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32-4: The Allied Victory

December 22 1941 Winston Churchill and President Roosevelt made joint war policy Stalin want another front for Germany to lessen the German forces on Russia (Split German forces)

The Tide Turns on Two Fronts - Churchill wanted to begin fighting in North Africa and southern Europe Stalin wanted to open second front in France - Soviet Union were against the Germans on its own Only way that Britain and the United States offer help is in supplies - German General Erwin Rommel took Tobruk in June 1942 - Bernard Montgomery Monty sent to take control of British troops Germans advance to Egyptian village, El Alamein, already - Montgomery attacks (Battle of El Alamein) on October 23 defeated Rommel and his men on November 4th had the element of surprise - Allies launched Operation Torch on November 8 consisting of 100,000+ troops landed in Morocco and Algeria led by American general Dwight D. Eisenhower - the forces of Eisenhower and Montgomery triumphed over the remainder of Rommel and his men in May 1943 - German troops were held up at Leningrad and Moscow in 1941 - Hitler send the Sixth Army with General Friedrich Paulus to take the oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains and also Stalingrad - Battle of Stalingrad launched on August 23, 1942 nightly bombing raids by the Luftwaffe Stalin ordered soldiers to defend the city named after him til death 90% of the city were controlled by the Germans by November 1942 the force of General Paulus were trapped and cut off from supplies begged Hitler to retreat refused and said it needed to be held at all costs around 90,000 German soldiers surrendered on February 2nd, 1943 Stalingrad was 99% destroyed - the Allies forces infiltrated Sicily on July 10, 1943 captured it a month later this action overturned Mussolini's power in Italy - King Victor Emmanuel III arrested Mussolini on July 25, 1943 - Italy surrendered on September 3 Germans took control of northern Italy and Mussolini was back in charge - the Allies marched into Rome on June 4th, 1944 - Mussolini was found in a German truck disguised as a German soldier by Italian resistance fighters near Milan on April 27, 1945 he was shot and the body was hung in downtown Milan

Life on the American Home Front People supported Allies Americans used their homes for great contributions such as weapons

Mobilization for total war was crucial for defeating the Axis In the Us weapons were produced in factories and tanks in car factories There was a shortage of everyday items because of this (speed limit at 35 mph to save gas) Propaganda was used to make people support the war- people were praised in various scenes supporting the war needs. Bad propaganda as well prejudice against the Japanese(Pearl Harbor) Military took people to camps (prison) a lot were American-born Allied Victories in Europe By the end of 1942 Allies were winning the war Allies building a force in Great Britain to attack Germans across the English channel D-Day invasion Dwight D Eisenhower commanded the force of 3.5 million There were Planes ships tanks Force was ready in May 1944 Planned to attack Normandy- Northwestern France. [Fake army sent to Calais to fool Hitler] Operation Overload code name for attack D-Day set for June 6 1944 At Dawn British Us French Canadian troops in 60 miles of beach in Normandy Germans dug trenches with weapons 3,000 allied troops killed that day However still occupied the beach heads the shoreline captured before continuing to invade inland millions of allied troops come within the next month got through the Germans in St. Lo Germans began to retreat and allies liberated Paris. Allies invade Germany (from the east) who are now fighting on two fronts. Germans decided to attack the western front in Ardennes on December 16 Battle of the Bulge Broke through weak Allies but they eventually regrouped and pushed the Germans back March 1945 Allies crossed the Rhine River Allies and Soviets surrounded Berlin Hitler made a final address Blamed Jews for starting the war and the Generals for losing it. He killed himself May 7 1945 Eisenhower accepted the surrender Roosevelt died but Harry Truman replaced him and received the Nazi surrender. V-E day- Victory in Europe day.

Victory in the Pacific Europe fighting part was over but still fighting with Japanese Allies won at Guadalcanal which stopped the Japanese Fall 1944 Allies closing in on Japan Allies on Leyte Japanese attack the fleet but risky Battle of Leyte Gulf October 23- Japanese lost really hard Kamikaze remained- Japanese suicide pilots- crash into allied ships Marines took Iwo Jima (March 1945) and later Okinawa (April 1)- Japanese defended but could not hold up Truman had to decide about the Atomic Bomb US sent a warning to Japan rain of ruin from the air about the bomb but did not reply An atomic bomb was dropped by the US on Hiroshima (killed 73,000) and Nagasaki (37,500 people). Japanese surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur on September 2-war had ended