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A Brief Description on Genetic Algorithms and its application in Chemical Engineering

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0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

650 visualizzazioni38 pagineA Brief Description on Genetic Algorithms and its application in Chemical Engineering

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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A SEMINAR BY

SATYAJEET S. BHONSALE

ROLL NUMBER: 20090405

DR. V. S. SATHE

THIRD YEAR B. Tech DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, LONERE

MAY 2012

DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, Lonere, Tal. Mangaon, Dist. Raigad (MS). 402103

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar report entitled GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN OPTIMIZATION is a bonafide work carried out by Mr. Satyajeet S. Bhonsale, Roll Number: 20090405 of Third Year Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering under my supervision and guidance. It is approved for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This seminar report would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and the University. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to my guide, Dr. V. S. Sathe, for providing me with his MATLAB GA code which is used in this study. I thank him for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the seminar and also for his support in completing the seminar. I would like to express my gratitude towards Dr. P. V. Vijay Babu, the Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere for his kind cooperation and encouragement which helped me in the completion of the seminar. My thanks and appreciations also go to my parents and my friends who have provided me with the much needed moral support during the seminar work.

Satyajeet S. Bhonsale Third Year B.Tech, Chemical Engineering Dept., Dr. B. A. T. University, Lonere.

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ABSTRACT

Genetic algorithms are computerized search and optimization algorithms based on the mechanics of natural genetics and natural selection. Even though they belong to the class of randomized search techniques, genetic algorithms dwell upon the past experience and utilize it to converge quickly on the optima. In this report, genetic algorithms are introduced as an optimization technique. The Simple Genetic Algorithm (SGA) has been studied and the various operators and techniques used in the SGA have been discussed. A few types of reproduction, crossover and mutation schemes are discussed in brief even though they are mostly not used in the SGA. The difference between the genetic algorithms and the traditional optimization algorithms, and the advantages and disadvantages of genetic algorithms are discussed. The report also presents two case studies which emphasize on the use of genetic algorithms in the optimization of chemical processes.

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iv v v CONTENTS

2.1 DESIGN VARIABLES.. 2.2 CONSTRAINTS. 2.3 OBJECTIVE FUNCTION.. 2.4 OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES. 2.5 GENETIC ALGORITHMS 3.1.1 Working Principles.

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4 5 5 7 9 10

3.1 ENCODING OF PARAMETERS.. 3.1.1 Binary Encodings... 3.1.2 Value Encodings 3.1.3 Permutation Encodings.. 3.2 FITNESS EVALUATION.

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12 12 13 14 14

4.1 REPRODUCTION OPERATORS. 4.1.1 Roulette Wheel Selection... 4.2.2 Stochastic Remainder Sampling. 4.2.3 Ranking Selection.. 4.2.4 Tournament Selection 4.2 CROSSOVER OPERATOR... 4.2.1 Single Point Crossover... 4.2.2 Two Point Crossover.. 4.3 MUTATION OPERATOR.

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15 15 17 17 17 17 18 18 19

6.1 OPTIMIZATION OF CSTRS IN SERIES. 6.2 TUNING OF PID CONTROLLER PARAMETERS

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24 26

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 A flowchart of the Optimal Design Formulation Feasible region for an optimization problem involving two variables Genetic Algorithm - Program Flow Chart A roulette wheel marked for eight individuals Single Point Crossover Plot of example function Plot of Best Fitness Value in each Generation against the no. of Generation Plot of Best Value of Variable x in each Generation against no. of Generations Composition Control System Block Diagram of Process in Figure 6.1 4 6 11 16 18 20 23 23 26 26

LIST OF TABLES

Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Initial Population Generated Randomly Population after Generation 5 Population after Generation 10 Parameter values and nomenclature for case study 6.1 Results of the case study 6.1 Results for ITAE as an objective function Results for IAE as an objective function Results for ISE as an objective function Results for MSE as an objective function 21 21 22 25 25 29 29 29 30

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Optimization algorithms are becoming increasingly popular in engineering design activities, primarily because of the affordability of high speed computers. They are extensively used in engineering design problems where emphasis is on maximizing or minimizing a certain goal. For example, optimization algorithms are used routinely used in aerospace design activities to minimize the overall weight. Mechanical engineers design mechanical components for purpose of achieving either minimum manufacturing costs or a maximum component life. Chemical engineers on the other hand, are interested in designing and operating a process plant for optimum rate of production. The chemical industry has undergone significant changes during the past 25 years due to the increased cost of energy, increasingly stringent environmental regulations, and global competition in product pricing and quality. One of the most important engineering tools for addressing these issues is optimization. Modifications in plant design and operating procedures have been implemented to reduce costs and meet constraints, with an emphasis on improving efficiency and increasing profitability. Optimal operating conditions can be implemented via increased automation at the process, plant, and company levels, often called computer integrated manufacturing, or CIM. As the power of computers has increased, following Moore's Law of doubling computer speeds every 18 months, the size and complexity of problems that can be solved by optimization techniques have correspondingly expanded. Effective optimization techniques are now available in software for personal computers-a capability that did not exist 10 years ago. There are two distinct types of optimization algorithms which are in use today. First, there are algorithms which are deterministic, with specific rules for moving from one solution to other. These algorithms have been in use for quite some time and have been successfully applied to many engineering design problems. Secondly, there are algorithms which are stochastic in nature, with probabilistic transition rules. These algorithms are comparatively new and are gaining popularity due to certain properties which the deterministic algorithms lack.

