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There is no diffrence b/w these sensors thier method of sensing is same depend upon the EDDY currunt losses.

ACCELEROMETER & PROXIMITY are diffrent way to measure the vibration although they have same sensing method as i told before Accelerometers are a piezo-electronic (crystal) device. A pre- loaded crystal is charged with current and as the crystal is compressed or de-compressed by vibration an output proportional to g's (gravity) is provided. A "g" is equal to 9.80 meters/second2 or one (1) standard earth gravity. Accelerometers are normally used for high-frequency bearing cap vibration readings (Case/Bearing Cap Absolute on machines using rolling element bearings. Usually the output is integrated electronically to velocity (in/sec or mm/sec). Other applications include monitoring Gears and High Frequency Applications. Eddy or Proximity Probes are a displacement device that measure the relative motion between the probe mounting location and the target (shaft). Output is directly proportional to displacement and is usually measured in mils (.001") or millimeters (mm). Eddy Probes are used on machines with Journal (Sleeve) type

bearings. Where the measurement of motion between the Bearing and Shaft is critical.

Types of Vibration Sensors


By Neal Litherland, eHow Contributor

Vibration sensors are used in a number of different projects, machines and applications. Whether you're attempting to gauge the speed of a vehicle, or to gauge the power of an impending earthquake, the device you're likely using is considered to be a "vibration sensor." Some of them operate on their own, and others require their own power source, but all of them serve the same purpose in slightly different capacities.

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Accelerometer
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One of the most common types of vibration sensor is an accelerometer. Accelerometers come in a variety of designs, and they can detect a wide range of different vibrations. One of the most popular versions of the accelerometer is a pizoelectric sensor. This sort of sensor contains a material (such as crystal quartz) that gives off an electric charge when it detects changes in pressure. By measuring the amounts of electric charge that pizoelectric accelerometers give off it becomes possible to determine the amount of vibration going on in the connection.

Velocity Sensors
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A velocity sensor is mainly used to measure motion and balancing operations on rotating machinery. These sensors are ideal for sensing low and mid-frequency vibrations, but not high-frequency ones. Additionally, a velocity sensor requires no electrical input in order to measure the force of velocity. These sensors do require regular maintenance to be sure that they're operating properly however. This is especially true for sensors who are placed on machinery that moves at a very high velocity, since the sensors need to be firmly anchored to get accurate measurements.

Proximity Sensors
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Not all vibration sensors are installed directly onto the things they're supposed to measure. A proximity sensor is a type of vibration sensor that's meant to measure distance between an object and the probe. If the object is vibrating that means it will be moving towards and away from the probe, and by picking up on that motion the sensors can detect the range of vibration taking place. These probes may be used for small applications such as detecting vibrations within machinery, or for larger applications such as detecting vibrations in the earth as a sign of earthquakes.

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Field Application Note


Comparing Vibration Readings
Comparing vibration level readings taken by different types of instruments and transducers can be very confusing and can lead to mistrust of the systems involved. Knowledge of how to properly compare readings is required before comparing any readings is attempted. This application note explains the variables involved in some detail and will act as a guideline as you compare vibration readings. Transducer Type Three (3) basic types of vibration transducers are available which correlate with the three (3) types of measured physical motion, Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement. of both a Eddy Probe measuring shaft relative and a accelerometer measuring case absolute, the second being using a shaft rider which is a spring mounted device that physically rides on the surface of the shaft, normally a velocity sensor integrated to displacement is mounted on top of the shaft rider. Shaft Absolute is normally used where the rotating assembly is five (5) or more times heavier than the case of the machine. Shaft Absolute Shaft Absolute is the measurement of the shaft's motion relative to free space (or absolute). Shaft Absolute can be measured two (2) ways, the first being electronically summing the signals

Accelerometer Accelerometers are a piezo-electronic (crystal) device. A pre- loaded crystal is charged with current and as the crystal is compressed or decompressed by vibration an output proportional Engineering Units to g's (gravity) is provided. A "g" is equal to 9.80 meters/second2 or one (1) standard earth 0 to Peak (0-P) Both Velocity (in.sec, mm/sec) and gravity. Acceleration (g's) by definition are measured in 0 to Peak or one/half the Peak to Peak signal as viewed on an oscilloscope.

Peak to Peak (P-P) Displacement by definition is measured in Peak to Peak or the actual Peak to Peak Motion of the Shaft. Root Mean Square (RMS) Root Mean Square (RMS) is a popular method of measuring Case or Bearing Cap Vibration as many vibration engineers have found that RMS is more indicative of Accelerometers are normally used for highactual rolling element bearing condition. frequency bearing cap vibration readings (Case/Bearing Cap Absolute on machines using Although rarely found in vibration waverolling element bearings. Usually the output is forms a pure sine wave RMS would be . 707 times the 0 to Peak Value. integrated electronically to velocity (in/sec or mm/sec). Other applications include monitoring Transducer Considerations Gears and High Frequency Applications. Velocity Pick-up Two (2) types of Velocity Sensors exist, mechanical and electronic. Mechanical types are the most common and are made up of a spring mounted coil mounted inside a magnet. Vibration causes the coil to move in relation to the magnet which produces a voltage output directly proportional to Velocity. Electronic Velocity Sensors are Accelerometers with an electronic integrator built in to the unit. Output of a Velocity Sensor can be expressed in many different terms, inches/second (in/sec) or millimeters/second (mm/sec) being the standards. Frequency Response The frequency response of a vibration transducer is very important when comparing readings. Transducers with a wider or broader frequency response will typically see more vibration if it is present than a narrower bandwidth transducer. How different vibration frequencies contribute to overall values is dependent on their phase relationship to each other, some may add, some may subtract from the overall value. 200 mv/mil Velocity 500 Velocity (Mechanical) mv/in/sec Velocity 500-1000 Velocity (Piezoelectric) mv/in/sec Accelerometer Acceleration 100 mv/g Eddy Probes Displacement Mounting How a transducer is mounted is also critical to comparing measurements. Accelerometers are extremely sensitive to the method of attachment. Differences in bandwidth can be measured between hand-

Velocity Transducers are normally used for Bearing Cap Vibration Monitoring (Case/Bearing Cap Absolute) on machines with rolling element bearings. They have the advantage of high outputs and the signal is read directly in velocity (in/sec or mm/sec).

Eddy Probes (Proximity) Eddy or Proximity Probes are a displacement device that measure the relative motion between the probe mounting location and the target (shaft). Output is directly proportional to displacement and is usually measured in mils (.001") or millimeters (mm).

held, magnet attached, epoxy, and stud mounted installations. Installation instructions must be followed precisely to obtain the manufactures transducer specifications. Accelerometers not mounted perfectly perpendicular to the surface or on a flat surface will produce stress risers which will also produce false signals. Measurement Location

When comparing readings it is essential that all readings are taken at the same Eddy Probes are used on machines with Journal location and the same plane. Even small (Sleeve) type bearings. Where the measurement differences in location can effect the overall readings. All vibration transducers of motion between the Bearing and Shaft is are single plane devices and only measure critical. in the plane in which they are held or are mounted. Bearing Type Two primary types of bearings are in use today, Instrument Considerations Rolling Element Bearings and Journal or Sleeve All Instruments handle signal is different Bearings. ways. Different instruments have their own Rolling Element Bearings are zero (0) clearance frequency response and filtering. devices. All vibration of the shaft is transmitted Knowledge must be gained on the instruments used before the outputs can be directly to the bearing cap. compared even when they use the same transducer. Conversion Formulas Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration are mathematically related to each other as a function of frequency. Electronic integrators or differentiation are also used Journal or Sleeve Bearings are designed so that to change one term to the other. Once the oil film provides damping. The shaft is free again it must be understood that the to vibrate within the bearing. Due to the readings be of the same type or they will damping provided by the oil film very little of not agree. the shaft vibration is transmitted to the bearing cap. The oil film damping provides even higher D = Displacement, P-P, Mils. levels of attenuation to higher frequencies. V = Velocity, 0-P, in/sec.
A = Acceleration, 0-P, g's.

D = 19.10 x 103 x (V/CPM) D = 70.4 x 106 x (A/CPM2) V = 52.36 x 10-6 x D x CPM V = 3.87 x 103 x (A/CPM) A = 14.2 x 10-9 x D x CPM2 A = 0.27 x 10-3 x V x CPM

Summary Measurement Type Only measurements of the same type can be compared. Bearing Cap or Case Vibration cannot be directly compared to Shaft Relative or Shaft Absolute and visa versa. Case Absolute Case or Bearing Cap Absolute is the measurement of the Case or Bearings Caps (Location of Transducer) motion relative to free space (or absolute motion). Case or Cap Absolute is usually used for monitoring Rolling Element Bearings. In General it is difficult to get any two readings to precisely agree with one another. Even when care is taken to insure that transducers and locations are the same and that the measurement type is the same, agreement within +-30% depending on the instrument is considered good. Even though overall values will not agree precisely spectrum Data or frequencies will be comparable within the limits of the bandwidth of the different instruments. Checklist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is Transducer Type the same Bearing Type Is Measurement Type the Same Engineering Units the same Frequency Response of Transducer Mounted Transducer Frequency Response 7. Where Readings Taken at the same location 8. Where Readings Taken in the same Plane 9. Instrument Frequency Response

Shaft Relative Shaft Relative is the measurement of motion between the Shaft and whatever the measuring devise is mounted to. This measurement is normally taken with a NCPU or Proximity Sensor. Shaft Relative measurements are used for Journal or Sleeve Bearing Applications.

