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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY SPRING 2012 Exam 1A

1) The apical surfaces of epithelial involved in


absorption and secretion commonly exhibit which cellular specialization? a) Channels b) Tight junctions c) Desmosomes d) Cilia e) Microvilli 2) A phopholipid bilayer comprises the fundamental structure of a) Ribosomes b) Mitochondrial cristae c) Mitotic spindle d) Cilia e) All of the above

NAME __________________ DR. CARROLL


7) The aorta stretches as the ventricles push blood into
the circulation with force and then recoils as blood is propelled forward. This is due to the presence of a) Dense elastic connective tissue b) Stratified epithelia c) Dense irregular connective tissue d) Dense regular connective tissue e) Muscular tissue 8) This tissue is richly vascularized and has high metabolic activity and serves as an important reservoir of energy substrates. a) Cartilage b) Bone c) Adipose d) Epithelial e) Red bone marrow

3) The HIV virus binds to a cell surface protein, CD4,


present in the membranes of some white blood cells and enters the cell via a) Channel mediated transport b) Phagocytosis c) Pinocytosis d) Facilitated diffusion e) Receptor mediated endocytosis 4) Some anticancer drugs interfere with the polymerization of microtubules and therefore inhibit a) Assembly of the mitotic spindle b) DNA replication c) Protein synthesis d) Endocytosis and exocytosis e) Structure of microvilli

9) Gap junctions are found


a) Between motor neuron and muscle fiber b) In the intercalated discs between cardiac muscle cells c) At the border between epithelia and basal lamina d) Between cells of columnar epithelia lining the small intestine e) All of the above

10)The distinctive characteristics of hyaline and


fibrocartilage arise mainly from the differences in the a) Density of cells b) Junctions between cells c) Layering of cells d) Ground substance e) Density of collagen fibers in the matrix

5) Gradients of ions are built across membranes and


provide potential energy for cellular work. Cells move these ions against their concentration gradients by a) Facilitated diffusion b) Channel mediated transport c) Osmosis d) Active transport pumps e) Exocytosis 6) Dense parallel arrays of actin and myosin filaments are observed in a) Tendons b) Skeletal muscle fibers c) Smooth muscle fibers d) Perimysium e) All of the above

11)Choose the correct statement about bone tissue.


a) Osteocytes divide to replace damaged or resorbed bone b) Osteogenic cells give rise to osteoclasts and osteoblasts c) Osteoblasts release acids and lysosomal enzymes to digest proteins and minerals of the matrix d) Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that are concentrated in the endosteum e) Only compact bone has a mineralized matrix

12) Nine year old Marcus broke his left arm playing basketball. The arm healed but as an adult he notices his left arm is shorter than his right. What could account for this? a) The articular cartilage did not repair completely b) Osteogenic cells were permanently lost c) There was impairment of cell proliferation at the epiphyseal cartilage d) Hormone levels were not adequate to stimulate bone growth e) Calcium metabolism was disrupted

18) Subcutaneous fat is produced by a) Dermal fibroblasts b) Sebaceous glands c) Cells in the stratum granulosum d) Adipocytes in the hypodermis e) Keratinocytes in stratum germinativum 19) The formation of scar tissue after injury involves the activity of a) Epithelial cells b) Mesenchymal cells c) Fibroblasts d) Melanocytes e) Keratinocytes 20) Synovial membranes a) Line the hollow organs that open to the outside of the body b) Cover the body surface and protect and support the underlying organs and tissues c) Secrete fluid into joint cavity of diarthrotic joints d) Are comprised of columnar epithelium with Goblet cells interspersed e) Are double layered membranes that attach to the inner body wall and the surfaces of organs in the peritoneum

13)Infusions of hypertonic solutions are used to treat


cerebral edema, an accumulation of interstitial fluid in the brain. This solution will promote which activity to remove the excess interstitial (extracellular) fluids ? a) Diffusion b) Carrier mediated transport c) Primary active transport d) Secondary active transport e) Osmosis

14)Which of the following is not classified as connective


tissue? a) Blood b) Cartilage c) Adipose tissue d) Bone e) Glands

21)Macrophages, leukocytes and platelets are found in


this tissue and act as a second line of defense against invading microbes. a) Striatified squamous epithelia b) Adipose tissue c) Areolar connective tissue d) Dense regular connective tissue e) Dense irregular connective tissue

15)Which of the following correctly describes the


pericardium, pleura and peritoneum? a) Stratified epithelia b) Cutaneous membranes c) Serosal membranes d) Synovial membranes e) Dense connective tissue 16) The upper respiratory tract, e.g. nasal and pharyngeal mucosa is comprised of a) Simple squamous epithelia b) Cilated pseudostratified columnar epithelium c) Stratified squamos epithelium d) Stratified cuboidal epithelium e) Ciliated simple columnar epithelium 17) Melanocytes represent 10-25% of the cells in the a) stratum lucidum b) stratum basale c) stratum spinosum d) stratum corneum e) stratum granulosum