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Genetic algorithms belong to the second class of optimization techniques. Genetic algorithms are search algorithms based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics. Genetic algorithms were developed by John Holland and his students at the University of Michigan. The goals of their research were twofold: (1) to abstract and rigorously explain the adaptive processes of natural system, and (2) to design artificial systems software that retains the important mechanisms of natural systems. Genetic algorithms combine survival of the fittest among string structures with a structured yet randomized information exchange to form a search algorithm with some innovative flair of human search. In each generation, a new set of artificial creatures (strings) is created using bits and pieces of the fittest old; an occasional new part is tried for good measure. While randomized, genetic algorithms are no simple random walk. They efficiently exploit historical information to speculate on new search points with expected improved performance.

CHAPTER 2

OPTIMIZATION

Man's longing for perfection finds expression in the theory of optimization. It studies how to describe and attain the Best, once one knows how to measure and alter what is Good or Bad... Optimization Theory encompasses the quantitative study of optima and methods for finding them.

A typical engineering problem can be posed as follows: You have a process that can be represented by some equations or perhaps solely by experimental data. You also have a single performance criterion in mind such as minimum cost. The goal of optimization is to find the values of the variables in the process that yield the best value of the performance criterion. The ingredients described above -- the process or model and the performance criterion -- compromise the optimization `problem'. Typical problems in chemical engineering process design or plant operation have many, and possibly infinite number of solutions. Optimization is concerned with selecting the best among the entire set by efficient quantitative methods. The objective in a design problem and associated design parameters vary from product to product, different techniques need to be used in different problems. The purpose of the formulation procedure is to create a mathematical model of the optimal design problem, which then can be solved using an optimization algorithm. Every optimization problem revolves three essential parameters: 1. The Design Variables 2. The Constraints 3. The Objective Function Figure 2.1 shows an outline of the steps usually involved in an optimal design formulation process. The first step is always to realize the need for using optimization in a specific design problem.

The formulation of an optimization problem begins with identifying the underlying design variables, which are primarily varied during the optimization process. A design problem usually involves many design parameters, of which some are highly sensitive to proper working of design. These are called the design variables. Other (not so important) design parameters usually remain fixed. There is no rigid guideline to choose a design variable because, one parameter may be more important with respect to minimization problem, but insignificant with respect to maximization. Thus, the choice of design variables depends

largely on the user. The first thumb rule of formulation of a optimization problem is to choose as few design variables as possible

2.2 Constraints

The constraints represent some functional relationships among the design variable and other design parameters satisfying certain physical phenomenon and certain resource limitations. Some of these considerations require that the design remain in static or dynamic equilibrium. There are usually two types of constraints that emerge from most considerations: Inequality Constraints Equality Constraints Inequality constraints state that the functional relationships among the design variable are either greater than, smaller than, or equal to the resource value. For example, a certain process may require the temperature of the system at any time t be always greater than min temperature Tmin. Mathematically,

Most of the constraints encountered in the engineering design problems are of this type. One type of inequality constraint can be converted into other type by multiplying both sides by -1 or by interchanging left and right sides. Equality constraints state that the functional relationship should exactly match a resource value. For example, a constraint may require the pressure at any time or place to be equal to 5 atm, or mathematically,

Equality constraints are usually more difficult to handle and, therefore need to be avoided whenever possible.

The objective function is any mathematical relation that correlates the design variables and other parameters to the goal of optimization. Common engineering objectives include minimization of cost of production, maximization of the profits, etc. Although most objectives can be quantified, there are some objectives that may not be quantified easily. In such a case, usually an approximating mathematical expression is used. In real-world optimization, there could be more than one objective that the designer may want to optimize.

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The objective function can be of two types. Either the objective function is to be maximized, or it has to be minimized. Unfortunately, the optimization algorithms are written either for minimization or for maximization.