Piping vibration can be an annoying problem

Corrective Actions

which can consume unnecessary maintenance activity and can affect pumping system performance and endurance. The system includes the pipe, all piping supports, hangers, snubbers, pipe to pipe interfaces, and machinery or devices attached to the pipe. All these items can influence the pipe vibration patterns. This testing method will determine the piping system vibration amplitudes, frequencies, nodal points, and the pipe modal shape. It can, also, be used to identify defective supports, incorrectly placed supports, and the locations of maximum deflection requiring additional supports. Analyzer/Data Collector

Generally, the pipe supports should be a nodal point with little or no motion. Excessive motion at these locations indicate that the support is faulty or improperly installed. Vibration amplitudes should decrease as a complex joint, such as a tee connection, an elbow, or machine connection, is approached. Convert all the collected data to displacement units using the formula: A = 14.2 x 10-9 x D x F where: D = Displacement (mils pk-to-pk) A = Acceleration (G's pk) F = Frequency (Hz).

Many data collectors have internal circuitry with low frequency range limitations: output displays in acceleration units are 2 Hz and output displays in velocity and displacement are 5 Hz. This circuitry is an internal high pass filter set for a 2 Hz roll-off frequency for acceleration signals and 5 Hz as the velocity and displacement roll-off frequency. The filter Plot all the amplitude information which is at a common frequency on the graph to eliminates excessive noise from being determine the modal shape at which the displayed. pipe is vibrating. Compare the calculated amplitudes and frequencies with the This means that if an accelerometer is connected to the data collector and the display allowable piping vibration levels chart to determine if corrective action is warranted. is setup for acceleration units, the low frequency signals are correctly displayed down to 2 Hz. If the accelerometer signal is integrated to velocity or displacement the low frequency limitation is 5 Hz. Similarly, a velocity transducer has the velocity low frequency limitation and the integration limitation also applies. Methodology Piping vibration analysis involves describing how much the pipe is moving and at what frequency the motion exists. The piping motion

can be further described by showing the motion as a modal plot. Pipes can vibration in three orthogonal directions just like a machine. Vibration data should be collected in the X, Y, and Z axis. Since most data collectors do not have the capability of calculating transfer functions collected from impact/response input signals, all data collection should be taken while the pumping system is operating.

Wachel, J. C. and Bates, C. L., Techniques for Controlling Piping Vibration and Failures, ASME Paper 76-PET-18.

The vibration transducer may be attached to the pipe using a magnetic mount without affecting the lower frequency response of the transducer. The overall pipe length should be separated into equal spaced lengths 3-5 feet ( 1-2 meters ) for this test and plotted on a graph sheet. The pipe hangers/restraints and their orientation to the pipe should be noted on the plot. Setup the data collector for a frequency range for a 0-12,000 CPM (0-200 Hz) and display units of acceleration (G's). Collect spectra at each measurement point. Evaluate the spectra for the components at common frequencies noting their amplitude and frequency.

The listed ASME Paper includes a "severity chart" which could be used as a starting point in determining the piping system acceptability. This chart was compiled from 25 years of data and may be overly conservative for long flexible piping systems commonly found in power stations. Pipe vibration correction will involve retuning the pipe system to a different frequency. This may be accomplished by re-locating the pipe supports, installing different supports, isolating the pipe from its hangers or joints, or installing expansion joints in the pipe. Before any modification is undertaken another pipe analysis should be carried out to determine that the modification does not violate other design parameters such as machine coupling momentums or connection stresses. Testing Checklist 1. Piping System Defined 2. Proper Accelerometer

3. Graph Paper 4. Analyzer Set-up

A subset of the decision of purchasing a monitoring system is the decision of what type of system is required. Monitors are available in many varieties; some simply display the overall signal levels, some have elaborate interface systems, some can automatically collect different types of information. The end user must decide what is really necessary. Will the monitor be required to provide some form of protection? Does the end user require that the monitor provide some type of information? Must the monitoring system provide diagnostic capabilities? PROTECTION Protection is available in many forms. Nearly all monitor systems available today can provide machinery protection. This means that should a sensor signal exceed a predetermined set point the monitor can initiate a shutdown to prevent internal machinery damage. This form of protection is tangible and can be quantified for accounting purposes. Additional intangible protection provided by a basic monitoring system are personnel and production protection. If a machine can be shutdown prior to catastrophic damage, which could involve unexpected shrapnel from the machine, the personnel that are in the vicinity of the machine are protected. An orderly shutdown of a machine train can benefit the facility

INFORMATION An information system will provide data that is useful for planning and scheduling. This information can be used for a "Go No-Go" decision whether to continue operating the machine train or produce goods. Basic monitoring systems are capable of providing this type of information by alerting personnel to current conditions. Maintenance planning and outage scheduling requires additional information. Information systems will provide data as trends which give advanced notice of elevating overall signals. DIAGNOSTICS Advanced monitoring systems will provide additional information about the condition of the machine train connected to the monitor. This information can be collected automatically or manually, and upon alarm activation or on a regular basis. This information has many benefits which when properly used can produce cost savings and downtime. By analyzing the collected information the root cause of the elevated signals can lead to the cause of the machine problem. This type of information can lead to reducing machine train downtime. After the maintenance has been conducted, this type of monitor can be used for

production and its product. Certain production processes, such as paper and sheet steel, are sensitive to excessive vibration. High vibration levels produce poor quality product. These facilities will benefit from a monitoring system that can alert operation personnel when unacceptable product is being produced.

acceptance testing and machine commissioning. Many end users have reported correction of design flaws and incorrect operating procedures using advanced diagnostic information. Monitoring Classification Checklist 1. Protection 2. Information 3. Diagnostics

Industrial Plain Bearing machinery with The plain high horsepower bearing is the and high loads, simplest and such as steam most common turbines, design with a centrifugal high load compressors, carrying pumps and motors, utilize journal capacity and the lowest cost. This bearings as rotor supports. bearing is a simple cylinder with a clearance of about 1-2 mils per inch of One of the basic purposes of a bearing journal diameter. Due to its cylindrical configuration it is the most susceptible is to provide a frictionless to oil whirl. It is a fairly common environment to support and guide a rotating shaft. Properly installed and practice during installation to provide a slight amount of "crush" to force the maintained, journal bearings have bearing into a slightly elliptical essentially infinite life. configuration. BEARING DESIGN Lemon Bore A journal bearing, simply stated, is a The lemon or elliptical bore bearing is cylinder which surrounds the shaft and a variation on the plain bearing where the bearing clearance is reduced on is filled with some form of fluid lubricant. In this bearing a fluid is the one direction. During manufacture this bearing has shims installed at the split medium that supports the shaft preventing metal to metal contact. The line and then bored cylindrical. When most common fluid used is oil, with the shims are removed the lemon bore special applications using water or a pattern is results. For horizontally split

gas. This application note will concentrate on oil lubricated journal bearings. Hydrodynamic principles, which are active as the shaft rotates, create an oil wedge that supports the shaft and relocates it within the bearing clearances. In a horizontally split bearing the oil wedge will lift and support the shaft, relocating the centerline slightly up and to one side into a normal attitude position in a lower quadrant of the bearing. The normal attitude angle will depend upon the shaft rotation direction with a clockwise rotation having an attitude angle in the lower left quadrant. External influences, such as hydraulic volute pressures in pumps or generator electrical load can produce additional relocating forces on the shaft attitude angle and centerline position. An additional characteristic of journal bearings is damping. This type of bearing provides much more damping than a rolling element bearing because of the lubricant present. More viscous and thicker lubricant films provide higher damping properties. As the available damping increases, the bearing stability also increases. A stable bearing design holds the rotor at a fixed attitude angle during transient periods such as machine startups/shutdowns or load changes. The damping properties of the lubricant also provides an excellent medium for limiting vibration transmission. Thus, a vibration measurement taken at the bearing

bearings, this design creates an increased vertical pre-load onto the shaft. This bearing has a lower load carrying capacity that plain bearings, but are still susceptible to oil whirl at high speeds. Manufacturing and installation costs are considered low. Pressure Dam A pressure dam bearing is basically a plain bearing which has been modified to incorporate a central relief groove or scallop along the top half of the bearing shell ending abruptly at a step. As the lubricant is carried around the bearing it encounters the step that causes an increased pressure at the top of the journal inducing a stabilizing force onto the journal which forces the shaft into the bottom half of the bearing. This bearing has a high load capacity and is a common correction for machine designs susceptible to oil whirl. Pressure dam bearings are a unidirectional configuration. Another unidirectional bearing configuration is the offset bearing. It is similar to a plain bearing, but the upper half has been shifted horizontally. Offset bearings have increasing load capacities as the offset is increased.

outer shell will not represent the actual vibration experienced by the rotor within its bearing clearances. Journal bearings have many differing designs to compensate for differing load requirements, machine speeds, cost, or dynamic properties. One unique disadvantage which consumes much research and experimentation is an instability which manifests itself as oil whirl and oil whip. Left uncorrected, this phenomenon is catastrophic and can destroy the bearing and rotor very quickly. Oil whip is so disastrous because the rotor cannot form a stable oil wedge consequently allowing metal to metal contact between the rotor and the bearing surface. Once surface contact exists the rotor begins to precess, in a reverse direction from rotor rotation direction, using the entire bearing clearance. This condition leads to high friction levels which will overheat the bearing babbit metal that leads to rapid destruction of the bearing, rotor journal, and the machine seals. Some common designs employed are lemon bore, pressure dam, and tilt pad bearings. These designs were developed to interrupt and redirect the oil flow path within the bearing to provide higher bearing stabilities.

