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m MEMORIAL
Irving Strlngham

-^

PRACTICAL APPLICATION
OF

THE PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRY


TO THB

MENSURATION
or

SUPERFICIES AND SOLIDS.


DAmB TO
THE METHOD OP INSTRUCTION
IN SCHOOLS

AND ACADEMXEB.

BY JEREMIAH DAY,
I.4TS

PUMOBBT

Or

D.D. LL.D. TAU OOLLBVC

NEW YORK:
PUBLISHED BY MARK
No. 199
H.

NEWMAN

<k

CO.,

BROADWAY.
1848.

Entered, according

to

Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by

JEREMIAH DAY,
In the Clerk's OfBce of the District Court of the Unitd Southern District of New York.
States for the

THOMAS

B.

SMITH, STERKOTTPER,

J. D.

BEDFORD, PRINTER,

216 WILLIAM STREET, K. Y.

138 FULTON STREET.

CONTENTS,

Sectioh

L Areas
II.

The Quadrature

of figures bonnded by right lines, of the Circle and its parts,

...
. .

5
19

Promiscnoos examples of Areas,

34 37
66

m.
rV.

Solids bounded by plane surfaces,

The

Cylinder, Cone, and Sphere, Promiscuous examples of Solids,

76

V. Isoperimetry,

78

APPENDIX
Gauging of Casks,
Notes,

92
99

SECTION

I.

AREAS OF FIGURES BOUNDED BT RIGHT LINES.


Art.
1.

The following

definitions,

which are nearly the

same as

in Euclid, are inserted here for the convenience of

reference.

to I. Four-sided figures have different names, according the relative position and length of the sides. parallelogram has its opposite sides equal and parallel, as ABCD.

1 r
D|
1

|C

'

'

'

a'

1
its
;

(Fig. 2.)
site

A rectangle,
and
as

or right parallelogram, has


all its

oppo-

sides equal,

angles right angles


sides equal,

as

AC.

(Fig. 1.)

A square has all its


;

and

all its

angles
all its

right angles

ABGH.

(Fig. 3.)

A rhxmibus

has

sides equal, and its anL^ rJwmJboid has its opposi


\

as

ABCD.
its

(Fig. 3.)

A
\^

[ual,

and

as

ABCD.
;

parallel
is

(Fig. 2.) as ABCD.

angles obUque
its

trapezoid has only

two of

sides
figilre

(Fig. 4.)

Any

other four sided

called

a trapezium.

6
II.

MENSURATION OF PLANE SUHFACES.

polygon.
its

A figure which has more than four sides is called a A regular polygon has all its sides equal, and all

is

angles equal. in. The height of a triangle the length of a perpen-

dicular,

drawn from one

of the

angles to the opposite side ; as CP. The height of 2kfour sided


figure
is the perpendicular distance between two of its par-

allel sides

as

CP. (Fig.

4.)

IV. The area or superficial contents of a figure is the space contained within the line or lines by which the figure
is

bounded.
2. In calculating areas, some particular portion of surface fixed upon, as the measuring unit, with which the given

is

figure is to be compared.

This

is

commonly a square

as a

square inch, a square foot, a square rod, &c. For this reason, determining the quantity of surface in a figure is called squaring it, or finding its quadrature ; that is, finding a
square or number of squares to which it is equal. 3. The superficial unit has generally the same name, as the linear unit which forms the side of the square.

The

side of a square inch is a linear inch of a square foot, a linear foot ;

of a square rod, a linear rod, &;c.

There are some

superficial measures,

however, which have

no corresponding denominations of length. The acre, for instance, is not a square which has a line of the same name
for its side.

The following

tables contain the linear measures in

com-

mon

use, with their corresponding square measures.

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURPAOBS.


Linear Measures.

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.

The oblique parallelogram


is

or rhomboid

ABCD,

(Fig. 2.)

equal to the right parallelogram

GHCD.

(Euc. 36. 1.)* The

equal to the length multiplied into the HC. And the rhombus ABCD, (Fig. 3.) perpendicular height is equal to ihe parallelogram ABGH. As the sides of a
area, therefore,
is

AB

square are

all

equal,

its

area

is

found, by multiplying one of

the sides into itself.

Ex.
long,
2.

1.

How many square


feet

feet are there in a floor 23|- feet

and 18

broad

Ans.

23^X18=423.
is

What

are the contents of a piece of ground which

66

feet square ?
3.

Ans. 4356

sq.

feet=16

sq. rods.

How many
is

room which

square feet are there in the four sides of a 22 feet long, 1*7 feet broad, and 11 feet high ?

Ans. 858.
5. If the sides and angles of a parallelogram are the perpendicular height may be easily found by triggiven, onometry. Thus, (Fig. 2.) is the perpendicular of a right angled triangle, of which BC is the hypothenuse.

Art.

CH

Then, (Trig, 134.)

R
The area
the length
is

BC

sin

CH.

obtained by multiplying

CH

thus found, into

AB.
*

Thomson's Legendre,

1. 5.

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.


Or, to reduce the two operations to one,

As

radius,
;

To the sine of any angle of a parallelogram So is the product of the sides including that To the area of the parallelogram.
For
the

angle,

arm=ABxCH, (Fig.

2.)

But

CH=^^^^'"

Therefore,

Thearea^^^^^^^''''' ^. Or,R : sinB

: :

ABxBC

thearea.

Ex. If the side

AB

be 58 rods,

BC

42 rods, and the angle


?

63,

what

is

the area of the parallelogram

As To
(

radius

10.00000

the sine of
is

63

9.94988
1.76343

So

the product of

AB

Into

BC

(Trig. 39.)

58 42
2170.5

1.62325
sq. rods 3.33656

To the area
2.

If the
73**,

side of a

rhombus

is

67

feet,

and one of the


feet.

angles
C.

what

is

the area ?

Ans. 4292.7

the dimensions are given in feet and inches, the multiplication may be conveniently performed by the arith-

When

metical rule of Duodecimals


ination
is

in

which each

inferior

denom-

one-twelfth of the next higher. Considering a foot as the measuring unit, a prime is the twelfth part of a foot ;

a second, the twelfth part of a prime, kc.

It is to
;

be ob-

served, that, in measures of length, inches are primes


superficial

of a foot.

but in measure they are seconds. In both, a prime is -^ But iV of a square foot is a parallelogram, a foot

long and an inch broad.


inch, w^hich is i -J y of

The

twelfth part of this


foot.

is

a square

a square

10
Ex.
1.

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.

What

is

the surface of aboard 9 feet 5 inches,

by

2 feet 1 inches.

F
9 2
5'
'7

18 10
5 5

11

24
2.

11^

or 24 feet 47 inches.

How many

feet of glass are there in a

window 4

feet

11 inches high, and 3 feet 5 inches broad ? Ans. 16 F. 9' 1", or 16 feet 115 inches.
Y.

If the area

the other side


given side.

and one side of a parallelogram be given, may be found by dividing the area hy the
if the area of a square be given, the side extracting the square root of the area. This

And

may be found by
is

merely reversing the rule


Ex.
1
.

in Art. 4.

See Alg. 520, 521.


is

What

is

the breadth of a piece of cloth which

36 yds. long, and which contains 63 square yards.

Ans. If yds.
2.

What

is

the side of a square piece of land containing


?

289 square rods

3. How many yards of carpeting 1^ yard wide, will cover a floor 30 feet long and 22^- broad ?

Ans.

30X22ifeet=10xH='75

yds.

And '75-Mi=60.
is

4. What is the side of a square which allelogram 936 feet long and 104 broad ?
5.

equal to a par-

dow

How many panes of 8 by 10 glass are there, in a win5 feet high, and 2 feet 8 inches broad ?