Figure 2.2: Feasible region for an optimization problem involving two variables

By a feasible solution of the optimization problem we mean a set of variables that satisfy the inequality and equality constraints to the desired degree of precision. Figure 2.2 illustrates the feasible region i.e. the region of feasible solutions, defined by the constraints. In this case the feasible region is bounded by two inequality constraints. An optimal solution is a set of values of the variables that satisfy the components of the inequality and equality constraints, and also provides an optimal value for the objective function. In most cases the optimal solution is unique one; in some cases it is not. Thus an optimization problem can be defined as: Finding values of the variables that minimize or maximize the objective function, while satisfying the constraints

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The formulation of engineering design problems differs from problem to problem. Certain problems involve linear terms for constraints and objective function, but certain involve nonlinear terms for them. In some problems, the terms are not explicit functions of the design variables. Unfortunately, there does not exist a single optimization algorithm which will work in all optimization problems equally efficiently. That is why the optimization literature contains a large number of algorithms, each suitable to solve a particular type of problem The current available literature identifies three main types of search methods: calculus-based enumerative random Calculus based methods have been studied extensively. These subdivide into two main classes: indirect and direct. Indirect methods seek local extrema by solving usually nonlinear set of equations resulting from setting the gradient of the objective function to zero. This is the multidimensional generalization of the elementary calculus notion of the extremal points. Given a smooth, unconstrained function, finding all possible peak starts by restricting search to those points with slope of zero in all directions. Direct search methods, on the other hand, see the local optima by hopping on the function and moving in a direction related to the local gradient. This is simply the notion of hill-climbing: to find the local best, climb the function in the steepest permissible direction. Even though these calculus based methods have been improved, extended and modified, they lack robustness. First, both methods are local in scope; the optima they seek are the best in the neighborhood of current point. Second, calculus-based methods depend upon the existence of derivatives. Many practical parameter spaces have little respect for the notion of a derivative and the smoothness it implies. The real world of search is fraught with discontinuities and vast multinodal, noisy search spaces. Thus, the methods depending upon the restrictive requirements of continuity and derivative existence are unsuitable for all but very limited problem domain. Enumerative schemes have been considered in many shapes and sizes. The idea is fairly straightforward; within a finite search space, or discretized infinite search space, the search algorithm starts looking at the objective function values at every point in the space,

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one at a time. Although the simplicity of this type of algorithm is attractive, many practical search spaces are simply too large to search one at a time. For the sake of clarity, Deb has further classified the optimization algorithms in five groups: 1. Single-Variable Optimization Algorithms. The algorithms are further classified into two categories -- direct methods and gradient-based (calculus) methods. Direct methods do not use any derivative information of the objective function; only the objective function values are used to guide the search process. However, the gradient based algorithms use the derivative information (first and/or second order) to guide the search process. Although engineering optimization problems usually contain more than one design variable, single-variable optimization algorithms are mainly used as unidirectional search methods in multivariable optimization algorithms. 2. Multi-variable Optimization Algorithms. These demonstrate how the search for the optimum point progresses in multiple directions. Depending on whether the gradient information is used or not, these are also classified as direct and gradient based techniques. 3. Constrained Optimization Algorithms. These algorithms use single variable and multivariable optimization algorithms repeatedly and simultaneously maintain the search effort inside the feasible region. 4. Specialized Optimization Algorithms. There exist a number of structured algorithms which are ideal only for a certain class of optimization problems. Two of these algorithms -- integer programming and geometric programming -- are often used in engineering design problems 5. Nontraditional Optimization Algorithms. These algorithms are comparatively new and are becoming popular in engineering design. Examples of non-traditional algorithms are genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, etc.

In nature, competition among individuals for scanty resources results in the fittest individual dominating over the weaker ones. This formed the base of Darwin's theory of evolution Survival of the Fittest. Genetic algorithms are adaptive heuristic search algorithm inspired by the Darwinian idea of natural selection and genetics. GAs represent an intelligent exploitation of random search used to solve optimization problems. Even though random in nature, GAs exploit historical information to direct search into the region of better performance within the search space. The concept of genetic algorithms was first introduced by John Holland of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1975. Thereafter, he and his students have contributed greatly to the development of the field. Genetic algorithms are different from the traditional optimization algorithms and search procedures in four ways: 1. GAs work with a coding of the parameter set, not the parameters themselves. 2. GAs search from a population of points, not a single point. 3. GAs use payoff (objective function) information, not gradient or other auxiliary knowledge. 4. GAs use probabilistic transition rules, not deterministic The advantage of working with a coding of variables is that coding discretizes the search space, even though the function may be continuous. On the other hand, since GAs require only function values at discrete points, a discrete or discontinuous function can be handled at no extra cost. This allows the GAs to be applied to a wide variety of problems. The most striking difference between GAs and many traditional optimization methods is that GAs work with a population of points instead of single point. Because there are more than one string being processed simultaneously, it is very likely that the expected GA solution may be a global solution. Even though some traditional methods, like the Box's evolutionary optimization and complex search methods are population based, those methods do not use previously obtained information efficiently. In GAs, previously found good information is emphasized using reproduction operator and propagated adaptively through crossover and mutation operators The other major difference in operation of GAs is the use of probabilities in their operators. None of the genetic operators work deterministically. In the reproduction operator,

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a simulation of the roulette-wheel selection scheme is used to assign the true number of copies. In crossover operator, even though good strings are crossed, strings to be crossed are created at random and cross sites ate created at random. in mutation operator, a random bit is suddenly altered. Taken together, these four differences direct use of coding, search from a population, blindness to auxiliary information, and randomized operators, contribute to a genetic algorithms robustness and resulting advantage over other more commonly used techniques.