Tilting Pad Tilting pad bearings is a partial arc design. This configuration has individual bearing pads which are allowed to pivot or tilt to conform with the dynamic loads from the lubricant and shaft. This type of bearing is a unidirectional design and is available in several variations incorporating differing numbers of pads with the generated load applied on a pad or between the pads. VIBRATION MONITORING A shaft supported by journal bearings will move relative to the bearing housing as various forces are imposed onto the shaft. A vibration transducer is required which can monitor the relative motion between the shaft and the bearing. Higher vibration frequencies are not of prime concern since they would not be transmitted through the oil film reliably.

The only sensor available that can measure relative measurements of the shaft is the non-contacting pickup, sometimes called a displacement, eddy current, or proximity pickup. This type of sensor measures the relative vibration of the shaft and, GEOMETRIES also, the relative position of the shaft Journal bearings installed in industrial with respect to the bearing clearances. High frequencies such as blade machinery today generally fall into passage and cavitation would be two categories: full bearings and attenuated by the lubricant. Case partial arc bearings. Full bearings completely surround the shaft journal mounted sensors would not provide an with many differing geometries such accurate indication of the vibration due to the inherent damping offered as elliptical, lobed, or pressure dam

configurations and usually are two pieces, mated at a split line. Partial arc bearings have several individual load bearing surfaces or pads and are made up of numerous adjustable components. The bearing inner surface is covered with a softer material, commonly called babbit. Babbit, which is a tin or lead based alloy, has a thickness that can vary from 1 to 100 mils depending upon the bearing diameter. A babbit lining provides a surface which will not mar or gouge the shaft if contact is made and to allow particles in the lubricant to be imbedded in the liner without damaging the shaft.

by the lubricant between the shaft and the bearing. For more information about installation and theory of operation of NCPUs, see the STI Application Notes: Eddy Current Transducer Installation, Part 1-Radial Vibration

The basic purpose of a machine bearing is to provide a near frictionless environment to support and guide a rotating shaft. Two general bearing styles are utilized at this time: the journal bearing and the rolling element bearing. For lower horsepower and lighter loaded machines, the rolling element bearing is a popular choice. Until the 1940's, the journal bearing was the prevalent style used on machines. As metallurgy and machining techniques progressed, the rolling element bearing gained greater usage. Today many of the smaller process support machines have rolling element bearings. BEARING DESIGNS

FAILURE MONITORING This style of bearing is typically monitored using a case mounted transducer: an accelerometer or velocity pickup. A displacement sensor observing the shaft relative vibration would show little, if any, vibration due to the vibration node created by the bearing. Using signal integration techniques, found in many industrial data collectors, specific frequency ranges relating to certain defects can be emphasized. Acceleration signals, obtained from case mounted sensors, emphasize high frequency sources, while displacement signals emphasize lower frequency sources, with velocity signals falling between the extremes. Recent innovations for determining

Rolling Element Bearings have four components: an inner race, an outer race, a rolling element, and a cage to support, space, and guide the rolling elements. The rolling elements found in today's rolling element bearings include: balls, rollers, and tapered rollers. All rolling element bearings have one thing in common: all parts must be in physical metal to metal contact at all times. Installation instructions specify the amount of bearing preload to maintain the component contact. Rolling element bearings have some unique concerns not found in journal bearings. A rolling element bearing will always force a vibration node at its location. Because of the metal to metal contact, this bearing will provide very little vibration damping. Although these bearings are a very precisely machined part they have a limited lifetime. Each component of the bearing will generate specific frequencies as defects initiate and become more prevalent.

bearing condition are Acceleration Enveloping, Spectral Emitted Energy (SEE), and Spike Energy. These measure high frequency resonances generated by bearing defects. As a trended variable, in conjunction with other parameters such as displacement, velocity or acceleration, they can give the earliest indication of bearing defects.

The figure depicts the overall amplitude levels obtained from a bearing as it progresses through continuing phases of failure. This chart depicts overall vibration levels only. As time progresses the earliest indication of failure are obtained from filtered high frequency signals because these signals are generated by the resonance of the bearing and by bearing component defects.

During the early stages of failure the other three parameters may not generate enough signal to be detected because these parameters emphasize progressively lower frequency ranges. As failure continues and the damaged Spherical Ball Spherical ball bearings, as the name bearing generates the individual bearing defect frequencies, the other parameters implies, utilize spherically shaped balls as the rolling or load carrying register signals. element. The number of balls used in a bearing varies depending on the application. This rolling element bearing type is designed to carry both radial and axial loads. By modifying the design, this bearing can also accommodate large axial

loads.

Viewing the four

Cylindrical/Spherical Roller This type of bearing utilizes cylindrically shaped rollers as the load carrying element. This bearing type is designed to carry large radial loads. This bearing, in its basic configuration, is not well suited to counter axial loads. The rollers may actually be slightly barrel shaped in certain designs. Barrel shaped rollers and their associated outer race allow for some self alignment of the bearing. Needle bearings are a special adaptation of the cylindrical roller bearing. Tapered Roller/Land This bearing design is a special adaptation of the cylindrical roller bearing. This bearing is designed to counter axial thrust loads along with carrying radial loads. Due to the geometrical summation of the radial and axial loads, this bearing has a lower radial load limit than a similarly sized cylindrical or spherical bearing. Certain applications may employ tapered rollers along with tapered races, hence the name. Special bearings may have inner and outer races with differing angles. VIBRATION MONITORING APPLICATIONS Rolling element bearings, by their design and installation, provide a

monitoring parameters as spectra, additionalinformation can be obtained about the failure modes. This figure shows the spectrum frequency content during four stages of bearing failure. A normal bearing or newly installed bearing will show no frequencies except those associated with shaft phenomenon such as balance or misalignment. Stage I

Stage I has some very high frequency content in the Spike Energy region. This zone is in the ultrasonic region which requires a sensor specifically designed to detect in this region. Special circuitry filters pass only those signals. Physical inspection of the bearing at this stage may not show any identifiable defects. Stage II

very good signal transmission path from the vibration source to the outer bearing housing. Also, these bearings require monitoring of the unique bearing frequencies generated by the various parts of the bearing, in Stage II begins to generate signals addition to the rotor fault associated with natural resonance frequencies. frequencies of the bearing parts as bearing defects begin to "ring" the Bearing Frequency Calculation bearing components. A notable increase Although modern rolling element in Zones 3 and 4 region signals is bearings are very precisely associated with this stage. Beginning machined, they do have microsigns of defects will be found upon defects which are potential sites for inspection. future damage. Due to the precise tolerances, improper installation Stage III practices can reduce bearing life. Extensive information has been compiled about bearing defect frequencies. Stage III condition has the fundamental bearing defect frequencies present. These frequencies are those discussed previously in this paper. Harmonics of these frequencies may be present depending upon the quantity of defects and their dispersal around the bearing races. The harmonic frequencies will be modulated, or side banded, by the shaft speed. Zone 4 signals continue to grow throughout this stage. Stage IV

The figure lists the bearing defect frequency formulas for a defect on the balls or rollers, outer race, inner race, and cage. The assumption for these formulas is that the outer race is stationary while the inner race rotates. If the bearing dimensions are known, the individual bearing defect frequencies can be calculated precisely, or a general rule of thumb can be applied. Using the generalized form the inner race frequencies would be N x RPM x 60% and the outer race frequencies would be N x RPM X 40%. If the bearing manufacturer model numbers are

Stage IV is the last condition before catastrophic failure of the bearing. This stage is associated with numerous modulated fundamental frequencies and harmonics indicating that the defects are distributed around the bearing races.

known several computer programs are available to calculate the necessary frequencies.

Due to the increased degradation of the bearing the internal clearances are greater and allow the shaft to vibrate more freely with associated increases in the shaft frequencies associated with balance or mis-alignment. During later phases of stage IV, the bearing fundamental frequencies will decline and be replaced with random noise floor or "hay stack" at higher frequencies. Zone 4 signal levels will actually decrease with a significant increase just prior to failure

Specification of a Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation (TSI) system can be an exhausting process when the individual parameters must be specified. This application note is supplied to provide a guide to be used in selecting an appropriate TSI system. TSI systems not only measure bearing vibration levels, but can include shell expansion, differential expansion, valve position, turbine speed and acceleration, thrust position, phase angle, and bearing temperatures.

Valve Position Correct valve positioning is required to efficiently operate a steam turbine. Some turbines may require several throttle valves be monitored and some turbines will instrument the main stop valve(s) to determine when they crack from their seats.

Retro-fit valve position measurements use DC LVDTs or DC Rotary Potentiometers. All OEM TSI systems include valve position measurement(s) When an existing TSI system is being as a startup and operation parameter. retro-fitted the immediate indication is Some OEM systems utilized AC that a one-for-one replacement of each LVDTs while others use mechanical original parameter is sufficient. This linkages and scales for indication. approach may be adequate if the original system was a complete A retro-fitted system can be installed package. in the same position or at relocated to a more accessible or protected Recent experience with retro-fitting position. TSI systems has brought to light that many of the existing systems could be For more information about valve enhanced with additional parameters. position systems and applications see Also, certain parameters should be STI Application Note, Valve

considered for complete replacement with a different type sensor. General

Position,TSI Part-2. Eccentricity

A rotor which has been sitting idle The information required under this during overhaul or has been topic will define and describe the inadvertently stopped during turbine generator along with who will coastdown for an extended period will perform and/or supply the various develop a bow or bend. This condition tasks and parts of the TSI installation. must be corrected by turning gear The time frame for the system operation and, possibly, with auxiliary installation should get consideration at heating prior to high speed operation the point. to prevent internal clearance rubbing. Describing the turbine generator involves listing the number of bearings, type of bearings, turbine/generator manufacturer, the number and function of each rotor segment, etc. This information may be obtained from the OEM operation and maintenance manuals and is required whether a retro-fit or an entirely new installation is being specified. Documentation of the proposed TSI should include who supplies the individual components and service of the new system, along with the number of operation and service manuals and/or drawings required. For more information about installation services see the STI Application Note, Field Service, FS. STI Application Note, Field Wiring Installation, FWI covers many topics of particular concern prior to and during the electrical system installation. Monitor Selecting the monitor follows the process of detailing the turbine Speed indication may be specified as an analog display or as a digital display and can be interfaced to a zero Eccentricity systems installed by OEMs monitor the turbine stub shaft or a shaft collar using induction coils. A retro-fit Eddy Probe system will monitor the same location and many times use the same bracketry. For more information about eccentricity systems and applications see STI Application Note, Eccentricity, TSI Part-1. Speed Turbine speed indication supplied by OEMs come in many forms: observing a gear wheel located inside the front standard, electrically converting the generator output frequency, or monitoring the turning gear. A retro-fitted system using Eddy Probe's can be specified to observe any multi-toothed gear wheel. Applications monitoring generator output frequency without an integral turning gear may require installation of a custom gear wheel.