22)Which is TRUE or spongy or trabecular bone?


a) b) c) d) e) Spaces in bone are filled with red marrow The tissue is less calcified and therefore softer It comprises the diaphysis of long bones Its microscopic structure consists of osteons All of the above

23) Dense regular connective tissue comprises a) Dermis b) Ligaments c) Periosteum d) Perichondrium e) All of the above

d) Collagen e) Keratohyalin 24) The intervertebral discs a) Form a cartilaginous joint between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae b) Are comprised of fibrocartilage c) Absorb vertical compressive stress along the vertebral column d) Have high tensile strength thick collagen fibers in the matrix e) All of the above 25) Which of the following correctly describes the pubic symphysis ? a) Is a diathrotic joint b) Joins the bones in the anterior of the pelvis girdle c) Is a gliding joint d) Bones are held together by short bands of collagen fibers e) All of the above 26) Choose the correct statement about the skull. a) The temporal and parietal bones are joined by sutures b) The temporomandibular joint is synovial c) The bones are flat bones d) Occipital bone of the skull articulates with the atlas e) All of the above 27) Which of the following are tissues of the cutaneous membrane ? a) Stratified squamous epithelium b) Dense irregular connective tissue c) Vascular and nerve tissue d) Areolar connective tissue between epithelium and basal lamina e) All of the above 28) Which of the following tissues is NOT found in the dermis? a) Dense irregular connective tissue b) Stratified squamous epithelium c) Abundant blood vessels d) Sebaceous and sweat glands e) Sensory nerve endings

30)Oily secretions that lubricate the skin and hair and


travel to the surface of the skin along the hair shaft are produced by a) Eccrine sweat glands b) Merocrine glands c) Sebaceous glands d) Goblet cells e) Apocrine glands

31)When the epidermis is damaged, cells grow to repair


and replace the lost epithelial tissue from the a) Dermis b) Stratum basale c) Stratum spinosum d) Stratum corneum e) Stratum granulosum

32)The osteogenic layer of long bones contains cells


which can differentiate into osteoblasts. These cells deposit bone at the periphery of the diaphysis during appositional bone growth. They prigonate from the a) Marrow cavity b) Periosteum c) Epiphysis d) Growth plate e) Articular cartilage

33)TRUE or FALSE In endochondral bone growth,


cartilage deteriorates and is replaced by osseus tissue. 34) Elongation of long bones involves a) Growth of cartilage at the epiphyseal plates b) Replacement of the articular cartilage with osseus tissue c) Addition of new bone at the diaphysis d) Remodeling of trabecular bone into compact bone along the diaphysis e) All of the above

35)Which of the following is TRUE of appositional


bone growth? a) Osteoclasts entering areas of remodeling originate from the epiphyseal plate b) Areas exposed to mechanical stresses due to weight bearing will increase in thickness c) The appositional growth of bone involves replacement of cartilage with osseus tissue d) Osteoclasts are responsible for deposition of new bone matrix e) All of the above

29)The accumulation of this substance in cells of the


epidermis provides a dry, tough protective barrier that is resistant to penetration by microbes and particulates. a) Reticulin b) Cholecalciferol c) Melanin

36)Which of the following is not a major factor


contributing to the stability of the knee? a) Strong articular capsule b) Tight fit of the articulating bone surfaces c) Extensive internal and external ligaments d) Lateral and medial menisci e) Surrounding tendons and muscles

COMMENTS (on exam or individual questions)

37)Flexion and extension are the only movements


allowed by the structure of the a) Joint between the head of femur and acetabulum b) Humeroulnar joint c) Temporomandibular joint d) Atlanto-axial joint e) Coronal sutures 38) Which of the following is classified as an amphiarthrotic joint? a) Radiocarpal joint b) Temporomandibular c) Radioulnar d) Pubic symphysis e) Coronal sutures 39) At puberty, the rising levels of sex steroids, growth hormone and thyroid hormone produce a final growth spurt in which a) Elongation slow and then ceases b) idth of the epiphyseal cartilage decreases c) Osteoblasts formation and bone deposition overtake the advancing epiphyseal cartilage d) Epiphyseal plate becomes ossified and produces an epiphyseal line e) All of the above 40) Parathyroid hormone a) Promotes the deposition of Ca++ in bone tissue b) Insures that plasma levels of Ca++ are within homeostatic range c) Is released into the circulation when Ca++ levels are elevated d) Directly promotes activity of osteoblasts in bone e) All of the above