MENSURATION OF PLANE SCRFACES.

11

Problem

II.

To find
8.

the area

of a triangle.

Rule L

Multiply onb side by half the perpenOr, multiply half the

dicular from the opposite angle.


side

by the perpendicular, Or, multiply the whole side the perpendicular and take half the product. The area of the triangle ABC,

by

equal to ^

PC X AB,

because

a parallelogram of the same base and height is equal to PC

AB, (Art. 4.) 1,* the triangle


allelogram.

and by Euc. 41,


is

half the par-

Ex.

1.

If

AB

be 65

feet,

and

PC

31.2,

what

is

the area
feet.

of the triangle?

Ans. 1014 square

is

2. What is the surface of a triangular board, whose base 3 feet 2 inches, and perpendicular height 2 feet 9 inches ? Ans. 4 F. 4' 3", or 4 feet 51 inches.

two sides of a triangle and the included angle, are the perpendicular on one of these sides may be easily given, And the area may be found by rectangular trigonometry.
9.

If

calculated in the

same man-

ner as the area of a parallelog^m in Art. 5. In the triangle

ABC,

R BC
:

sin

CH
is

And

because the triangle

half the parallelogram of the

same base and height,


*

Thomson's Legendre,

2. 4.

12

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.


radius,
;

As

To the sine of any angle of a triangle So is the product of the sides including that To twice the area of the triangle. (Art. 5.)
Ex. If

angle,

65
7'

AC be 39 feet, AB and the angle at A 53 feet, 48", what is the area of the
1014 square feet.
and the angles
&.

triangle ? Ans.
9.

If one side
;

then are given As the product of radius and the sine of the angle opposite the given side,

To the product of the sines of the two other angles; So is the square of the given side. To twice the area of the triangle.
If

PC

be perpendicular to AB.
sin

R ACB
:

sin
sin

BC

AB
: :

CP BC
BC

Therefore, (Alg. 351, 345.)

RX
AB^
:

AB X BC CP X sin A X sin B sin ACB ABxCP twice the area of the triangle.
:

Ex. If one side of a triangle be 57

feet,
is

the ends of this side 50 and 60, what

and the angles at the area?


sq. feet.

Ans. 1147

10. If the sides only of a triangle are given, an angle

may

be found, by oblique trigonometry, Case IV, and then the perpendicular and the area may be calculated. But the area

may

be more directly obtained, by the following method.

Rule II. When the three sides are given, from half their sum subtract each side severally, multiply together the lialf sum and the three femainders, and extract the square root of
the product.

MENSURATION Of PLANE SURFACES.


If the sides of the triangle are a,
their
h,

13

and

c,

andif A=half

sum, then

The area=Vhx{hra)x{fir-h)X{hc)
Ex.
1.

In the triangle

ABC,

given the sides a 52 feet, 6 39, and c 65 to find the side of a


;

square which has the same area


as
tlio Irianrjle.

^a=26

A6=39 Ac=13
feet.

Then the area=v78x 26X39X13= 1014 square

By
The
half

logarithms.

sum

14

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.

The area

ABCD,
sum

is

of the trapezoid equal to half the

of the sides

AB
or

and CD, For


of

multipHed into the perpendicular distance

PC

AH.

the whole figure is the two triangles

made up

ABC
into

and

ADC

of which is equal to the product the perpendicular PC, (Art. 8.) and the area of the other is equal to the product of half the
;

the area of the

first

of half the base

AB

base

DC
If

into the perpendicular

AH

or

PC.
38,

Ex.
70,

AB
is
: :

be 46

feet,

BC

31,

DC
?

and the angle

what

the area of the trapezoid


sin

BC

PC = 29.13. And 42x29. 13 = 1223^.


which has two par?

2.

What

are the contents of a field

allel sides

Q5 and 38 rods, distant from each other 27 rods

Problem IV.

To find

the area

of a trapezium, or of an irregular polygon.

13. Divide the whole figure into triangles, by drawing DIAGONALS, AND FIND THE SUM OF THE AREAS OF THESE triangles. (Alg. 394.)
If the perpendiculars in two triangles fall upon the sa?ne diagonal, the area of the trapezium formed of the two trianis equal to half the gles,

product of the diagonal into the sum of the perpendiculars.

Thus the area of the trapezium

ABCH,

is

iBHxALH-iBHxCM=iBHx(AL+CM.)
Ex. In the irregular polygon

ABCDH,

KKNSUBATION OF PLANE SURFACES.

15

BH=36

'

if

the diagonals

and the perpendiculars

(
)

-^^=5.3

CM =9.3

The area=18XU.6 + 16X 7.3=379.6.


of a trapezium are given, the area found, nearly in the same manner as the area of a parallelogram in Art. 5, and the area of a triangle in Art. 9.
14. If the diagonals

may be

In the trapezium

ABCD,

the sines of the four angles at

N, 4he point of
all

intersec-

tion of the diagonals, are

equal.

For the two

acute

angles are supplements of the other two,

and therefore have same sine. (Trig.

the
90.)

for Putting, then, sin the sine of each of these angles, the areas of the four triangles of which the trapezium is composed, are given by the

following proportions

(Art. 9.)

sin

fBNxAN BNxCN DNxCN ^DNxAN

2 arm ABN"

: : :

2arxBCN
2

arm arm

CDN ADN

And by

addition, (Alg. 349, Cor. 1.)*

8inN::BNxAN+BNxCN+DNxCN+DNxAN:
2 area

ABCD.

The 3d
the figure.

term=(AN4-CN)x(BN+DN)=ACxBD, by

Therefore

sin

N :: AC X BD
Euchd,
2, 5.

arm ABCD. That is,

Cor.

16

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.

As

Radius,
sine of the angle at the intersection of the
;

To the

diagonals of a trapezium

So is the product of the diagonals. To twice the area of the trapezium.


It is evident that this rule is applicable to a parallelogram, as well as to a trapezium. If the diagonals intersect at right angles, the sine of IST is equal to radius ; (Trig. 95.) and therefore the product of the

diagonals

is

equal to twice the area. (Alg. 356.)*

If the two diagonals of a trapezium are 3*7 and 62, they intersect at an angle of 54, what is the area of the trapezium ? Ans. 928.

Ex.

1.

and

if

2.

If the diagonals are 85

and 93, and the angle of


?

inter-

section 74,

what

is

the area of the trapezium

Problem V.

To find
15.

the area

of a regular polygon.
its sides

Multiply one of

into half its perpen-

dicular DISTANCE FROM THE


into the

CENTRE,

AND THIS PRODUCT

number of

SIDES.

A regular polygon contains as


figure has sides.

many equal

triangles as the

ABDFGH
equal to

Thus, the hexagon contains six triangles, each

ABC.

The area

of one of

them
CP.

equal to the product of the side AB, into half the perpendicular
is

(Art. 8.)

The area of the whole,

equal to this product multiplied into the 7iumler of sides.


therefore, is
*

Euclid, 14. 5.

XSHSURATION OF PLANE SURVA0K6.


E3C
1.

17

What

is
is

length of a side

the area of a regular octagon, in which the 60, and the perpendicular from the centre

72.42G?

Ans. 17382.

2. What is the area of a regular decagon whose sides are 46 each, and the perpendicular 70.7867 ?

16. If only the length

and number of sides of a regular

polygon be given, the perpendicular from the centre may be The periphery of the circle easily found by trigonometry. in which the polygon is inscribed, is divided into as many
equal parts as the polygon has sides. (Euc. 16.4. Schol.)* The arc, of which one of the sides is a chord, is therefore

known
Let
circle

and of course, the angle at the centre subtended by


be one side of a regular polygon inscribed in the The perpendicular CP bisects the Imo AB,
3. 3.)t

this arc.