2.5.1 Working Principles Genetic algorithms begin with a set of solution (represented by encodings called chromosomes) called the population. The initial population is usually generated randomly. Solutions from one population are taken and used to form a new population. This is motivated by the possibility that the new population will be better than the old one. Solutions are selected according to their fitness to form new solutions (offspring); more suitable they are, more chances they have to reproduce. This is repeated until some condition (e.g. number of populations or improvement of the best solution) is satisfied. An outline of a simple genetic algorithm is shown below 1. [Start] Generate random population of N chromosomes 2. [Fitness] Evaluate fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population 3. [New Population] Create new population by repeating following steps until the new population is complete a) [Selection] Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness (better the fitness, bigger the chance to be selected) b) [Crossover] With a crossover probability, crossover the parents to form new offspring. If no crossover was performed, offspring is the exact copy of parents. c) [Mutation] With a mutation probability, mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome). 4. [Replace] Use new generated population for a further runs. 5. [Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop, and return the best solution in current population, else goto step 2.

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CHAPTER 3

OPERATORS AND TECHNIQUES IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS

Most traditional algorithms cannot solve problems that involve discreet search spaces. GAs can effectively be used in such cases as GAs work with coding of the parameters. Many search techniques require much auxiliary information in order to work properly GAs are blind. To perform effective search for better and better structures they only require payoff values associated with the strings. These payoff values are calculated on basis of the fitness function and are often called the strings fitness. Thus, encoding of parameter and fitness evaluation form a strong technique that make genetic algorithms robust and prevail over traditional algorithms.

Before a genetic algorithm can be put to work on any problem, the variable first have to be coded in some string structure so that a computer can process them. The coding of the variables are not absolutely necessary as there exist some studies wherein GAs are directly used on the variable themselves, however in this study the exceptions were ignored and more focus was put on working of a simple genetic algorithm. Coding of the parameters automatically discreetizes the search space, so GAs can work on objective functions that are higly discontinuous and discreet without any additional cost. One common approach is to encode the solutions as binary strings: sequences of 1s and 0s, where each digit at each position represents the value of some aspect of the solution. A string of such bits that represent the potential solution is called the chromosome. There are many other ways of encoding potential solutions encoding values as integers or real numbers or some permutations and so on. The virtue of these encoding methods depends upon the nature of problem to work on.

3.1.1 Binary Encodings Because of its inherent simplicity, binary encoding is the most commonly used coding method to represent information contained in a potential solution. In binary encoding, every

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chromosome is a string of bits: 1s and 0s. The length of the string is usually determined according to the desired solution accuracy. An n bit string can represent integers between 0 to 2n-1, i.e., 2n integers. However, the practical search space we would encounter may be larger than this bracket or smaller or may lie outside this bracket. So a fixed mapping rule is used to represent a point in the search space. The mapping rule divides the search space in 2n parts and assigns each smaller bracket a binary string value. For example, if a 3-bit string is used to encode the search space between 0 to 10, the search space would be divided into 23 = 8 parts. The first part i.e. 0-1.25 would be represented by the string 000 and the last part 8.7510 would be represented by string 111. The most commonly used rule is the linear mapping rule, where the search space is mapped according the following relationship:

In above equation, the variable xi is coded in a substring si of length n. The decoded value of the substring si is calculated as (1101) has a decoded value equal to , where . For example a 4-bit string or 11. The accuracy that can

be obtained with a 4-bit string is only approximately 1/16th of the search space. But, as the string length is increased by one, the accuracy increases exponentially to 1/32th of the search space. Generalizing this concept, we can say that with an n-bit string, the approximate accuracy in the variable is .

3.1.2 Value Encoding The value encoding can be used in the problems where values such as real numbers are used or where use of binary encoding would be difficult. In value encoding every chromosome is a sequence of some values. The values can be anything connected to the problem real numbers, characters, or objects. Values encoding necessitate the development of some new crossover and mutation operators specific to the problem. For example, CHROMOSOME 1: 1.02 2.64 5.44 6.32, CHROMOSOME 2: ABDECAECBC, CHROMOSOME 3: (back), (back), (right), (forward)

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3.1.3 Permutation Encoding In permutation encoding, every chromosome is a sting of numbers that represent a position in a sequence. Permutation encodings are useful in ordering problems like the travelling salesman problem. For some problems, crossover and mutation corrections need to be made to leave the chromosome consistent. For example, CHROMOSOME 1: 1 2 6 9 3 7 5 4 8 CHROMOSOME 2: 8 1 3 9 2 7 6 4 5