generator layout. The monitor selection generally involves deciding what the monitor should do and how the user will interface with it. The monitor can be specified to be a stand-alone output with user interface or to interface with an another existing output device such as PLC or DCS.

speed system for turning gear engagement. Rate of Acceleration

The rate of acceleration parameter is usually monitored during startup to prevent over-torquing the rotors, as the turbine approaches critical speeds, and as the operating speed is reached prior to line synchronization. Once the Radial Vibration generator has been synchronized and Radial vibration is usually the heart of is being controlled by load dispatchers the acceleration rate is not monitored. the TSI system. It gets the most attention and generally gives the first indication of out of specification Acceleration rate measurements use a conditions. Most OEM TSI systems speed input to derive its output utilized a shaft rider transducer system display. Eddy Probe systems can be to monitor vibration with a shaft installed as a replacement or absolute output signal. An exact supplement an existing application. replacement transducer system can be See STI Application Note, Eddy Probe supplied, but most customers and Transducer Installation, Part-1 Radial OEMs are specifying a Eddy Probe Vibration for relevant information Systems. A complete vibration system about this type of sensor. would install two sensor systems per bearing with the sensors located 90 Phase from each other. Phase, or phase angle, is a measure of For more information about Eddy the relationship of how one vibration Probe Vibration Sensors and their signal relates to another vibration application see the STI Application signal and is commonly used to Note, Eddy Probe Transducer calculate the placement of a balance Installation, Part 1-Radial Vibration. weight. This parameter is not usually displayed continuously but is monitored periodically to determine Thrust Position changes in the rotor balance condition, deviations in system stiffness such as Thrust position indication includes a cracked shaft. one or two Eddy Probe Systems to observe the position of the thrust collar within its bearings. This system Phase angle measurements are is an internal installation and need not sometimes not supplied by OEMs, but replace the existing system because can be installed using a Eddy Probe many original installations utilize a system. Installation involves locating differential pressure system that or installing a once-per-turn event interfaces with the turbine hydraulic such as a key or notch that the Eddy

control system.

Probe will view. An Eddy Probe viewing a notch is easier to install and adjust, but the installation of the notch For more information about thrust position sensors and their application requires special tooling to cut the notch. Keys are easier to apply using see the STI Application Note, Eddy Probe Transducer Installation, Part 2- glues or epoxies and are subject to coming off due to centrifugal forces. Thrust Position. Shell Expansion Shell expansion is the measure of a turbine case or shell moves in relation to a fixed location usually measured with a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). Some existing OEM systems still use spindle micrometers or dial indicators that are subject to mechanical damage and human error. Although many systems installed with only one LVDT are adequate, a complete TSI system specification should consider two LVDTs located at each corner of the turbine shell. A second sensor will monitor shell cocking or uneven thermal growth which is a fairly common occurrence during startup when the sliding feet may have inadequate lubrication. For more information about shell expansion systems and applications see the STI Application Note, Shell Expansion, TSI Part-4. Temperature Bearing temperature is a measure of the how hot a bearing is operating. It may be due to overloading, misalignment, improper lubricant pressure and/or flow. Nearly all turbine generator bearings were originally installed or retro-fitted with bearing temperature sensors. These sensors may be thermocouples or RTDs. This parameter is often overlooked possibly due to the OEM output display located at some other panel not within the vicinity of the retro-fitted TSI system. Any bearings that was not originally equipped with temperature sensors can be retro-fitted to accept thermocouples or RTDs. Custom Cabinet Congested control boards may preclude installing the TSI rack requiring a stand-alone cabinet. This cabinet can house auxiliary equipment associated with the new TSI system, Differential Expansion such as power supplies, termination Differential expansion measurements strips, external relays, etc. are an important parameter receiving much attention during turbine startup The cabinet can be configured to and warming. This parameter many differing designs depending measures how the turbine rotor upon the user's requirements. Cabinets expands in relation to the turbine should be sturdy enough withstand shell, or casing. environmental conditions, such as moisture content, explosive

A new differential expansion system atmospheres, temperature, etc. using Eddy Probes can be retro-fitted to any existing system. A Eddy Probe is more reliable and robust than OEM supplied induction coil systems. For more information about differential expansion systems and applications see the STI Application Note, Differential Expansion, TSI Part-3.

Frequency domain measurements and analysis have become increasingly popular to diagnose a particular machine fault. This measurement mode relies on processing the transducer output signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms to display the signal amplitudes as a function of frequency. FFT processing essentially separates complex signals into individual components having a single frequency content. This type of display is commonly termed a spectrum.

A band is essentially a band pass filter allowing only the frequencies with the selected range to be measured. All other frequencies are excluded from analysis. Many modern machine monitor systems are capable of monitoring specific frequency ranges using band analysis. RESOLUTION

Frequency resolution is an area requiring considerable attention. If the resolution is inadequate the entire analysis process could be meaningless An enhancement of spectral analysis is or incorrect. Some instrument to define specific frequency ranges to specifications list the spectral perform band analysis. Conceptually, resolution as lines. A high resolution band analysis is similar to filtering a would be 3200 lines per spectrum and signal. The "filter" searches for a low resolution would be 100 lines frequencies only within its frequency per spectrum. range. Certain permanently installed machine monitoring systems offer this capability. This feature is quite effective, once the particular spectral range and resolution has been determined, to rapidly diagnose machine faults. SPECTRUM

A spectrum display is a display of signal amplitudes on the vertical axis and the signal frequencies on the horizontal axis. The frequency axis units may be in hertz (hz) or in cycles per minute (CPM). Hertz or cycles per second may be converted into CPM by multiplying by 60. For example: 10 hz = 600 CPM. The horizontal axis is scaled from 0 to some maximum frequency (Fmax). Individual signal frequencies will appear as peaks or spikes, each having a specific amplitude. Properly setting the Fmax will ensure that all of the input signal is being analyzed. This setting can be verified mathematically by summing the square of each amplitude peak. The Frequency Domain Checklist square root of this 1. Overall Amplitude summation 2. Time Base Waveform should approximate 3. Orbits the overall amplitude level obtained directly from the transducer's output. BAND ANALYSIS Band analysis involves selecting frequency ranges of interest to allow rapid determination of a machine's condition. Generally, each machine fault will generate a specific, unique frequency as the condition deteriorates. \\\

Each line of resolution can be viewed as a bucket or pail of a specific size. The signal frequencies can be viewed as a tennis ball. If a tennis ball's frequency matches the frequency range of the bucket, it is placed in the bucket. As the bucket fills with tennis balls the peaks on the spectrum display rise. Should the frequency range of the buckets be too large, the tennis balls will not be adequately separated to detect individual frequencies. This would lead to always using the highest resolution for spectral or band analysis. Higher resolutions require greater amounts of time to display the spectrum, thus a balance must be reached between the capture time and the spectral resolution.

Eddy Current Transducers\

Eddy Current Transducers (Proximity Probes) are the vibration transducer of choice when installing vibration monitoring on Journal Bearing equipped rotating machinery. Eddy Current Transducers are the only transducers that provide Shaft Relative (shaft relative to the bearing) vibration measurement.

The gauge of the selected wire depends on the length of the instrument wire run, and should be as follows to prevent loss of high frequency signal: Up to 200 feet 22 AWG Up to 1000 feet 20 AWG Up to 4000 feet 18 AWG

The following wiring connection Several methods are usually available convention should be followed: for the installation of Eddy Current Transducers, including internal, Red -24 VDC internal/external, and external Black Common mounting. White Signal Before selecting the appropriate method of mounting Eddy Current Transducers, special consideration needs to be given to several important installation considerations that will determine the success of your monitoring program. Theory of Operation Common Point Grounding To prevent Ground Loops from creating system noise, system common, ground and instrument wire shield must be connected to ground at one location only. In most cases, the recommendation is to connect commons, grounds and shields at the Monitor location. This means that all commons, grounds and shields must be floated or not connected at the machine.

Occasionally due to installation Eddy Current Transducers work on the methods instrument wire shields are proximity theory of operation. A Eddy connected to ground at the machine Current System consists of a matched case and not at the monitor. In this case, all of the instrument wire shields component system: a Probe, an must be floated or not connected at Extension Cable and an Oscillator /Demodulator. A high frequency RF the monitor. signal @2 mHZ is generated by the Oscillator/Demodulator, sent through Conduit the extension cable and radiated from Dedicated conduit should be provided

the Probe tip. Eddy currents are generated in the surface of the shaft. The Oscillator /Demodulator demodulates the signal and provides a modulated DC Voltage where the DC portion is directly proportional to gap (distance) and the AC portion is directly proportional to vibration. In this way, a Eddy Current Transducer can be used for both Radial Vibration and distance measurements such as Thrust Position and Shaft Position.

in all installations for both mechanical and noise protection. Flexible metal conduit should be used from the Eddy Probe to the Oscillator /Demodulator junction box, and rigid bonded metal conduit from the junction box to the monitor.