AB

ABDG.

and the angle ACB. (Euc. same part of 360, which


polygon.
radius, (Trig. 122.)

Therefore,

BCP
if

is

the

BP

is

of the perimeter of the

Then, in the right angled triangle

BCP,

BP

be

R
As
To So To
Ex.
is
1.

BP

cot

BCP

CP.

That

is.

Radius,
half of one of the sides of the polygon is the cotangent of the opposite angle.
;

the perpendicular from the centre.

If the side of a regular

hexagon be 38

inches,

what

the area ?

The angle BCP=-iV of 360^=30.

Then,

19

cot 30*

32.909=CP,

the perpendicular.

And

the

area=10X 32.909X6=3751.6
2. 5. Schol.

Thomson's Lcgendre,

Ibid. 6. 2.

18
2.

MENSURATION OF PLANE SURFACES.

What

is

the area of a regular decagon whose sides are

each 62 feet
lY.

Ans. 29576.

the proportion in the preceding article, a table of perpendiculars and areas may be easily formed, for a series
of polygons, of
(Trig. 100.)

From

which each side

is

a unit.

Putting

R=l,

and wthe number of


360

sides, the proportion be-

comes
1
*

t -2

cot

the

perpendicular

So

that, the p)erp.^=i^ cot

2n

equal to half the product of the perpendicular into the number of sides. (Art. 15.) Thus, in the trigon, or equilateral triangle, the perpendicthe area
is

And

360

ular=^

cot.

4 cot

60

= 0.2886752.
360
cot'

And

the area=0.4330127.

In the tetragon, or square, the perpendicular=-^

=-^ cot 45

= 0.5.

And

"8~

the area=l.

In this manner, the following table is formed, in which the side of each polygon is supposed to be a unit.

A TABLE OF RSGULAR POLYGONS.


Names.

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.

^.

1#

By this table may be calculated the area of any other regular polygon, of the same number of sides with one of these. For the areas of similar polygons are as the squares of their
homologous
sides. (Euc. 20. 0.)* then, the area of a regular polygon, multiply the square of one of its sides by tlce area of a similar polygon of

To

find,

which the side


Ex.
1.

is

a
is

unit.

What

the area of a regular decagon whose sides


?

are each 102 rods


2.

Ans. 80050.5 rods.

What

is

the area of a regular dodecagon whose sides

are each 8Y feet ?

SECTION

II.

THE QUADRATURE OF THE CIRCLE AND

ITS PARTS.

line

Art. 18. Definition I. circle is a plane bounded by a which is equally distant in ail its parts from a point

within called the centre.

The bounding

line is called

the

An arc is any portion of the circumference or periphery. semi-circle is half, and a quadrant onecircumference.

fourth of a circle.
II.

A Diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn


is
is

through

the centre, and terminated both

ways by the circumference.

Radius

a straight line extending from the centre to the


a straidit line which joins the
a

A Chord two extremities of an ar


circumference.
III.

Circular Sector

is

spare coniaincd between an


arc.

arc and the

two
*

radii

drawn from the extremities of the


1. 5.

Thomson's Legendre

Cor.

20
It

MENSURATION

01<'

THE CIRCLE.

may
TV.

be

less

than a semi-circle, as

AC BO,

or greater, as

ACBD.

Segment is the space contained between an arc and its chord, as ABOorABD. The chord is sometimes called the base of the
is

Circular

The lieight of a segment segment. the perpendicular from the middle

of the base to the arc, as

PO.
the space
as

V.

Circular Zone

is

between

two

parallel

chords,

AGHB.
zone,

It is

called

the middle
are

when the two chords

equal, as

GHDE.
Circular

VI.
of

Ring

is

two concentric

circles, as

the space between the peripheries A', BB'. (Fig. 13.)

VII.
lar arcs

A Lune or Crescent is the


which
the Circle

space between two circu-

intersect each other, as


is

ACBD.

(Fig. 14.)

19.

The Squaring of

a problem which has

exercised the ingenuity of distinguished mathematicians for many centuries. The result of their efforts has been only

an approximation to the value of the area.


ried to a degree of exactness far for practical purposes.

This can be caris

beyond what

necessary

MXirSURATION OF TBE CIRCLE.


f

21

20. If

were known,

the circumference of a circle of given diameter its area could be l\or the area is easily found.

equal to the product of half the circumference into half the diameter. (Sup. Euc. 5, l.*)t But the circumference of a circle has never been exactly determined. The method of
gons, or
it is by inscribing and circumscribing polyby some process of calculation which is, in principle, The perimeters of the polygons can be easily the same. and exactly determined. That which is circumscribed is

approximating to

greater,

and that which


;

is

inscribed

is

less,

than the peri-

phery of the circle and by increasing the number of sides, the difference of the two polygons may be made less than

any given quantity. (Sup. Euc.

4, 1.)

21. The side of a hexagon inscribed in a circle, as AB, is the

chord of an arc of 60, and therefore equal to the radius. (Trig. 95.)

The chord
is

of half this arc, as

BO,

the side of a polygon of 12 equal sides. By repeatedly bisecting the


arc,

and finding the chord, we may obtain the side of a polygon of an immense

number

of sides.

Or we may

calculate the sine,

which

will

be half the chord

of double the arc, (Trig. 82, cor.,) and the tangent, which will be half the side of a similar circumscribed polygon. Thus the sine AP, is half of AB, a side of the inscribed

hexagon

is half of NT, a side of the and the tangent circumscribed hexagon. The difference between the sine is less than the difference between the sine and the arc
;

NO

AO

and the tangent.

canon, (Trig. 223.)

In the section on the computation of the by 12 successive bisections, begi^ping


is

with 60 degrees, an arc


the whole circumference.
*

obtained which

is

the ^ i\ii of

In

this

manner, the SupplemefU to Play/air's Euclid is referred


t TtioinMn's Legendre, 11. 5.

to in

this

work.

22

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.


cosine of this,
sine is
if

The The

radius be

1, is

found to be .99999996'732

.00025566546
93.)

And
The

the
diff.

tangent=i^(Trig.
cosine

=.00025566347

And

between the sine and tangent is only .00000000001 the diflference between the sine and the arc is still less.

Taking then, .000255663465 for the length of the- arc, multiplying by 24576, and retaining 8 places of decimals, we have 6.28318531 for the whole circumference, the radius
being
1.

Half of

this,

3.14159265
is

the circumference of a circle whose radius

is

-^j

and diam-

eter 1.

22. If this be multiplied

by

7,

the product

is

21.99+or

22 nearly.

So

that,

Diam
If

Circum

22, nearly.
is

3.14159265

be multiplied by 113, the product


nearly.
:

354.9999+, or 355, very

So
:

that,

Diam

Circum

113

355, very nearly.

The first of these ratios was demonstrated by Archimedes. There are various methods, principally by infinite series and fluxions, by which the labor of carrying on the approximation to the periphery of a circle may be very much The calculation has been extended to nearly 150 abridged.
places
for

of decimals.

But four or

five places are sufl&cient

most practical purposes.

After determining the ratio between the diameter and the circumference of a circle, the following problems are easily
solved.

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCUS.

2S

Problem
To find
23.
the

I.

circitmference of a

circle from its diameter.

Multiply THE diameter by 3*1


Or,

41 59*^

hy 22 and divide the product hy *l. Or, Multiply the diameter by 355, and divide the product by multiply
the diameter

113. (Art. 22.)

Ex.
is

1.