As pointed out earlier, GAs mimic the survival-of-the-fittest principle of the nature to make a search process. The fitness of the individual depends upon the value of the objective function, higher the value, higher is its probability of surviving. Therefore, GAs are naturally suitable for solving maximization problem. Minimization problems are usually transformed into maximization problems. In general, the fitness function is derived from the objective function to depict the closeness of the given solution to the desired result. The fitness function quantifies the optimality of the chromosome so that the particular chromosome be ranked against all other solutions. For maximization problems, the fitness function can be considered to be the same as the objective function, . For minimization

problems, the fitness function is an equivalent maximization problem chosen such that the optimum point remains unchanged. A number of such transforms are used. The following transform is commonly used:

This transformation does not alter the location of the minimum, but converts the minimization problem to an equivalent maximization problem. The fitness function value of a string is known as the strings fitness.

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CHAPTER 4

GENETIC OPERATORS

The mechanics of a simple genetic algorithm are surprisingly simple, involving nothing more complex than copying strings and swapping partial strings. The operation of GAs begins with a population of random strings representing the design or decision variables. Thereafter, each string is evaluated to find the fitness value. The population is then operated by three main operators reproduction, crossover, and mutation to create new population of points. The new population is further evaluated and tested for termination. If termination criterion is not met, the population is iteratively operated by above three operators and evaluated. One cycle of these operations and the subsequent evaluation procedure is known as a generation in GA terminology.

Reproduction is usually the first operator applied on a population. Reproduction is a process in which individual strings are copied according to their fitness. Reproduction selects good strings in a population and forms a mating pool. That is why the reproduction operator is sometimes called selection operator. There exist a number of reproduction schemes in the GA literature, but the essential idea in all of them is that the above-average strings are picked from the current population and their multiple copies are inserted in the mating pool in a probabilistic manner.

4.1.1 Roulette Wheel Selection The most commonly used reproduction operator in a SGA is the roulette wheel selection. In roulette wheel selection, a string is selected for the mating pool with a probability proportional to its fitness. Thus this operator is also called proportionate reproduction operator. Since the population size in a SGA is kept fixed, the sum of the probability of each string being selected for the mating pool must be one. Therefore, the probability for selecting the ith string is

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where n is the population size. The easiest way to implement selection is to create a biased roulette wheel where each current string in population has a roulette wheel slot sized in proportion to its fitness. To reproduce, we simply spin the weighted roulette thus defined n times, each time selecting an instance of the string chosen by the roulette wheel pointer.

Figure 4.1: A roulette wheel marked for eight individuals Since the circumference of the roulette wheel is marked according to the strings fitness, this roulette wheel mechanism is expected to make copies the ith string in the mating pool. of

This roulette wheel selection scheme can be simulated easily. Using the fitness value

all strings, the probability of selecting a string pi can be calculated. Thereafter, the cumulative probability (Pi) of each string being copied can be calculated by adding the individual probabilities from the top of the list. The bottom most string would then have a cumulative probability of 1. Thus, the ith string in the population represents the cumulative probability values from Pi-1 to Pi. In order to choose n strings, n random numbers are

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generated between 0 to 1. Thus the string that represents the chosen random number in the cumulative probability range for the string is copied to the mating pool.

4.1.2 Stochastic Remainder Sampling Stochastic remainder sampling is quiet similar to the roulette wheel selection scheme. However instead of assigning probabilities proportional to the fitness value, the mean fitness is calculated as

The number of copies of the ith string in the mating pool is given by the integer part of the value given by fitness is 1.2. . Suppose, the fitness of the ith string is 2.6 and the average or mean The stochastic remainder sampling operator would then make 2

copies of the string i. After the chromosomes have been assigned according to the integer part, the rest of the selection is done stochastically according to the roulette wheel selection.

4.1.3 Ranking Selection In ranking selection, the individuals are first ranked according to their fitness values. Those with high fitness are assigned high ranks and those with low fitness will eventually have low ranks. The individuals are then selected with a probability that is proportional to its rank.

4.1.4 Tournament Selection Tournament selection works by first picking s individuals from the population and then selecting the best out of the chosen s individuals. If performed without replacement in a systematic way, this selection scheme can assign exactly s copies of the best individual in the mating pool at every generation. In most GA applications, a binary tournament scheme with s = 2 is used. Other selection operators include the range selection, gender-specific selection, GR based selection, etc. It is important to note that no new strings are formed in the reproduction phase. New strings are formed by the subsequent operators crossover and mutation.

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Crossover is a genetic operator that combines two chromosomes to produce, new chromosomes. The idea behind crossover is that the new chromosome may be better than both its parents if takes the best characteristics from each of the parents. Many crossover operators are available in the GA literature. Most crossover operators proceed in two steps. First, members of the newly reproduced strings in the mating pool are coupled at random. Second, each pair of strings undergoes crossing over. Two crossover operators are described in this report.