Calibration All Eddy Current Systems (Probe, Cable and Oscillator Demodulator) should be calibrated prior to being installed. This can be done by using a Special Considerations SKF-CM CMSS601 Static Calibrator, -24 VDC Power Supply and a Digital Number of Transducers Volt Meter. The Probe is installed in All vibration transducers measure the tester with the target set against motion in their mounted plane. In the Probe tip. The micrometer with other words, shaft motion either target attached is then rotated away directly away from or towards the from the Probe in 0.005" or 5 mil mounted Eddy Current Probe will be increments. The voltage reading is measured as radial vibration. recorded and graphed at each increment. The CMSS601 Calibrator On smaller less critical machines, one will produce a voltage change of 1.0 (1) Eddy Current Transducer system VDC +-0.05 VDC for each 5 mils of gap change while the target is within per bearing may be adequate for the Systems linear range. machine protection. Gap When installed,Eddy Current Probes must be gapped properly. In most Radial Vibration applications, gapping the transducer to the center of the linear range is adequate. For the Model CMSS65 and 68 gap should be On larger more critical machines, two set for -12.0 VDC using a Digital Volt (2) Eddy Current Transducer systems Meter (DVM), this corresponds to an approximate mechanical gap of 0.060" are normally recommended per or 60 mils. The voltage method of bearing. The Probes for this type of gapping the Probe is recommended installation should be mounted 900 over mechanical gapping. In all cases, apart from each other. Since the Probes will measure the vibration in final Probe gap voltage should be their respective planes, the shaft's total documented and kept in a safe place. vibration within the journal bearing is Internal Mounting measured. An "Orbit" or cartesian The single Eddy Current Probe will then measure the shaft's vibration in that given plane. Therefore, the Eddy Current Probe should be mounted in the plane where the greatest vibration is expected.

product of the two vibration signals may be viewed when both Eddy Current Transducers are connected to an SKF-CM Information System or an Oscilloscope.

Internal Mounting is accomplished with the Eddy Current Probes Linear Range mounted Several versions of Eddy Current internally to the machine or bearing Transducers are available with a housing with a SKF-CM CMSS903 variety of Linear Ranges and body Bracket or with a custom designed styles. In most cases, SKF-CM's and manufactured bracket. The CMSS68 with a linear range of 90 Transducer system must be installed mils (0.090") is more than adequate for Radial Vibration measurements... and gapped properly prior to the bearing cover being reinstalled. Model Range Output Size Provisions must be made for the CMSS65 90 mils 200 1/4"x28 UNF transducer's cable exiting the bearing mV/mil 1" to 5" Length housing. This can be accomplished by CMSS68 90 mils 200 3/8"x24 UNF using an existing plug or fitting, or by mV/mil 1" to 9" Length drilling and tapping a hole above the CMSS62 240 50 1" x 12 UNF 1" oil line. The Transducer's cables must mils mV/mil to 5" Length also be tied down within the bearing housing to prevent cable failure from Target Material/Target Area "windage". Target Material Eddy Current Transducers are calibrated at the factory for 4140 Steel unless specified otherwise. As Eddy Currents are sensitive to the permeability and resistivity of the shaft material any shaft material other than 4000 series steels must be specified at the time of order. In cases of exotic shaft material a sample may need to be supplied to the factory. For added safety and reliability, all fasteners inside the bearing housing should be safety wired, or otherwise prevented from working loose inside the machine. Advantages of Internal Mounting

Mechanical Runout Eddy Current Transducers are also sensitive to the shaft smoothness for Radial Vibration. A smooth (64 microinch) area approximately 3 times the Disadvantages of Internal Mounting diameter of the Probe must be No access to Probe while provided for a viewing area. The machine is running. prepared journal area on most shafts Cables must be tied down due are wider than the bearing itself

Most economical installation. Less machining required. True bearing relative measurement. Usually good viewing surface for Eddy Probe.

to allowing for Probe installation immediately adjacent to the bearing.

"windage". Electrical Runout Transducer cable exits must be Since Eddy Current Transducers are provided. sensitive to the permeability and Care must be taken to avoid resistivity of the target material and oil leakage. the field of the transducer extends into the surface area of the shaft by External/Internal Mounting approximately 15 mils (0.015"), care must be taken to avoid non External/Internal mounting is homogeneous viewing area materials accomplished when the Eddy Probes such as Chrome. are mounted with a Mounting Adapter (SKF-CM CMSS911 or 904). These Another form of electrical runout can adopters allow external access to the be caused by small magnetic fields Probe yet allows the Probe tip to be such as those left by Magna-fluxing internal to the machine or bearing without proper degaussing. housing. Care must be taken in drilling and tapping the bearing Perpendicular to shaft centerline housing or cover to insure that the Care must be exercised in all Eddy Probes will be perpendicular to installations to insure that the Eddy the shaft center line. Current probes are mounted perpendicular to the shaft center-line. In some cases due to space limitations Deviation by more than 1-2 degrees External/Internal mounting is will effect the output sensitivity of the accomplished by drilling or making system. use of existing holes in the bearing itself, usually penetrating at a oil Orientation of Transducer(s) return groove. As most machine casings are horizontally split, transducers are Advantages of External/Internal commonly found mounted at 450 both Mounting sides of vertical 900 apart. If possible transducer orientation should be consistent along the length of the machine train for easier machine diagnostics. In all cases orientation should be well documented.

Eddy Probe replacement while machine is running. Usually good viewing area for Eddy Probe. Gap may be changed while machine is running.

Disadvantages of External/Internal

Transducer (Probe) side clearances The RF Field emitted from the Probe tip of a Eddy Current Transducer in approximately a 450 coned shape.Clearance must be provided on all sides of the Probe tip to prevent interference with the RF Field. As an example, if a bearing is drilled to permit installation, the hole must be counter bored to prevent side clearance interference. Care must also be taken to avoid collars or shoulders on the shaft that may thermally "grow" under the Probe tip as the shaft grows from heat.

Mounting May not be true bearing relative measurement. More machining required. Long Probe/Stinger length (Resonance).

External Mounting Pure external Eddy Probe mounting is usually a last resort installation. The only valid reason for using this method is inadequate space availablewithin the bearing housing for internal mounting. Special care must be given to the Eddy Probe viewing area and mechanical protection of the transducer and cable.

Eddy Current Probe tip to tip clearances Advantages of External Mounting Although Probe tip to tip clearances are not normally an issue on most Most Inexpensive Installation. machines, it should be noted that Eddy Current Probes radiate an RF Field Disadvantages of External Mounting larger than the Probe tip itself. As an example, Model CMSS65 and 68 May be subject to "Glitch" or probe should never be installed with Electrical/Mechanical runout. less than one (1) inch of Probe tip to Requires mechanical tip clearance. Larger Probes require protection. more clearance. Failure to follow this rule will allow the Installation Checklist Oscillator/Demodulator to create a "beat" frequency which will be the 1. Mounting Type, Internal sum and difference of the two External/Internal External Oscillator/Demodulator RF 2. Number of Transducers, X or frequencies. X&Y 3. Target Material, 4140 Other System Cable Length and Junction 4. Smooth Target Area Boxes 5. Size of Target Area Eddy Current Transducer Systems are 6. Junction Box Location(s) a "tuned" length, and several system 7. Metal Conduit (Junction Box lengths are available. Length is to Monitor) measured from the Probe tip to the 8. Flexible Conduit (Junction

Oscillator/Demodulator, and is measured electrically which can slightly vary the physical length. For example, the Model CMSS65 and 68 are available in 5 and 10 meter system lengths. Care must be taken to insure that the proper system length is ordered to reach the required Junction Box. Grounding and Noise Electrical noise is a very serious consideration when installing any vibration transducer, and special care needs to be taken to prevent unnecessary amounts of noise. As most plant electrical noise is 60 HZ, and many machines running speed is also 60 HZ, it is difficult to separate noise from actual vibration signal. Therefore, noise must be kept to an absolute minimum. Instrument Wire A 3-wire twisted shielded instrument wire (ie; Belden #8770) is used to connect each Oscillator/Demodulator to the Signal Conditioner in the Monitor. Where possible, a single run of wire from the Oscillator/Demodulator (Junction Box) to the Monitor location should be used. Splices should be avoided.