If the diameter of the earth be ^930 miles,

what

the circimiference ?
2.

Ans. 249128 miles.

How many
;

round the sun


diameter
8.
is

miles does the earth move, in revolving supposing the orbii to be a circle whose
?

is

190 million miles


is

Ans. 596,902,100.

What

the circumference of a circle whose diameter


?

V69843 rods

Problem

II.

To find

the

diameter of a

circle from its circumference,

24. Divide the

circumference by 3.1
Or,

41 59*

Multiply
22.

the circumference

by

Y,

and

divide the product by

Or, multiply the circumference by 113, and divide the product by 355. (Art. 22.)

Ex.

1.

If the circumference of the

what
2.

is

his

diameter?

sun be 2,800,000 miles, Ans. 891,267.

25.

What is the diameter of a tree which is 5^ feet round ? As multiplication is more easily performed than divisbe an advantage in exchanging the divisor
3.1416 will be sufficiently accurate.

ion, there will

* In

many caset,

24

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.


result.

3.14159 for a multiplier which will give the same


In the proportion 3.14159
:

Circum

Diam.

to find the fourth term,


first,

we may

divide the second

by the

and multiply the quotient into the third. Xow, 1-^ 3.14159=0.31831. If, then, the circumference of a circle be multiplied by .31831, the product will be the diameter.
Ex.
1.

If the circumference of the


?

moon be 6850

miles,

Ans. 2180. 2. If the whole extent of the orbit of Saturn be 5650 million miles, how far is he from the siin ?
is

what

her diameter

3.
its

If the periphery of a wheel be 4 feet 7 inches, what diameter?

is

Problem To find
26.
the length

III.
circle.

of an arc of a

As

360,

to the

number of degrees
tlie

in the arc ;

So

is the

circumference of

circle, to the

length of the arc.

The circumference
(Trig. 73.)
it is

of a circle being divided into 360jflH|L evident that the length of an arc of any less

number
Ex.
radius

of degrees
is

must be a proportional part of the whole.

What
is

the length of an arc of 16, in a circle whose

50

feet ?

The circumference
Then 360
2.
:

of the circle

is

314.159
:

feet.

(Art. 23.)

16

314.159

13.96

feet.

If

we

are 95 millions of miles from the sun,


it

earth revolves round


in

24 hours?
27.

and if the 365i days, how far are we carried Ans. 1 million 634 thousand miles.
in

The length of an arc may also be found, by multiplythe diameter into the number of degrees in the arc, and ing

MBNSURATION OF THE
product into .0087266, which gree, in a circle whose diameter is
this
is

CIRCIJB.

25

the length of one de-

1.

0.00872 60.

And

in different circles, the circumferences,

For 3,14169-r360= and

of course the degrees, are as the diameters. (Sup. Euc. 8, 1.)*

Ex.

1.

What

is

the length of an arc of 10 16' in a circle


?

whose radius is 68 rods


2. If
is

Ans. 12.165 rods.

the circumference of the earth be 24913 miles,

what

the length of a degree at the equator ?

28. The length of an arc is frequently required, when the number of degrees is not given. But if the radius of the circle, and either the cliord or the fieight of the arc, be

known

may

the number of degrees be easily found. Let AB be the chord, and PO


;

the angles at

AP
4.)
l.)t

As the height, of the arc AOB. P are right angles, and is equal to BP; (Art. 18. Def.

AO

is

equal to

BO. (Euc.

4,

Then,
)

BP is the sine, and CP the cosine, OP the versed sine, and BO the chord,
And
in the right angled triangle

^^
)

^^ . ^j^^ ^^ ^^^

GBP,
or

PR
Ex.
1.
is

R
radius

^1*
i
i

sin

BCP

BO.

CP

cosBCPorBO.
the chord

If the

CO=25, and

AB=43.3;

what

the length of the arc


:

AOB ?
or

CB

BP

sin

BCP

BO60'' very nearly.

The circumference
Ajid 360
*
:

of the circle -"3.14159 X50-167.08.


:

60

157.08

26.18=OB. Therefore,AOB=62.36.
10. b.

Thomson's Legendre,

Ibid., 5. 1.

26
/
2.

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.

What

is

the length of an arc whose chord


is

is

216^, in a

circle

whose radius

126?

Ans. 261.8.

29. If only the chord and the height of an arc be given, the radius of the circle may be found, and then the length of the
arc.

If

BA be

the chord, and

PO

the

the height of the arc


(Euc. 35. 3.)*

AOB,

then

DP=Jl_.

OP

And

DO=OP+DP=OP+S--' OP

That is, the diameter is equal to the height of the arc, the square of half the chord divided by the height. The diameter being found, the length of the arc may be
calculated

by the two preceding

articles.

Ex.

1.

If the chord of an arc be 173.2,


?

and the

heischt 50,

what

is

the length of the arc

The diameter
(Art. 28.)
2.

=50+5^=200.
50
length
is

The

arc contains

120^

and
is

its

209.44. (Art. 26.)


is 120, and Ans. 160.8.

What

the length of an arc whose chord

height 45?

Problem IV.

To find
30.

the

area of a circle.

Multiply

the

square of the diameter by the

decimals

.7854.
*

Thomson's Legendre,

10, 5.

lOBMntATION OF THE CIRCLE.


Or,

%%

Multiply half the diameter into half the circumference. Or, multiply the whole diameter into the whole circumference, and take -^ of the product. The area of a circle is equal to the product of half the
diameter into half the circumference
;

(Sup. Euc,

5, 1.) or,

the same thing, ^ the product of the diameter and circumference. If the diameter be 1, the circumference is

which

is

3.14159; (Art. 23.) one-fourth of which

But the areas of

different circles

is 0.7854 nearly. are to each other, as the

The area of squares of their diameters. (Sup. Euc. Y, 1.)* any circle, therefore, is equal to the product of the square of its diameter into 0.7854, which is the area of a circle whose
diameter
Ex.
feet^.
2.
1.
is 1.

What

is

the area of a circle whose diameter

is

623

Ans. 304836 square

feet.

How many
is

acres are there in a circular island

whose

diameter
3.

124 rods.

Ans. 75

acres,

and 76

rods.

If the diameter of a circle


is

ence 355, what


4.

the area ?

be 113, and the circumferAns. 10029.

How many
is

square yards are there in a circle whose

diaraelcr

7 feet ?

be obtained, by

81. If the circumference of a circle be given, the area may firthe diameter or, without finding
;

the diameter, by by .07958.


For,
if

mu

the square of the circumference

the circumference of a circle be


;

1, tlie

diameter

1-^3.14159=0.31831
circumference
circles,
is

and | the product of

this into the

.07958 the area.

But the areas

of different

being as the squares of their diameters, are also as the squares of their circumferences. (Sup. Euc. 8, 1.)

Thomson's Legendre, 28.

4.

Cor.

28
Ex.
is
1.

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.


If the circumference of

a circle be 136

feet,

what

the area ?
2.

Ans. 1472
is

feet.
is

What

the surface of a circular fish-pond, which


?

10 rods in circumference

32. If the area of a circle be given, the diameter

may be

found,

by dividing the area by .7854, and extracting the

square root of the quotient. This is reversing the rule in Art. 30.

Ex.

1.

What

is

the diameter of a circle whose area

is

380.1336 feet?
Ans. 380.1336H-.'7854
2.

= 484.

And

V4'84
is

= 22.
19.635
?

What

is

the diameter of a circle whose area


of a circle,
1
;

33.