4.2.1 Single Point Crossover A single point crossover is performed by randomly choosing a crossing site along the string and by exchanging all bits on the right side of the crossing site as shown

Figure 4.2: Single Point Crossover The two strings participating in crossover are called parents and the resulting strings are called offsprings. It is intuitive from this construction that good substrings from parent strings can be combined to form a better offspring. Since, the appropriate crossover site is not known, a random site is often chosen. With a random site, the offsprings produced may or may not have a combination of good substrings from parents, depending on whether the crossover site falls in the appropriate place. But we do not need to worry, because if good strings are created by crossover, there will be more copies of them in next mating pool created by the reproduction operator. But if good strings are not created, they will not survive too long, because reproduction will select against those strings in subsequent generations. In order to preserve some of the good strings that are already present in the mating pool, not all strings in mating pool are used for crossover. When a crossover probability of pc is used only 100pc percent strings in the population are used in crossover.

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4.2.2 Two Point Crossover The two point crossover operator randomly selects two crossover points within a

chromosome and then interchanges the two parent chromosomes between these points to produce new offspring. Other crossover operators include arithmetic crossover, heuristic crossover, uniform crossover. The operator to be use is usually selected based on the way the chromosomes are encoded. A crossover operator is mainly responsible for the search of new strings, even though a mutation operator is also used for this purpose sparingly.

Mutation alters one or more gene values in a chromosome from its initial state. This can result in entirely new gene values being added to the gene pool. The need for mutation is to create a local search around the current solution. The mutation is also used to maintain diversity in the population. Mutation is an important part of the genetic search; it helps prevent the population from stagnating at any local optima. The simplest mutation operator is the flip-bit mutation. This operator changes the 1s to 0s and vice versa with a small mutation probability, pm. The bit-wise mutation is bit by bit by flipping a coin with a probability pm. If at any bit, the outcome is true then the bit is altered; else it is kept unchanged. The coin flip mechanism can be simulated easily. A random number is generated between 0 and 1. If the number is less than pm the outcome of coin-flip is true, otherwise it is false. These three operators are simple and straightforward. The reproduction operator selects good strings and crossover operator recombines good strings to hopefully create better strings. The mutation operator alters a string locally to hopefully create a better string. Even though none of these claims are guaranteed and/or tested while creating a string, it is expected that if a bad string is created it will be eliminated by the reproduction operator in the subsequent generations and if good strings are created, they will be increasingly emphasized.

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CHAPTER 5

A SIMGLE GENETIC ALGORITM BY EXAMPLE

in the interval (0,5). A plot of the function is shown in figure 6.1. The plot shows that the minimum lies at x* = 3. The corresponding function value is f(x*) = 3

Figure 5.1: Single Variable optimization problem used as example. Minimum point is x =3 In order to solve this problem using genetic algorithms, we choose binary coding to represent the variable x. In the calculations, a 4-bit string is chosen. Thus we get an accuracy of 0.3333. We choose roulette wheel selection, single point crossover, and bit-wise mutation operator. The crossover and mutation probabilities are assigned to be 0.5 and 0.15 respectively. The population size is fixed to be 10. The MATLAB code was run for above parameters and the results obtained are tabulated below.

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Table 5.1: Initial Population Generated Randomly CHROMOSOME 1011 1100 0110 1010 1110 0011 0011 1100 1111 1100 PHENOTYPE 7.3333 8 4 6.6667 9.3333 2 2 8 10 8 AVERAGE FITNESS COST/FITNESS 61.14096 70.75 29.5 52.54485 92.89622 31 31 70.75 105.4 70.75 61.5732

Table 5.2: Population after Generation 5 CHROMOSOME 0110 0111 0011 1011 1010 0111 0101 0010 0011 0111 PHENOTYPE 4 4.6667 2 7.3333 6.6667 4.6667 3.3333 1.3333 2 4.6667 AVERAGE FITNESS COST/FITNESS 29.5 33.3492 31 61.1414 52.5444 33.3492 27.3111 42.2778 31 33.3492 34.3822

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Table 5.3: Population after Generation 10 CHROMOSOME 0110 0111 0100 1100 1100 0110 0111 0100 1111 0110 PHENOTYPE 3.3333 4.6667 2.6667 8 8 4 4.6667 2.6667 10 4 AVERAGE FITNESS COST/FITNESS 27.31105 33.34943 27.36104 70.75 70.75 29.5 33.34943 27.36104 105.4 29.5 45.4632

From Tables 6.1 6.3 we can observe that the average fitness has decreased through the generations. Even though the fitness in 10th generation is larger, it is due to presence of few odd strings in the population. The maximum strings have the fitness around 27 which is the minimum. The above simulation of the simple genetic algorithm yielded the minimum at 3.3333. The same problem when simulated with a 32-bit string and a population of 20 gave the minimum at 2.9991 at end of 100 generations. Thus we can say that the accuracy of a GA depends upon the length of the bit string used. Figure 6.1 shows the plot of the minimum cost in each generation against the number of generations and Figure 6.2 shows the plot of the optimal solution obtained in each solution against the number of generations. The figures show that the algorithm converged upon the optimal solution in around 30 generations. The above problem was taken from the textbook Optimization in Engineering Design: Algorithms and Examples by Kalyanmoy Deb and was solved out of curiosity using the Simple Genetic Algorithm code provided by Dr. V. S. Sathe. The optimum value of the function is known to be 3 from the textbook.

