consumers, water users, and other offices. However, the actual point of leakage is no always the channel that goes directly towards the surface. 3.1.4. Active Reduction of Leakage a. Regular Soundings In this method of leakage control, leakages are located by spreading out control teams who work systematically around the system by listening to the characteristics of water leakage, using sounding instruments on all meters, taps, hydrants, valves and other suitable fittings. But the frequency of each sounding differs. For implementing the sounding program regularly and effectively, many trained inspectors are needed. Because sounding skill can only be obtained gradually through extensive practical experience.

Fig 3.2: Sound Leak Detector (Source: O & M of water supply systems, CPHEEO, 2005)

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

b. Formation of Zones One of the methods to handle water losses in water supply system is the formation of service zones (District Metering Model).

Fig 3.3: Network Zones and District Meter Areas (Source: R.S. Mckenzie, 2007) The District Metering Model is a method which isolates an area designated as a pilot project, and then district meter is installed as well as a boundary value, to facilitate checking of the flow distributed to the area, so that the number of leakages could be detected. Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) can be calculated by using the following formula (R.S. Mckenzie, 2007) ILI = CAPL / MAAPL Where, CAPL = Current (real) Annual Physical Losses MAAPL = Minimum Achievable Annual Physical Losses, level of losses that one would expected from an utility with a network that is in good condition and which practices intensive active leakage control.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

Calculation of ILI: Step 1: calculate MAAPL using empirical formula: MAAPL (l/day) = (18 x LM + 0.8 x NC + 25 x LP) x P Where, LM = Length of Mains, NC = Number of service Connections, LP = Length of Service Connections from property boundary to customer meter (Length of pipe on Private land), P = average Pressure (meters). Step 2: adjust MAAPL for intermittent supply Step 3: calculate current physical losses (l/day) Step 4: calculate ILI = CAPL / MAAPL c. Renovation Block Model Renovation block model is a method used for reducing losses of water by renovating those lanes of pipes considered to be the main reason for leakages. d. House to House Survey Model (HOTOHO) This HOTOHO model is especially used to locate leakages in the distribution pipes considered the most dominant in causing leakages, i.e. the service pipe.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

Fig 3.4 Data Analysis before Leak Detection and Repair (Source: C.J.Seago, 2007)

Fig 3.5: Data Analysis after Leak Detection and Repair (Source: C.J.Seago, 2007)

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

3.2. METHODS OF APPARENT LOSS REDUCTION 3.2.1. Campaigning for Saving of Water Educating & creating awareness in people by Using such slogans as Save Water for tomorrow, people will be moved to save the use of water as a Way of Life. It can be propagandized that by saving use of water as well as locating leakages, the bill will be less and there will be better public service. This information and recommendation may be extended in schools, mosques, temples etc. 3.2.2. Application of Rules and Sanctions The application of rules covers the management aspect in the water sector are: Planning Execution of projects Operations and Maintenance

Besides this, disciplinary sanctions are applied to officers as well as consumers. These rules and sanctions are expected to motivate cooperation between officers and their supervisors or a feeling of sense belonging. 3.2.3. Shifting Meter Readers It is best that meter readers are shifted periodically from one area to another, to avoid manipulation of meter reading and to raise working interest. 3.2.4. Consumers Condition Questionnaire/Survey This job can be done together with meter reading or at the time of the presentation of bills by the officer. This survey/questionnaire also covers the number of family Members/water users of each consumer.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

4. MONITORING AND REPORTING


Monitoring is necessary in order to get good management of water losses, whether it is appropriate to the action plan, thus constituting monitoring activity for further interference. This activity needs to be scheduled and conditioned to implementation according to action plan. If passive reduction of losses is to be the choice, then reporting and repairs should be quite smooth and the following be paid attention to: providing procurement counter deploying of officers according to frequency of reporting mobilization of manpower and equipment preparing leakage report forms

If active reduction of losses is to be the choice, the following activities are necessary among others: analysis of existing distribution system for leak detection & designing a new system or rehabilitating an old one if possible, measuring minimal night flow, Phased testing. Survey of leakage using available equipment, Reporting leakages found, Repairs of leakage. alternative method of loss reduction,

Reports evaluation is very useful for improving the management of gradual handling of water loss in order to achieve the target. The report can identify the deficiencies in the system and its appurtenances and then plan future repairs to the network or valves and other equipment or for replacement of defective valves or other equipment or additions and extensions to the distribution network.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

5. CONCLUSION
The water loss analysis for detection of losses and reduction job can be done. Proper base lining required to design water loss reduction strategy Continuous effective management commitment needed. Active leakage control using the latest techniques, methodologies and practices. Appropriate training of local staff.

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Water Loss Analysis and Reduction

REFERENCE
1. The Govt. of India, Manual on Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply Systems, CPHEEO, New Delhi, 2005. 2. The Govt. of India, Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, CPHEEO, New Delhi, 1999. 3. C.J Seago and R.S. Mckenzie, International Bench Marking of Leakage from Water Regulation Systems, Journal of IWWA, Vol. 40, 2008. 4. R.S. Mckenzie, Special Issue on Water Loss Management, Journal of IWWA, Vol. 40, 2008.

Web sites: i. ii. iii. www.iwahg.org www.cpheeo.com www.ingentaconnect.com

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