The area

is

to the area of the circumscribed


to that of the inscribed square

square ; as .7854 to as .7854 to i.

and

Let

the circumsquare, and scribed square, of the circle ABDF. The area of the circle is equal to

ABDF be the LMNO

inscribed

AD"' X. 7854. (Art. 30.) But the area of the circumscribed square

\^

And

(Art. 4.) is equal to ON^=AD^. the smaller square is half of

12
4.
:
:

the larger one. For the latter contains 8 equal triangles, of which the former contains only

Ex.

What

is

whose area

is

159

the area of a square inscribed in a circle 159 : 101.22. Ans. .7854 : i ?

Problem V.

To find

the area

of a sector of a

circle.

34. Multiply the radius into half the length THE ARC.

of

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.


Or,

As So

360, TO THE WUMBKR OF DEGREES IN THE ARC IS THE AREA OF THE CIRCLE, TO THE AREA OF THE
,*

SECTOR.
It is

ratio to the area of the circle,

has to

same which the length of the arc the length of the whole circumference or which the
evident, that the area of the sector has the
;

number of
Ex.
1. If

degrees in the arc has to the

number

of degrees

in the circumference.

the arc

AOB

and the diameter of the

circle

be 120, 226

what

is

the area of

the sector

AOBC?
The area
of the whole circle
is

40116. (Art. 30.)

And
2.

360

120

40115
sector.

133 71 1, the area of the


AVhat
is is

the area of a quadrant whose radius


the area of a semi-circle,

is

621

?
is

3.

What What

whose diameter

328?
4.
is

the area of a sector which

is less
its

than a semiarc 12 ?

circle, if

the radius be 15, and the chord of


is

Half the chord

the sine of 23 34|' nearly. (Art. 28.)

The whole arc, then, is The area of the circle is

47

9^'

706.86
:

And
5.

360

47 9i'

706.86

92.6 the area of the sector.

If the

circle 113,

arc'ADB be 240 degrees, and the radius of the what is the area of the sector ADBC ? Problem VI.

To finl
2o.

the area

of a segment of a

circle.

Find the

aeba of the sector which

has the

80

MENSURATION" OF THE CIRCLE.

SAME ARC, AND ALSO THE AREA OF A TRIANGLE FORMED BY THE CHORD OF THE SEGMENT AND THE RADII OF THE SECTOR.

Then, if the segment be less than a semi-circle, subtract the area of the triangle from the area of
the sector.
SEMI-CIRCLE,

but, if the segment be greater than a ADD THE AREA OF THE TRIANGLE TO THE AREA

OF THE SECTOR.
If the triangle

from the sector

ABC, be taken AOBC, it is evi-

ment AOBP,
cle.

dent the difference will be the segless than a semi-cir-

And
will

if

added

to the sector

the same triangle be ADBC, the

sum

be the segment

ADBP,

greater than a semi-circle. The area of the triangle (Art. 8.) is equal to the product of half the chord
is

the difference between the radius and

AB into CP, PO the height


BOA.

which
of the
If this

segment.

Or

CP

is

the cosine of half the arc

cosine and the chord of the segment are not given, they may be foimd from the arc and the radius.

Ex.
circle

1.

If the arc
feet,

AOB
is

be 120, and the radius of the


the area of the segment

be 113

what

AOBP

In the right angled triangle

BCP,
(Art. 28.)

R BC
:

sin

BCO

BP=97.86, half the chord.

The cosine PC=i CO (Trig. 96, Cor.) The area of the sector AOBC (Art. 34.) The area of the triangle ABC=BPxPC The area
2. If

=56.5 =13371.67

of the segment, therefore,

= =

5528.97
7842.7

the base of a segment, less than a semi-circle, be 10

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.


feet,

$X
is

and the radius of

tlie circle

12

feet,

what

the area

of the segment ?

The arc of the segment contains 49-J- degrees. The area of the sector =61.89 The area of the triangle =54.54

(Art. 28.)

(Art. 34.)

And
3.
is

the area of the segment

7.35 square feet.

What

is

19.2 and base 70

the area of a circular segment, whose height ? Ans. 947.86.

4.

What

is

the area of the segment

ADBP,

(Fig. 9.)
?

if

the base

AB

be 195.7, and the height

PD

169.5

Ans. 32272. j
36. The area of any figure which is bounded partly by arcs of circles, and partly by right lines, may be calculated, by finding the areas of the segments under the arcs, and then
arcs

the area of the rectilinear space between the chords of the and the other right lines.

contains

Thus, the Gothic arch ACB, the two segments

AC II, BCD,
angle

and the plane

tri-

ABC.

Ex. If
the fines

AB be 110, each of AC and BC 100, and


10.435;

the height of each of the seg-

ments

ACH, BCD

what

is

the area of the whole figure ?


areas of the two segments are

The The

1404
4593.4
5997.4

area of the triangle


the whole figure
is

ABC

is

And

32

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.

Problem VII.

To find

the area

of a circular zone,

37. From the area of the whole circle, subtract THE TWO segments ON THE SIDES OF THE ZONE.
If

from the whole

circle there

be taken the two segments

ABC

and

DFH,

there will remain

the zone

ACDH.
may
:

Or, the area of the zone

be

found by subtracting the segment ABC from the segment HBD Or,

by

GAH

adding the two small segments and VDC, to the trapezoid


(See Art. 36.)
latter

ACDH.
The

method

is

rather the

most expeditious

in practice, as the

two segments

at the

end

of the zone are equal.

Ex.
7.75,

1.

What

is

the area of the zone

ACDH,
circle 8 ?

if

AC

is

DH 6.93,

and the diameter of the


whole
circle is

The area

of the

50.26 17.32
9.82

of the segment of the segment


of the zone
2.

ABC

DFH ACDH
in a circle

23.12
is
is

What

is

the area of a zone, one side of which

23.25,

and the other side 20.8,

whose diameter

24

Ans. 208.
38. If the diameter of the circle
is

not given,

it

may be

found from the sides and the breadth of the zone. Let the centre of the circle be at 0. Draw ON perpendicular to AH, perpendicular to LR, and HP perpen-

NM

dicular to

AL.

Then,

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.

33

AN=iAH,
LM=iLR,
The
each.
triangles

(Euc. 3. 3.)* (Euc. 2. 6.)t

PA=LARH.
are
siniilar,

MN=KLA+RH)
because the

API! and

OMN

sides of one are perpendicular to those of the other, each to

Therefore,

PII

PA

MN

MO
And

being found,

we have

MO ML MO=OL.
:

the radius

CO=vOL+CL*.
;

(Euc. 41. l.)l


(Fig. 12.)

Ex. If the breadth of the zone

ACDH

be

6.4,

and the sides 6.8 and 6

what

is

the radius of the circle ?

PA=3.43=0.4.
Then, 6.4
:

And, MN=i(3.4+3)=3.2.

0.4

3.2

0.2=M,O.

And, 3.2 0.2=3=OL

And
^^

the radius

CO=V3'4-(3.4)'=4.534.

Problem VIII.
the area

To find

of a lune or

crescent.

39. Find the difference of the two segments which ARE between the ARCS OF THE CRESCENT AND ITS CHORD.
If

the

segment

ABC, be

taken from the segment there will remain the lune or


;

ABD

crescent

ACBD.

Ex. If the chord


the

AB

be 8B,
the
the
is

height

CH
;

20,

and

40 what height area of the crescent

DH

ACBD ?

The area

of the segment of the segment of the

ABD is ABC crescent ACBD


f

2698 1220
1478
t ^^'^
^l- 4*

Thomson's Lcgendre,

6. 2.

^^

1^- 4.

84

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.

Problem

IX.

To find

the area

of a ring, included between the periphe-

ries of

two concentric

circles.

40.