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Figure 5.2: Plot of Best Fitness Value in each Generation against the no. of Generation (Plotted Using MATLAB)

Figure 5.3: Plot of Best Value of Variable x in each Generation against no. of Generations. (Plotted Using MATLAB)

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CHAPTER 6

SIMPLE CASE STUDIES

The case studies mentioned below have been taken as it is from the literature available [6,10]. These case studies use GAs to solve representative problems in design and control of chemical processes. Similarly, GAs can be used to solve complex problems in Transport Phenomenon, Thermodynamics and Reaction Engineering.

In train of four CSTRs, the problem is to design CSTR volumes to achieve maximum conversion. The sum of individual CSTRs is constrained by a prespecified value. This problem has been successfully solved by past researchers like Szpe and Levenspiel (1964), Edgar and Himmelblau (1988), etc. The reaction

takes place under isothermal conditions in a series of four CSTRs whose dynamics are given by

The LHS of the equation is set to zero and the exit concentrations ci, i = 1,, 4, of the four CSTRs are solely determined by the inlet flow rate F, reaction constant k and feed concentration c0. Parameter values and variable nomenclature are given in Table 7.1. Here a GA is used as a function optimizer to solve the following:

subject to,

In each fitness evaluation, the routine FZERO is used to solve for the steady state algebraic equation yielding c4 and the fitness is set equal to c4. When the constraint is violated the fitness is set equal to that of the minimum fitness encountered in that generation. Table 7.2 shows a comparison between this study (Hanagandi and Nikolaou) and that of Edgar and Himmelblau.

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Table 6.1: Parameter Values and nomenclature SYMBOL F Vi ci c0 ri n K Federate Volume of the ith reactor Concentration of A in the ith reactor Concentration of A in the feed to the first reactor Rate of disappearance of A in CSTR i Order of the reaction Reaction constant

3

MEANING

Table 6.2: Results of Case Study 6.1 Variable c4 V1 V2 V3 V4 Hanagandi and Nikolaou 0.3962 kmol/m3 2.234 m3 3.698 m3 6.163 m3 7.905 m3 Edgar and Himmelblau 0.3961 kmol/m3 2.242 m3 3.884 m3 5.849 m3 8.025 m3

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In composition control system represented by Figure 6.1, a concentrated stream of control reagent containing water and solute is used to control the concentration of the stream leaving a three tank system. The stream to be processed passes through a preconditioning stirred tank where composition fluctuations are smoothed out before the outlet stream is mixed with control reagent

Figure 6.1 Composition Control System The measurement of composition in the third tank is sent to the controller, which generates a signal that opens or closes the control valve, which in turn supplies concentrated reagent to the first tank. By choosing numerical values of the Time-constant of the control reagent tank as 5 and steady-state gain of the control reagent tank as unity, the system is represented by the block diagram shown in Figure 6.2.

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The Ziegler-Nichols method is widely used for Controller Tuning. One of the disadvantages of this method is prior knowledge regarding plant model. Once tuned the controller by Ziegler Nichols method, a good but not optimum system response will be reached. The Transient response can be even worse if the plant dynamics change. To assure an environmentally independent good performance, the controller must be able to adapt the changes of the plant dynamic characteristics. For these reasons, it is highly desirable to increase the capabilities of PID controllers by adding new features. Many random search methods, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) have received much interest for achieving high efficiency and searching global optimal solution in the problem space.

6.2.1 The PID Controller A PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller as the name suggests consists of Proportional Action, Integral Action and Derivative Action. The proportional controller output uses a portion of the system error to control the system.

The Integral controller output is proportional to the amount of time there is an error present in the system. The Integral action removes the offset introduced by the proportional control but introduces a phase lag into the system.

The Derivative controller output is proportional to the rate of change of the error. Derivative control is used to reduce overshoot and introduces a phase lead action that removes the phase lag introduced by the integral action.

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6.2.2 The Objective Functions A GA is only as good as the objective function. The objective functions used in this study are Mean of the Squared Error (MSE), Integral of Time multiplied by Absolute Error (ITAE), Integral of Absolute magnitude of the Error (IAE) and the Integral of the Squared Error (ISE).

6.2.3 Fitness Value The PID controller is used to minimize the error signals, or we can define in term of error criteria: to minimize the value of performance indices. And because the smaller the value of performance indiced of the corresponding chromosomes the fitter the chromosomes will be, and vice versa, we define the fitness of the chromosomes as

6.2.4 Results The selection scheme used in the case study was Roulette Wheel and the population size is fixed to be 80 and the mutation probability 0.001. The range of the PID values was given to be 0 40. The results of the case study are tabulated for various objective functions in tables 6.4 6.7.