Box to Probe) 9. Correct Instrument Wire 10. Shielding Convention, Monitor or Machine 11. Calibration 12. Gap Set

Accelerometers have been a popular As can be seen choice for rotating machinery vibration in the figure monitoring. They are a rugged, compact, above, the light weight transducer with a wide mounting frequency response range. Accelerometers method also has have been used extensively in many an effect on the machinery monitoring applications. This operating transducer is typically attached to the frequency range of an accelerometer. By

outer surface of machinery. Generally this machinery will have parts that generate high frequency signals, such as, rolling element bearings or gear sets. The application and installation of an accelerometer must be carefully considered for an accurate and reliable measurement. Accelerometers were designed to be mounted on machine cases. This will provide continuous or periodic sensing of absolute case motion (vibration relative to free space) in terms of acceleration.

design,accelerometers have a natural resonance which is 3 to 5 times higher than the advertised high end frequency response. The frequency response range is limited so that a flat response is provided over the operating range. The

Sensitivity Accelerometers utilized for vibration Theory of Operation monitoring are usually designed with a sensitivity of 100 mv/g. Accelerometers Accelerometers are inertial measurement can be supplied with a wide range of devices that convert mechanical motion to sensitivities for special applications such an electrical signal. This signal is as structural analysis, geophysical proportional to the vibration's acceleration measurement, or very high frequency using the piezoelectric principle. Inertial analysis. measurement devices measure motion relative to a mass. This follows Newton's Frequency Range Third Law of Motion: A body acting on Accelerometers are designed to measure another will result in an equal action on vibration over a given frequency range. the first. Once the particular frequencies of interest for a machine are known, an Accelerometers consist of a piezoelectric accelerometer may be selected. Typically, crystal and mass normally enclosed in a an accelerometer for measuring machine protective metal case. As the mass applies vibration will have a frequency range from force to the crystal, the crystal creates a 1 or 2 hertz to 8 or 10k hertz. charge proportional to acceleration. The charge output is measured in pico An accelerometer is used on machines Coulombs per g (pC/g) terms where g is when high frequency measurements are the force of gravity. Some sensors have desired. In terms of energy sensed by the an internal charge amplifier, while others transducer, acceleration will have larger have an external charge amplifier. The amplitudes as the frequency increases. At charge amplifier converts the charge low frequencies, the acceleration output of the crystal to a proportional amplitudes may be quite small giving a voltage output in mV/g terms. false impression of an acceptably operating machine. Current or Voltage Mode This type of accelerometer has an Calibration internal, low-output impedance amplifier Piezoelectric accelerometers can not be and requires an external power source. recalibrated or adjusted. Unlike a velocity The external power source can be either a

constant current source or a regulated voltage source. This accelerometer is normally a two wire transducer with one wire for power and signal, and the second wire for common. This type of Accelerometers have a lower temperature rating due to the internal amplifier circuitry. Signal cable lengths up to 500 feet have negligible effect on the output signal quality. Longer cable lengths will reduce the effective frequency response range.

pickup, this transducer has no moving parts subject to normal wear. Therefore, the output sensitivity does not require periodic adjustments to correct for wear.

An accelerometers has internal components which can be damaged from shock or overheating. When an accelerometer is suspect, a simple test of the transducer's bias voltage will help determine whether it should be removed from service. An accelerometer's bias voltage is the DC component of the Charge Mode transducer's output signal. The bias Charge mode accelerometers differ voltage is measured with a DC volt meter slightly from current or voltage mode across the transducer's signal output and types. This sensor has no internal common leads with power applied. At the amplifier and therefore have a higher same time, the power supply voltage temperature rating. An external charge should also be checked to eliminate the amplifier is supplied with a special adapter possibility of improper power voltage cable which is matched to the affecting the bias voltage level. accelerometer. Field wiring is terminated to the external charge amplifier. As with Instrument Wire current or voltage mode accelerometers, The following table is a partial list of signal cable lengths up to 500 feet have Belden Cables that should be used for negligible effect on the output signal the instrument field wiring. These part quality. Longer cable lengths will reduce numbers may be cross referenced to the effective frequency response range. equivalent cables from other manufacturers. The listed cables are Special Considerations polyethylene insulated, twisted, with Beldfoil shield, drain wire, and PVC jacket. Mounting There are three mounting methods Belden Part Numbers typically used for monitoring applications: P/N Nom. O.D. bolt mounting, glue, and magnets. 18 AWG 8760 0.22" 20 AWG 8762 0.20" The bolt mounting method is the best 22 AWG 8761 0.18" method available for permanent mounting applications. this method is accomplished Common Point Grounding via a stud or a machined block. This To prevent Ground Loops from creating method permits the transducer to system noise, system common, ground measure vibration according to the and instrument wire shield must be manufacturer's specifications. The connected to ground at one location only. mounting location for the accelerometer In most cases, the recommendation is to should be clean and paint free. The mounting surface should be spot-faced to connect commons, grounds and shields at a surface smoothness of 32 micro-inches. the Monitor location. This means that all commons, grounds, and shields must be The spot-faced diameter should be 10% floated or not connected at the machine. larger than the accelerometer diameter. Any irregularities in the mounting surface Occasionally, due to installation methods, preparation will translate into improper

measurements or damage to the accelerometer. The adhesive or glue mounting method provides a secure attachment without extensive machining. However, this mounting method will typically reduce the operational frequency response range. This reduction is due to the damping qualities of the adhesive. Also, replacement or removal of the accelerometer is more difficult than any other attachment method. Surface cleanliness is of prime importance for proper adhesive bonding. The magnetic mounting method is typically used for temporary measurements with a portable data collector or analyzer. This method is not recommended for permanent monitoring. The transducer may be inadvertently moved and the multiple surfaces and materials of the magnet may interfere with or increase high frequency signals.

instrument wire shields are connected to ground at the machine case and not at the monitor. In this case, all of the instrument wire shields must be floated or not connected at the monitor. Conduit Dedicated rigid conduit should be provided in all installations for mechanical and noise protection. The conduit should be metal, and in direct contact with each segment. All metal junction boxes and fittings should be in direct contact with the conduit. With this type of installation, a single ground point can be established. To facilitate removal of the accelerometer, a junction box with a barrier terminal strip should be located close to the transducer. The rigid conduit should be attached to the junction box, and the final run to the transducer can be metal flexible conduit. Accelerometer Checklist 1. Accelerometer Type, Current or Voltage Charge 2. Sensitivity 3. Frequency Range 4. Calibration 5. Correct Instrument Wire 6. Grounding 7. Rigid Conduit 8. Location(s) Documented

he velocity pickup is a very

populartransducer or sensor for monitoring the vibration of rotating machinery. This type of vibration transducer installs easily on machines, and generally costs less than other sensors. For these two reasons, this type of transducer is ideal for general purpose machine applications. Velocity pickups have been used as vibration transducers on rotating machines for a very long time, and they are still utilized for a variety of applications today. Velocity pickups are available in many different physical configurations and output sensitivities.

Theory of Operation
When a coil of wire is moved through a magnetic field, a voltage is induced across the end wires of the coil. The induced voltage is caused by the transferring of energy from the flux field of the magnet to the wire coil. As the coil is forced through the magnetic field by vibratory motion, a voltage signal representing the vibration is produced. Signal Conventions A velocity signal produced by vibratory motion is normally

Sensitivity Some velocity pickups have the highest output sensitivities of any vibration pickup for rotating machine applications. The sensitivity will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The higher output sensitivity is useful in situations where induced electrical noise is a problem. The larger signal for a given vibration level will be less influenced by the noise level. Some velocity pickups with their sensitivities are listed below: Sensitivity 500 STI LCV100 mv/in/sec Frequency Response Velocity pickups will have differing frequency responses depending on the manufacturer. However, most pickups have a frequency response range in the order of 10 to 1000 hz. This is an important consideration when selecting a velocity pickup for a rotating machine application. The pickup's frequency response must be within the expected vibration frequencies of the machine. Due to the support spring for the bobbin., a natural mechanical resonance occurs at the low end of the frequency response curve. This resonance is either damped by the oil contained within the sensor, or with a shunt resistor across the coil's leads. Calibration

sinusoidal in nature. In other words, in

Comparing vibration level readings taken by different types of instruments and transducers can be very confusing and can lead to mistrust of the systems involved. Knowledge of how to properly compare readings is required before comparing any readings is attempted. This application note explains the variables involved in some detail and will act as a guideline as you compare vibration readings. Transducer Type Three (3) basic types of vibration transducers are available which correlate with the three (3) types of measured physical motion, Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement.

Shaft Absolute Shaft Absolute is the measurement of the shaft's motion relative to free space (or absolute). Shaft Absolute can be measured two (2) ways, the first being electronically summing the signals

Accelerometer Accelerometers are a piezo-electronic (crystal) device. A pre- loaded crystal is charged with current and as the crystal is compressed or decompressed by vibration an output proportional Engineering Units to g's (gravity) is provided. A "g" is equal to 9.80 meters/second2 or one (1) standard earth 0 to Peak (0-P) Both Velocity (in.sec, mm/sec) and gravity. Acceleration (g's) by definition are measured in 0 to Peak or one/half the Peak to Peak signal as viewed on an oscilloscope. Peak to Peak (P-P) Displacement by definition is measured in Peak to Peak or the actual Peak to Peak Motion of the Shaft. Accelerometers are normally used for highfrequency bearing cap vibration readings (Case/Bearing Cap Absolute on machines using rolling element bearings. Usually the output is integrated electronically to velocity (in/sec or mm/sec). Other applications include monitoring Root Mean Square (RMS) Root Mean Square (RMS) is a popular method of measuring Case or Bearing Cap Vibration as many vibration engineers have found that RMS is more indicative of actual rolling element bearing condition.

of both a Eddy Probe measuring shaft relative and a accelerometer measuring case absolute, the second being using a shaft rider which is a spring mounted device that physically rides on the surface of the shaft, normally a velocity sensor integrated to displacement is mounted on top of the shaft rider. Shaft Absolute is normally used where the rotating assembly is five (5) or more times heavier than the case of the machine.

Gears and High Frequency Applications. Velocity Pick-up Two (2) types of Velocity Sensors exist, mechanical and electronic. Mechanical types are the most common and are made up of a spring mounted coil mounted inside a magnet. Vibration causes the coil to move in relation to the magnet which produces a voltage output directly proportional to Velocity. Electronic Velocity Sensors are Accelerometers with an electronic integrator built in to the unit. Output of a Velocity Sensor can be expressed in many different terms, inches/second (in/sec) or millimeters/second (mm/sec) being the standards.