Find tsk

difference op the areas of the two

CIRCLES.
Or,

Multiply the product of the diameters by .TSS^.

sum and

diflference of the

two

The area of the ring

is

evidently equal to the diflference


cir-

between the areas of the two cles AB and A'B'.

But the area of each circle

is

equal

to the square of its diameter multiAnd plied into .78.54. (Art. 30.)

the difference of these squares

is

equal

to the product of the sum and difference of the diameters. (Alg. 191.)

Therefore the area of

the ring is equal to the product of the sum and diflference of the two diameters multiplied by .'7854.

Ex.

1.

If

AB

be 221, and A'B' 106, what

is

the area of

the ring?
2. If the

Ans. (22p X. 7854) (106= X.'7854)

= 29535.

and 190,000

diameters of Saturn's larger ring be 205,000 miles, how many square miles are there on one
^

side of the ring ?

Ans. 395000X15000X. 7854=4,653,495,000.

PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES OF AREAS.


1. What is the expense of paving a street 20 rods and 2 rods wide, at 5 cents for a square foot ? long Ans. 544-^ dollars.

Ex.

MKN8URATI0N OF THE CIRCLE.

35

2. If an equilateral triangle contains as many square feet as there are inches in one of its sides ; what is the area of

the trijingle ?

Let

;2;=the

number of square

feet in the area.

Then= the number


And,
(Art. 11.)

of linear feet in one of the sides.

ar=i/-:^yx V3=_^XV3. \12/ 676

Reducing the equation,


3.

a;=_ =332.55 the


V3
whose area
is

area.

What

is

the side of a square

equal to that

of a circle 452 feet in diameter?

Ans. V(452)X. 7854


4.

= 400.574.
?

(Arts. 30 and 7.)


is

What

is

the diameter of a circle which


is

equal to a

square whflie side

36 feet

Ans. V('307ToT7854^4O.62l7. (Arts. 4 and 32.)


5.

What
is

is

the area of a square inscribed in a circle whose


feet ?

diameter

132

/gf^^'
6.

8712 square

feet.

(Art. 33.)

carpeting, a yard wide, will be necessary to cover the floor of a room which is a regular octagon, the
sides being eight feet each
7.
?

How much

Ans. 34f yards.


feet, feet.

If the

diagonal of a square be 16

what

is

the

area?
8.

Ans. 128

(Art. 14.)

times, in going the green ?

If a carriage-wheel four feet in diameter revolve 300 round a circular green ; what is the area of

Ans. 4164i sq. rods, or 26 acres, 3

qrs.

and 34^ rods.

9. What will be the expense of papering the sides of a room, at 10 cents a square yard if the room be 21 feet long,
;

3G 18
feet broad,

MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE.

and 12

feet
3,

high

and

if

there be deducted 3
feet

windows, each 5 feet by fire-place 6 feet by 4i ?


10. If a circular

two doors 8

by

4^,

and one

Ans. 8 dollars 80 cents.


of water

pond

10 rods in diameter be
;

surrounded by a gravelled walk 8} feet wide what is the area of the walk? Ans. 16^ sq. rods. (Art. 40.)
11.

If

CD,

the base of the

isosceles triangle
feet,

VCD,

be 60

and the area 1200 feet; and if there be cut off, by the
line

LG
;

parallel to

CD, the
area
is

tri-

angle
feet

VLG, whose
what are the

432

sides of the

latter triangle ?

Ans. 30, 30, and 36


12.

feet.

What

is

the area of an equilateral triangle inscribed


is

in a circle

whose diameter

52

feet ?

Ans. 878.15
13. If a circular piece of land
is

sq. ft.

inclosed

by a

fence, in

which 10

in length; and if the field contains as many square rods, as there are rails in the fence ; what is the value of the land at 120 dollars an acre ?
rails

make a rod

Ans. 942.48
14. If the area of the equilateral triangle
feet
cle
is
;

dollars.

ABD

be 219.5375
cir-

what

is

the area of the

OBDA,

in

which the triangle

inscribed?
sides of the triangle are each

The

22.5167. (Art. 11.) And the area of the circle

is

630.93.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS. *
15. If 6 concentric circles are

87

between the

least or 1st,

and the 4th between the 4th and the 5th between the 5th and the 6th

between the 2d between the 3d

and the 2d and the 3d

so drawn, that the space is 21.2058,


is
is

35.343,

49.4802,'

is

63.6174,

is

V7.Y546;

what

the several diameters, supposing the longest to be to 6 times the shortest ? equal
Ihre

Aus.
16. If the area

3, 6, 0, 12, 15,

and

18.

between two concentric

circles

be 1202.64

square inches, and the diameter of the lesser circle be 19 uiche8t>what is the diameter of the other ?
17.
is 9,

What

is

the area of a circular segment, whose height

and base 24?

SECTION

III.

SOLIDS BOUNDED BY PLANE SURFACES.

Abt. 41. DEFINr^(0||^ I. prism is a solid bounded by or faces, two of which are parallel, similar, and plane figures

and the others are parallelograms. The parallel planes are sometimes called the bases or ends; and the other figures the sides of the prism. The
equal
II.
;

latter taken together constitute the lateral surface,


III.

prism

is riffht

or oblique, according as the sides are

perpendicular or oblique to the bases. IV. The height of a prism is the perpendicular distance

between the planes of the bases.


fore, tLe height
is

V.

In a right prism, thereto the length of one of the sides. equal Parallelopiped is a |)ri8ni whose bases are parallelo-

grams.

38

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

VI. Cuhe is a solid bounded by six equal squares. It a right prism whose sides and bases are all equal. VII. Pyramid is a solid bounded by a plane figure called the base, and several triangular planes, proceeding from
is

the sides of the base, and

all

terminating in a single point.

These triangles taken together constitute the lateral surface.


VIII. pyramid is reguUar, if its base is a regular polygon, and if a line from the centre of the base to the vertex of the pyramid is perpendicular to the base. This line is called the axis of the pyramid.

from the summit

IX. The height of a pyramid is the perpendicular distance In a regular pyrto the plane of the base.

amid, it is the length of the axis. X. The slant-height of a regular pyramid, is the distance from the summit to the middle of one of the sides of the base.

XI.

A frustum or
of

solid next the base, cut off

trunk of a pyramid is a portion of the by a plane parallel to the base.


is

The

height

the

frustum
planes.

of the

two

parallel

The

the perpendicular distance slant-height of a frus-

tum

of a regular pyramid, is the distance from the middle of one of the sides of the base, to the middle of the corres-

ponding side in the plane above. It is a line passing on the surface of the frustum, through the middle of one of
its sides.

XII.
base,

Wedge

is

a soUd of five sides,

viz.

a rectangular

two rhomboidal sides meeting in an


edge, and

two
;

tri-

angular

ends

as

ABHG. The is ABCD, the


are

base
sides

ABHG

and

DCHG,

meeting in

the edge GH, and and the ends are

BOH

ADG.

The

height of the

wedge

is

MSNSURATION OF SOLIDS.

39

perpendicular drawn from any point in the edge, to the plane of the base, as GP.
XIII.
allel,

Prismoid

is

a solid whose ends or bases are par-

It but not similar, and whose sides are quadrilateral. differs from a prism or a frustum of a pyramid, in having its ends dissimilar. It is a rectangular prismoid, when its ends

are right parallelograms. XIV. linear side or edge of a solid

is

the line of intersecsurface.

tion of

two of the planes which form the

42.

sides are squares of the inch are square inches

The common measuring unit of solids is a cube, whose same name. The sides of a cubic
;

of a cubic foot, square feet, &c. Finding the capacity, solidity* or solid contents of a body, is fmding the number of cubic measures, of some given denomination contained in the body.