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Table 6.3 Results for ITAE as objective function (Bhawana Tandon et al) ITEM %age Overshoot Rise time(sec) Peak Time(sec) Settling Time(sec) KP Ki Kd GA 40.4 0.1 0.15 3 54.96323 8.51 99.1578 ZN 29.6 1.5 2.5 10 3.7 1.8 1.8

Table 6.4 Results for IAE as objective function (Bhawana Tandon et al) ITEM %age Overshoot Rise time(sec) Peak Time(sec) Settling Time(sec) KP Ki Kd GA 38.2 0.1 0.35 2.9 31.16428 9.0578 92.04361 ZN 29.6 1.5 2.5 10 3.7 1.8 1.8

Table 6.5 Results for ISE as objective function (Bhawana Tandon et al) ITEM %age Overshoot Rise time(sec) Peak Time(sec) Settling Time(sec) KP Ki Kd GA 37.5 0.1 0.2 2.5 3.53227 24.3176 99.67948 ZN 29.6 1.5 2.5 9 3.7 1.8 1.5

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Table 6.6 Results for MSE as objective function (Bhawana Tandon et al) ITEM %age Overshoot Rise time(sec) Peak Time(sec) Settling Time(sec) KP Ki Kd GA 37.5 0.1 0.12 2.5 54.96323 8.5105 99.15787 ZN 29.6 1.5 2.5 8 3.7 1.8 1.8

It can be seen that though Overshoots are more in GA tuned system as compared to ZieglerNichols tuned system, but settling time and Rise time are very less in case of GA tuned system. The reason for bigger overshoots may be the assumptions taken during the mathematical modeling of the system.

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CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION

The concept behind genetic algorithms is simple and the technique itself is robust. Genetic algorithms can be used to solve any type of optimization problem provided that the objective function is proper. A GA is only as good as the objective function. Genetic algorithms are best used when the function has unrealistic or undefined derivative, or is nonlinear or noisy. They work perfectly in discontinuous as well as stochastic environments. They can, however be outperformed by more field specific algorithms. In such cases, the solution of a GA can be used as an initial guess for the algorithm. As the robustness of the solutions of most traditional methods depends upon the initial guess, the result of this approach can be expected to be a good one. In this report, only the Simple Genetic Algorithm was studied and only a few operators and techniques of other advanced GAs were introduced. More advanced algorithms like the NSGA, NSGA-II and BASIC have been developed and together these can be applied to almost all optimization problems. The two case studies mentioned in this seminar show the application of genetic algorithms in chemical engineering. Recently, genetic algorithms have been used in many more chemical engineering problems. Reaction networks have been modeled and optimized using GAs (Majumdar et al., 2004), large scale reactors have been optimized using multi-objective GAs (Rangaiah et al., 2003), and even catalysts have been optimized using GAs (Martin Holena, 2008). Most practical optimization problems in chemical engineering are highly complex and non-linear, GA can be an effective technique that can be used in solving these problems. As a part of my B.Tech project I would be working upon the application of genetic algorithms on simple chemical engineering problems. The effectiveness of the solution would then be compared with the solution obtained by traditional methods and will be validated experimentally.

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REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Kalyanmoy Deb. Optimization for Engineering Design: Algorithms and Examples. Pretince-Hall India Pvt. Ltd., 1996. T. F. Edgar and D. M. Himmelblau. Optimization of Chemical Processes. Tata McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, 1989. David E. Goldberg. Genetic Algorithms in Optimization, Search and Machine Learning. Addison Wesley Longman (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., 2000. Kalyanmoy Deb. An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Sadhana Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences 24(4-5): 293 315, 1999. R. Sivaraj and T. Ravichandran. A Review of Selection Methods in Genetic Algorithm. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 3(5): 3792 3797, 2011 Vijaykumar Hanagandi and Michael Nikolaou. Applications of Genetic Algorithms in Chemical Engineering. The Practical Handbook of Genetic Algorithms Volume 3: Applications, CRC Press, 1991. Saptarshi Majumdar and Kishalay Mitra. Modeling of a Reaction Network and its Optimization by Genetic Algorithm. Chemical Engineering Journal 100: 109 118, 2004 Yue Li, Gade P. Rangaiah and Ajay Kumar Ray. Optimization of Styrene Reactor Design for Two Objectives using a Genetic Algorithm. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering 1: Article A13, 2003 Martin Holena. Genetic Algorithms for the Optimization of Catalysts in Chemical Engineering. in proceedings of The World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, October 22 24, 2008, San Fransisco, USA. Bhawana Tandon and Randeep Kaur. Genetic Algorithm based Parameter Tuning of PID Controller for Composition Control System. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 3(8): 6705 6711, 2011.

[6]

[7]

[8]

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