Although rarely found in vibration waveforms a pure sine wave RMS would be . 707 times the 0 to Peak Value. Transducer Considerations Frequency Response The frequency response of a vibration transducer is very important when comparing readings. Transducers with a wider or broader frequency response will typically see more vibration if it is present than a narrower bandwidth transducer. How different vibration frequencies contribute to overall values is dependent on their phase relationship to each other, some may add, some may subtract from the overall value. Eddy Probes Displacement

200 mv/mil Velocity 500 Velocity (Mechanical) mv/in/sec Velocity 500-1000 Velocity Transducers are normally used for Velocity (Piezoelectric) mv/in/sec Bearing Cap Vibration Monitoring (Case/Bearing Cap Absolute) on machines with Accelerometer Acceleration 100 mv/g rolling element bearings. They have the advantage of high outputs and the signal is read Mounting directly in velocity (in/sec or mm/sec). How a transducer is mounted is also critical to comparing measurements. Eddy Probes (Proximity) Accelerometers are extremely sensitive to Eddy or Proximity Probes are a displacement device that measure the relative motion between the method of attachment. Differences in bandwidth can be measured between handthe probe mounting location and the target held, magnet attached, epoxy, and stud (shaft). Output is directly proportional to mounted installations. displacement and is usually measured in mils (.001") or millimeters (mm). Installation instructions must be followed precisely to obtain the manufactures transducer specifications. Accelerometers not mounted perfectly perpendicular to the surface or on a flat surface will produce stress risers which will also produce false signals.

Measurement Location When comparing readings it is essential that all readings are taken at the same location and the same plane. Even small differences in location can effect the overall readings. All vibration transducers Eddy Probes are used on machines with Journal are single plane devices and only measure (Sleeve) type bearings. Where the measurement in the plane in which they are held or are mounted. of motion between the Bearing and Shaft is critical. Instrument Considerations Bearing Type All Instruments handle signal is different Two primary types of bearings are in use today, ways. Different instruments have their own Rolling Element Bearings and Journal or Sleeve frequency response and filtering. Knowledge must be gained on the Bearings. instruments used before the outputs can be Rolling Element Bearings are zero (0) clearance compared even when they use the same devices. All vibration of the shaft is transmitted transducer. directly to the bearing cap. Conversion Formulas Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration are mathematically related to each other as a function of frequency. Electronic integrators or differentiation are also used to change one term to the other. Once again it must be understood that the readings be of the same type or they will Journal or Sleeve Bearings are designed so that not agree. the oil film provides damping. The shaft is free to vibrate within the bearing. Due to the D = Displacement, P-P, Mils. damping provided by the oil film very little of V = Velocity, 0-P, in/sec. the shaft vibration is transmitted to the bearing A = Acceleration, 0-P, g's. cap. The oil film damping provides even higher D = 19.10 x 103 x (V/CPM) levels of attenuation to higher frequencies. D = 70.4 x 106 x (A/CPM2)
V = 52.36 x 10-6 x D x CPM V = 3.87 x 103 x (A/CPM) A = 14.2 x 10-9 x D x CPM2 A = 0.27 x 10-3 x V x CPM

Summary

Measurement Type Only measurements of the same type can be compared. Bearing Cap or Case Vibration cannot be directly compared to Shaft Relative or Shaft Absolute and visa versa. Case Absolute Case or Bearing Cap Absolute is the measurement of the Case or Bearings Caps (Location of Transducer) motion relative to free space (or absolute motion). Case or Cap Absolute is usually used for monitoring Rolling Element Bearings.

In General it is difficult to get any two readings to precisely agree with one another. Even when care is taken to insure that transducers and locations are the same and that the measurement type is the same, agreement within +-30% depending on the instrument is considered good. Even though overall values will not agree precisely spectrum Data or frequencies will be comparable within the limits of the bandwidth of the different instruments. Checklist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Is Transducer Type the same Bearing Type Is Measurement Type the Same Engineering Units the same Frequency Response of Transducer Mounted Transducer Frequency Response 7. Where Readings Taken at the same location 8. Where Readings Taken in the same Plane 9. Instrument Frequency Response

Shaft Relative Shaft Relative is the measurement of motion between the Shaft and whatever the measuring devise is mounted to. This measurement is normally taken with a NCPU or Proximity Sensor. Shaft Relative measurements are used for Journal or Sleeve Bearing Applications.

This application note presents specific failure modes associated with machinery having journal bearings. Signal measurements presented here are time waveforms that are collected with two orthogonally located Eddy Probes, or proximity type sensors. Although certain faults can be analyzed with spectrum analyzers, the

OIL WHIP Oil whip occurs during the later stages of an oil whirl condition and it has a distinctive orbital display. The display, with the phase input superimposed on the display, appears to have several phase marks.This display will be round in shape and the

majority of these faults can be diagnosed using orbit analysis alone. BALANCE Diagnosis of a degrading balance condition is performed by concentrating on the synchronous amplitude which coincides with the rotor speed. This can be accomplished by viewing the spectra from any single Eddy Probe sensor. A similar diagnosis can be made by viewing the filtered signals from two orthogonally mounted Eddy Probes sensors as orbits. As the balance condition deteriorates the size, and sometimes the shape, of the orbit will grow larger until the peak-to- peak amplitude exceeds acceptable limits. CRACKED SHAFT A crack in a rotor, or shaft, can generate several different effects on how the machine behaves: a change in the vibration level, a change in the operating phase angle, and/or a change in the resonance frequency as the machine starts or stops. Spectral analysis can be used to identify this fault, but observing filtered, synchronous orbits with the phase angle superimposed on the orbit allows rapid identification of this condition. Changes in the filtered amplitude can be determined using orbits analysis.

marks.This display will be round in shape and the amplitude will greater that the amplitude noted during oil whirl. The size of the orbit be will larger because the shaft uses up the entire bearing clearance as an oil wedge can no longer be established by the rotor and the shaft is in direct metal-tometal contact with the bearing. The orbit display will no longer rotate because the oil whirl frequency has coincided with the first natural resonance, or critical speed, and has "locked" onto this frequency. Oil whip is a dangerous condition because the rotor uses up the entire bearing clearance and is in direct metal-tometal contact that will wear away the bearing rapidly and destroy the rotor if not corrected. EXCESSIVE PRELOAD All journal bearing machines have some amount of preload so that a stable oil wedge can be established. The preload may be internally or externally produced. Internal sources of preloads are from gear meshing or hydraulic loading during pumping actions. External preloads may be from coupling misalignment or piping and support system thermal changes. These sources of preload create an elliptical orbit that is flattened in the direction of the preload vector.

By superimposing the phase angle input signal onto the orbit a shift in this parameter can be easily determined. By noting the operating speed at which the resonance frequencies occur, a change in this frequency may indicate the "possibility" of a crack existing.

As the preload increases the orbit is further flattened. As excessive preload increasesfurther the orbit begins to collapse to form a "banana" shape as the shaft tries to The "possibility" must be emphasized continue its normal rotation pattern and carefully analyzed because many and direction. other causes can produce these changes, such as, a damaged or loose After the orbit has been flattened into bearing support, foundation problems, the "banana" shape a 2X frequency is loose rotating parts...basically present on spectra displays. Heavy anything that can influence the preloads further distort the orbit into a "system" mass, damping, and/or figure eight shape. As preload stiffness. increases the shaft centerline will shift in the direction of the preload vector. LOOSE ROTATING PART RUB A loose rotating part can generate unusual vibration signals. They may A common problem in newly rebuilt fluctuate in amplitude and the phase or modified rotors is a slight rubbing angle may shift, also. This fault is condition as the rotor is initially diagnosed easiest using filtered, operated. Rotor rubs are not a synchronous phenomenon which continues over an orbit analysis. extended period; they usually increase Imagine a mass, the clearances until the rub has been such as an cleared or, if not corrected, they will impeller, which wear away the internal clearances until has come loose; the machine cannot be operated. The it can rotate shape of the orbit display will differ freely on the shaft independently. depending upon the relationship of the shaft speed to the first natural As the loose part rotates it influences frequency and the severity of the rub. the balancecondition of the rotor which appears as a cyclical increase Spectra displays of rub conditions are and decrease in the synchronous characterized by distinct frequencies amplitude. This is observable using a that occur at multiples of a spectrum analyzer, but the changes fundamental frequency. The may be too rapid for the sampling rate fundamental frequency will depend of the instrument. An oscilloscope set upon the relationship of the shaft up to observe a filtered orbit will speed to the first natural resonance sample continuously so that the frequency. At shaft speeds up to twice

changes can be seen. The phase shifting can, also, be observed using an oscilloscope.

the natural resonance frequency, the fundamental rub frequency The inception of a loose part condition will coincide will produce a "nervous" filtered, with the shaft synchronous orbit. The orbit will speed with appear to vibrate slightly as this condition is created; the part may be multiples at 2X, 3X, etc. Between slipping and then sticking on the shaft twice and three times the first natural just prior to becoming a full fledged resonance frequency, the fundamental rub frequency will be shaft speed loose rotating part. with multiples at 1X, 3/2X, 2X, 5/2X, etc. Between three and four time the OIL WHIRL natural resonance frequency, the Oil whirl and oil whip are sometimes fundamental rub frequency will be shaft speed with multiples at 2/3X, listed as a single machine fault, but 1X, 4/3X, 5/3X, 2X, 7/3X, etc. closer observation of the vibration signals and the machine conditions The severity of the rub will affect the causing these signals will produce different, distinct signal displays for shape of the orbit. A light rub will each condition. This fault is caused by produce a "tear drop" shaped orbit, a condition which prevents the rotor with the point of the tear drop coinciding with the impact spot. As from creating a stable oil wedge on which ride. An improperly designed the rub gets heavier the orbit will flattened and may appear as an bearing is the usual source for oil whirl conditions, but a change in the excessive preload. fluid viscosity or machine alignment state are other possibilities. At higher machine speeds (above twice the first natural frequency) the unfiltered orbits will begin to have Generally, an oil whirl condition internal loops with the fundamental precedes an oil whip condition. Spectral and orbit analysis can be used rub frequency inversely proportional to the number of internal loops. These to identify either condition. This internal loops will have their own phenomenon creates an individual subsynchronous frequency which can phase marks displayed and the loops occur within a frequency range from will be located symmetrically on the 35% to 48% of rotor speed, depending display. upon the machine/bearing design or construction. As the machine Bearing Failure Modes-Journal accelerates the whirl frequency will Bearings Checklist increase as machine speed increases. 1. Balance 2. Cracked Shaft 3. Loose Rotating Parts

Observing oil whirl as a filtered, synchronous orbit produces a distinctive display. The orbit will be more or less round in shape with an amplitude that nearly approximates the bearing clearance, and when the phase angle is superimposed upon the display, the orbit will appear to have two phase marks on it. This characteristic is due to filtering at shaft speed and the fault being generated at a subsynchronous frequency. The two phase marks will not be displayed symmetrically on the orbit because the whirl frequency is not at exactly machine speed.