In
1728
2*7

solid mectsure.

cubic

incha

cubic feet

4492i cubic feet 32768000 cubic rods 282 cubic inches


231
2150.42
1

=1 =1 =1 =1

cubic foot, cubic yard,


cubic rod, cubic mile,
ale gallon,

=1
=1 =1

cubic inches cubic inches

wine gallon,
bushel,

cubic foot of

pure water weighs 1000

avoirdupois ounces, or 62i pounds.

Problkm

I.

To find
48. MlTLTIPLY THE

the

soLmnr of a

prism.

AREA OF THE BASE BY THE HEIGHT.


rule,

This

is

a general

applicable

to

parallelopipeds
<fec.

whether right or obhque, cubes, triangular prisms,


Sec note A.

40

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
surfaces are measured,

As

by comparing them with a right

parallelogram (Art. 3.) ; so solids are measured, by comparing them with a right parallelepiped.

be the base of a right parallelopiped, as a stick of timber


If

ABCD

standing erect,

it

is

evident that the

number

of cubic feet contained in one

mimber

foot of the height, is equal to the of square feet in the area of

the base.

And

if

the sohd be of any

other height, instead of one foot, the contents must have the same ratio. For parallelepipeds of the same base are to

each other as their heights. (Sup. Euc. 9. 3.)* The solidity of a right parallelopiped, therefore, is equal to the product of its length, breadth, and thickness. See Alg. 397.

And
of the

an oblique parallelopiped being equal

to a right

one

same base and

altitude, (Sup.

Euc.

7.

3)f

is

equal to

the area of the base multiplied into the perpendicular height. This is true also of prisms, whatever be the form of their
bases. (Sup. Euc. 2. Cor. to 8, 3. Thomson's Legendre, 12. 7.)

44.

As

the sides of a cube are

all

equal, the solidity

is

found by cubing one of its edges. On the other hand, if the solid contents be given, the length of the edges may be
found,

by

extracting the cube root.

45. When solid measure is cast by Duodecimals, it is to be observed that inches are not primes of feet, but thirds. If the unit is a cubic foot, a solid which is an inch thick and

a foot square is a prime a parallelopiped a foot long, an inch broad, and an inch thick is a second, or the twelfth part of a prime and a cubic inch is a third, or the twelfth part
;
;

of a second.
of a foot,

A linear inch is -i\ of a foot,

a square inch

-ri t

and a cubic inch tt^-s of a


Thomson's Legendre,

foot.

9. 7.

Ibid., 7. 7.

MKNSURATION OP SOLIDS.
Ex.
1.
is

41

What

are the solid contents of a stick of

tlmbe^

which
thick?
2.

31 feet long, 1 foot 3 inches broad, and 9 inches Ans. 29 feet 9", or 29 feet 108 inches.
is

What

feet high,

and 2

the solidity of a wall which feet 6 inches thick ?

is

22 feet long, 12
feet.

Ans. 660 cubic


3.

What

is

the capacity of a cubical vessel

which

is

2 feet

3 inches deep ?

Ans. 11 F.
4. If the base of a

4'

8"

3'", or

11 feet 6*75 inches.

prism be 108 square inches, and the


solid contents ?

height 30

feet,

what are the

Ans. 27 cubic
6.

feet.

If the height of a square prism

be 2\

feet,

and each

side of the base

10^

feet,

what

is

The area of the base

the solidity ?
sq. feet.
feet.

And the solid contents = 106iX


6.

10ixl0i==106f

2-i-=240i cubic
feet,

If the height of a prism be

23

and

its

ular pentagon,
lidity ?

whose perimeter

is

18

feet,

what

base a regis the sofeet.

Ans. 512.84 cubic

The number of gallons or bushels which a vessel will may be found, by calculating the capacity in inches, and then dividing by the number of inches in 1 gallon or
46.

contain

bushel.

a vessel of given dimensions is found by experiment, that a cubic foot of pure water weighs 1000 ounces avoirdupois. For the weight in ounces, then, multiply the cubic feet by 1000
in

The weight of water


;

easily calculated

as

it is

or for the weight in pounds, multiply by 62^.

Ex.

1.

How many

ale gallons are there in a cistern whicli


is

is 1 1 feet

9 inches deep, and whose base

4 feet 2 inches

square?

42
"

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

The

cistern contains

And
2.

352500-7-282

= 1250.

352500 cubic inches;

How many

wide, 3 feet deep, and


3.

wine gallons will fill a ditch 3 feet 11 inches 462 feet long ? Ans. 40608.
of water can be put into a cubical vessel

What weight
deep
?

feet

Ans. 4000

lbs.

Problem

II.

To find
4*7.

the

lateral surface of a right prism.

Multiply the length into the perimeter of the

BASE.

Each of the sides of the prism is a right parallelogram, whose area is the product of its length and breadth. But the breadth is one side of the base; and therefore, the sum
of the breadths
is

equal to the perimeter of the base.

Ex.

1.

If the

base of a right prism be a regular hex-

agon whose sides are each 2 feet 3 inches, and if the height be 16 feet, what is the lateral surface ? Ans. 216 square feet.
If the areas of the
face, the

two ends be added

to the lateral sur-

sum

will

be the whole surface of the prism.


is

And

the superficies of any solid bounded by planes, equal to the areas of all its sides.
2.

evidently

If

the base of
is

a prism
if

be

an equilateral

triangle

whose perimeter
is

6 feet, and

the height be 17

feet,

what

the surface

The area

of the triangle

is

1.732. {Art. 11.)

And

the whole surface

is

105.464.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

49

Problem

III.

To find
48.

the soLiDirr

of a pyramid.

Multiply the area of the base into \ of the

HEIOUT.

The solidity of a prism is equal to the product of the area of the base into the height. (Art. 43.) And a pyramid is -^ of a prism of the same base and altitude. (Sup. Euc.
15,
3.

Cor.

1.)*

Therefore the
is

solidity

of a

pyramid

whether right or oblique,


into

equal to the product of the base

of the perpendicular height.


1.

Ex.

What
is

is

the

solidity

of

whose height

60,

and each side of whose base

a triangular pyramid, is 4 ?
is

The area of the base

6.928
138.56.

And

the solidity

is

2. Let ABC be one side of an oblique pyramid whose base is 6 feet square let BC be 20 feet, and make an angle
;

of

base

70 degrees with the plane of the and let CP be perpendicular to this


;

plane.

What

is

the solidity of the pyr-

amid

In the right angled triangle BCP, (Trig. 134.)

R
And
3.

BC

sinB

::

PC = 18.'79.
is

the solidity of the pyramid

225.48

feet.

What
is

is

height

72,

and the

the solidity of a pyramid whose perpendicular sides of whose base are 67, 54, and

40?
*

Ans. 25920.
Thomson's Legendre, 15 and
18. 7.

44

MENSURATION OP SOLIDS.

Problem IV.

To find
49.

the

lateral surface of a regular pyramid.

Multiply half the slant-height into the perim-

eter OF the base.


Let the triangle

ABC

be one of

the sides of a regular pyramid. As the sides and BC are equal, the

AC

angles A and B

are equal.

Therefore

a line drawn from the vertex

to the
to

middle of

AB is 'perpendicular

AB.

The area

of the triangle is equal to the product of half this perpendicular into AB. (Art. 8.) The perimeter of the base is the sum of its sides, each of

which

is

equal to

AB.

And

the areas of

all

the equal

tri-

angles which constitute the

surface of the pyramid, are together equal to the product of the perimeter into half the slant-height CP.
lateral

The

slant-height

is

the hypothenuse of a right angled

tri-

angle, whose legs are the axis of the pyramid, and the distance from the centre of the base to the middle of one of the See Def. 10. sides.