4. Oil Whirl 5. Oil Whip 6. Excessive Preload 7. Rub

Acceleration envelope measurements are a new introduction to the inventory available to vibration analysts. Although initially it would seem to be most useful for detecting rolling element bearing defects (BPFO, BPFI, BSF, FTF), much more can be performed once the frequency ranges and applications of other more traditional vibration parameters are considered. Once it is understood how acceleration envelope signals are processed, nearly all analysis could be accomplished with these signals. Phenomena associated with motor electrical and gear meshing problems fall into the frequency range of acceleration envelope processing. Unbalance and other lower order problems do not initially fall into envelope analysis, but as these problems degrade they can be detected.

Inadequate lubrication, which can encompass insufficient quantity, excessive quantity, and/or improper specifications, can be readily identified using acceleration envelope measurements. This phenomenon manifests itself as a shifting of the noise floor. Properly installed and operating bearings will not necessarily generate specific bearing defect frequencies when an inadequate lubrication condition exists.

Figure 5 Figure 5 illustrates how a lubrication

Acceleration envelope signatures are essentially band passed signals where lower order and higher order frequencies are removed. The remaining frequency range is most commonly associated with bearing defect frequencies. Normally, running speed related frequencies are removed by the filters and are not present in acceleration envelope spectra. However, when a running speed order frequency becomes severe enough it will appear in the envelope signature. This is due to the presence of numerous harmonics of the lower order frequency, which are not detectable in velocity signals, falling into the envelope filter range.

problem can be identified. The left portion of the spectra has been elevated with overall amplitudes of 1.1 G's. Once the bearing was greased the elevated portion shifted back down, figure 6. Overall amplitudes were reduced to 0.7 G's.

Figure 6

Sometimes the entire noise floor is elevated when a lubrication problem exist, as illustrated in figures 7 and 8. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate that when Figure 7 shows the elevated noise floor. lower velocity signals are present the running speed components will not be No identifiable bearing defect frequencies are present, only an present in acceleration envelope signatures. These spectra were collected elevated noise floor. Overall amplitudes were at 8.2 G's. on the same day during a routine PM data collection visit.

Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 8 was collected after the bearing was lubricated. Note that bearing defect Acceleration envelope measurements frequencies are not present and the were taken on same day. Note that 1Xrpm is missing in Figure 2 due to the noise floor has dropped. The overall amplitude dropped to 1.1 G's. filtering used (30k-600k cpm). Also, note the low noise floor and the lack of bearing frequencies in the spectrum. This bearing had recently been installed, no defects were identifiable, and the lubrication is adequate for Figure 8 continued operation. CONCLUSION

Figure 2 As the running speed components and their harmonics become larger along with the presence of higher order harmonics the "ringing" associated with these harmonically related frequency components fall into the frequency range of the acceleration envelope measurements. Running speed frequencies are now present in acceleration envelope measurements. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate this phenomenon.

Acceleration Envelope measurements, due to the signal filtering, can be used to identify more machinery defects than damaged rolling element bearings. This measurement parameter is commonly only used to identify the smaller frequencies associated with bearing defects. If machinery defects are classified into lower order problems and higher order problems they can be effectively diagnosed with acceleration enveloping measurements. Lower order problems would be balance, misalignment, looseness due to fasteners, or looseness due to worn bearings. Higher order problems would be bearing defect frequencies, motor bar pass frequencies, or gearmesh frequencies. The presence of lower order problems in envelope spectra indicate a severe problem which most likely will need immediate attention. The filtering will eliminate these frequencies from an otherwise healthy machine.

Figure 3

The velocity spectrum, figure 3, has a much larger 1Xrpm frequency component which now appears in the acceleration envelope spectrum, figure Tracking of higher order problems can 4. be accomplished normally using envelope measurements.

Figure 4 LUBRICATION Lubrication problems, not normally analyzed with velocity signatures, but can sometimes be detected in acceleration signatures, can readily be detected using acceleration envelope signatures. Experience has shown that an inadequate lubrication condition will

cause a shift in the noise floor of the signature.

An understanding of how a spring mass system responds to vibratory influences is helpful in understanding, recognizing and solving many problems encountered in vibration measurements. In this application note the combined effects of system mass, stiffness, and damping properties are presented to reveal the cause and characteristics of resonance.

Below Resonance If each of the individual terms are represented by a vector, and the influences of frequency are included, the result is a type of graph, similar in shape to a triangle. The figure is a graphical representation of the relationships of All machines have three fundamental the terms at low frequencies, i.e. slow rotor speeds. The total restraint vector traits which combine to determine is the summation of all three vector how the machine will react to terms. Note that the damping and mass excitation forces. These traits are stiffness K, damping D, and mass M. terms do not have much influence on These traits, actually represent forces the total restraint at low frequencies, leaving the stiffness term as the inherent to every machine and dominant term. This means that at structure, tend to resist or oppose frequencies vibration. below the resonance From an analysis standpoint, it should frequency the be remembered that machines, along rotor behaves with their supporting structures, are as a pure complex systems consisting of many spring, sometimes called a stiff shaft spring-mass systems, each with its own natural frequency. Also, each of rotor. these systems may have differing At Resonance degrees of freedom with a differing natural frequency. This collection of As the rotor frequency increases, the possible resonant frequencies, and the influence of the damping and mass terms become greater due to the many excitation frequencies, all influence of and in the mass and combine to make resonance a very velocity terms. At a certain frequency common problem for the transient vibration analyst. Understanding the the stiffness and mass terms cancel each other due to the 180 phase basics of how a system responds to difference in the terms. The figure vibratory forces is important to presents the vectorial relationships and anyone involved in vibration measurement, analysis, and balancing. the resultant vibration amplitude From a measurement standpoint, it is response at resonance condition. important to remember that every

object has a resonant When these frequency...machinery, pickups, terms cancel brackets, etc. Resonance of a pickup each other the mounting bracket, or the pickup itself, only will introduce significant errors to remaining restraint term is the measurements. damping term to control the system vibration. As the stiffness and mass terms approach the point of canceling RESTRAINING FORCE each other, the system's vibration amplitude will increase to a The combined effects of the maximum, constrained only by the restraining forces of stiffness, damping, and mass determine how a available damping from any lubricant present. At resonance the system has system will respond to a given lost the restraining forces of the exciting force. Mathematically the stiffness and mass terms. A machine relationship is represented by: supported by rolling element bearings, M a + D v + K x = Me e sin( t - ) which have little or no damping For simplification, the above equation capabilities, will exhibit a dramatic and sharp increase in vibration can be written as: amplitude in this region. This Mass term + Damping term + phenomenon is referred to the Stiffness Term = Restraining Force resonance frequency or "critical" The restraining forces, represented by speed. Operation in this zone should the various terms in the equation, are be avoided since any change in the what determines how a rotor behaves available damping can have a dramatic effect upon the measured vibration throughout its operating range. Any excitation force, such as unbalance, is levels. always in equilibrium with the restraining forces of mass, damping, Above Resonance and stiffness. The amount of measured As the rotor frequency continues to increase, the mass term, which is vibration, as a result of these proportional to , becomes the combined forces, will depend upon the combined effect of all three terms predominant portion of the total restraint force, growing faster than the in the equation. The phase angle ( ) change as a rotor increases speed and other terms. The figure shows the vector representation of the forces and surpasses a resonance region is the vibration amplitude at high rotor dependant upon on the relationship frequencies. Note that as speed between the various terms. increases further the phase angle change approaches another 90 shift. PHASE RELATIONSHIP The rotor behaves as a pure mass with To understand the phase relationships little impact from the constant stiffness term and the relatively slowly of the terms, consider that the mass changing damping term. A rotor term is proportional to acceleration, operating in this region is called a damping term is proportional to

velocity, and the stiffness term is proportional to displacement. In equation form, the acceleration term = -x sin( t) and the velocity term = x cos( t). Examining the relationship of the acceleration and velocity equations, a 90 phase difference exists as the terms are integrated. Another integration produces the stiffness term that is proportional to displacement (x) only, and the relationship between the stiffness and damping terms have another 90 phase shift.

flexible rotor since it rotates around its mass centerline, not its geometric centerline.

Thus, as rotor frequencies increase, three regions are found where one of the component terms is dominant over the other two terms. The summation of the three terms is represented by the vector labeled: Total Restraint. The total restraint vector is what is measured as vibration amplitude and its associated phase angle. As the rotor speed passes through each of these The effects of frequency ( ) should regions the measured phase angle will also be considered along with the change by 90 and will exhibit an phase shifts noted. Stiffness being overall phase shift of 180 as it proportional to displacement only, and surpasses a critical "resonance" speed: not influenced by frequency, means Nc. that essentially the stiffness term is constant throughout all frequency ranges. However, the damping and mass terms are influenced by and , respectively.