Ex.

1.

What

is

pyramid, whose
are each 8 feet
?

axis is

the lateral surface of a regular hexagonal 20 feet, and the sides of whose base

The square

of the distance from the centre of the base to


sides.

one of the

(Art. 16.) =48.

The

slant-height (Euc. 47.

l.)*=:V48-f (20)'=21.16

And
2.

the lateral surface==21.16X

4X6=507.84

sq. feet.

What is

the whole surface of a regular triangular pyr^


*

Thomson's Legendre,

11. 4.

ITION OP SOLIDS.

4ft.

amid whose
20.78?

axis

is 8,

and the

sides of

whose base are each


312 18 Y

The

lateral surface is
is

Tlie area of the base

And
3.

the whole surface

is

499
a regular

What

is

the

lateral surface of

pyramid
feet.

whose

axis is 12 feet,

and whose base

is

18

feet square ?

Ans. 540 square

The lateral surface of an obliqiie pyramid may be found, by takmg the sum of the areas of the unequal triangles which form its sides.

Problem V.

To Jind

the soLiDrrr

of a fbustttm of a pyramid.

50. Add together the areas of the two ends, and AND THE square root OF THE PRODUCT OF THESE AREAS MULTIPLY THE SUM BY -^ OF THE PERPENDICULAR HEIGHT OF THE SOLID.
;

Let

CDGL

be a vertical

section,

through the middle of a frustum of a right pyr-

amid

CDV, whose

base

is

square.

l/

Let CD=a,

LG=6, RN=A.

By

similar triangles,
:

LG

CD ::RV

NV
: :

Subtracting the antecedents, (Alg. 349.)

LG

CDLG

RV

NVRV=RN.
hb

RNxLG

46

MENSURATION OF
is

SOLIDS.

The square of CD

the base

of the pyramid

CDV

V
i

And

the square of LG is the base of the small pyr-

amid LGV.
Therefore, the
solidity of

the larger pyramid (Art. 48) is

0/
is

3a

36

And

the solidity of the smaller pyramid

equal to

LG^XiRV=2''X
If the smaller
will

3a 36

3a 36

pyramid be taken from the larger, there remain the frustum CDLG, whose solidity is equal to
(Alg.l94.
a.)

^t::|^';=x^X^^=iAxK+a6+6^) a oa do
Or, because Va'6''=a6.

(Alg. 210. a.)

iAX(a^+6'+Va^F)
Here
A,

the height of the frustum,

is

multiplied into a'

and W, the areas of the two ends, and

into Va"6'* the square

root of the products of these areas. In this demonstration the pyramid


square.

is

supposed to be

any other form.

pyramid of For the solid contents of pyramids are equal, when they have equal heights and bases, whatever be
is

But the

rule

equally applicable to a

the Jiffure of their bases. (Sup. Euc. 14. 3.)*


*

And

the sec-

Thomson's Legendre,

14, 7.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
tions parallel to the bases,

and

at equal distances, are equal

to one another. (Sup. Euc. 12. 3. Cor. 2.)*

Ex.

1.

If

one end of the frustum of a pyramid be 9 feet

square, the other end 6 feet square, and the height 36 feet, what is the sohdity ?

The areas of the two ends are 81 and 36. The square root of their product is 54.

And

the solidity of the

frustum=(81+36+64)xl2=2062.

2. If the height of a frustum of {f pyramid be 24, and the areas of the two ends 441 and 121 what is the solid;

ity?
8.

Ans. 6344.

If the height of a frustum of a hexagonal pyramid be each side of one end 26, and each side of the other end 48, 16 ; what is the solidity ? Ans. 56034.

Problem VI.

To find

the

lateral surface of a frustum of a regular pyramid,

51. Multiply half Ihe slant-heioht by t^k sum of THE perimeters of the two ends.

Each
as

side of a frustum of a regular

pyramid

is

a trapezoid,

(Def. 11.) though it is oblique to the base of the soHd, is perpendicular to the line AB.
is

ABCD.

The

slant-height

HP,

The area of the trapezoid


the

equal to the

product of half this perpendicular into

sum

of the parallel sides

AB and DC.
all

(Art. 12.)

Therefore the area of

the

equal trapezoids which form tho lateral surface of the frustum, is equal to the
Thomson's Legendre,
13, 7, Cor,

48

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

product of half the slant-height into the meters of the ends.

sum

of the peri-

Ex. If the slant-height of a frustum of a regular octagonal pyramid be 42 feet, the sides of one end 5 feet each, and the sides of the other end 3 feet each ; what is the lateral
surface?

Ans. 1344 square


it

feet.

62. If the slant-height be not given,

may be

obtained

perpendicular height and the dimensions of the two ends. Let GD

from

the

17

be the slant-height of the frustum CDGL, RN or GP


the

ND

and

perpendicular height, the radii of the

RG

circles inscribed in the pe-

rimeters of the

two ends.

^
:

Then.

PD

is

the difference of the two radii

And the

slant-height

GD = v(GP'-fPD=^).

Ex. If the perpendicular height


of a frustum of a regular hexagonal pyramid be 24, the sides of one end

13 each, and the sides of the other end 8 each what is the whole sur;

face?

V(BC'^ BP') = CP,


The
difference of the

that

is,

V(l 3' 6^5^=11.258

And
two
radii

V8^ 4=
is,

6.928
4.33

therefore

Theslant-height=V(24+4.33')=24.3875.
TJie lateral surface is

1536.4
2 141. 7 5.

And

the whole surface,

USV8URATI0N OF SOLIDS.

4i

The height of the whole pyramid may be calculated from the dimensions of the frustum. Let (Fig. 17.) be the

VN

or GP the height of the frusheight of the pyramid, and the radii of the circles inscribed in the tum,

RN

ND

RG

perimeters of the ends of the frustum.

Then,

in the similar triangles

GPD
;

and

VND,

DP
The height

GP

DN

VN. VK, gives


solidity

of the frustum subtracted from

VR
and

the height of the small pyramid VLG. lateral surface of the frustum may then

The

be found, by subfrom the whole pyramid, the part which is above tracting
This method may serve to verify the calthe cutting plane. culations which are made by the rules in Arts. 50 and 51.

Ex. If one end of the frustum

CDGL

(Fig. 17.) be

90

feet

square, the other end 60 feet square, and the height feet ; what is the height of the whole pyramid

RN 36 VCD and
:

what arc the

solidity

and

lateral surface of the

frustum

DP=DNGR=45 30=15.
Then, 15
:

And,

GP=RN=36.

36

45

108 =VN, the height of the whole

pyramid.

And,

10836=72 =VR,

the height of the part

VLG.
48.)

The

solidity of the large

pyramid

is

of the small pyramid


of the frustum

291600 (Art. 86400

CDGL
is

205200
21060 (Art. 9360
11700

The

lateral surface of the large

pyramid

49.)

of the small pyramid of the frustum

60

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

Problem VII.
To find
64.
the solidity

of a wedge.

Add the length of the edge

to

twice the

product of the height of the wedge and the breadth of the base.
Let

= AB

the

length of the base. the length Let

Z=GH

of the edge. Let 6=BC the breadth


of the base.

Let

A=PG the height


A
Then,

of the wedge.

L Z=AB GH=AM

If the length of the base and the edge be equal, as BM and GH, the wedge MBHG is ha,lf a parallelepiped of the same base and height. And the soHdity (Art. 43.) is equal to half the product of the height, into the length and breadth

of the base

that

is

&AZ.

If the length of the base be greater than that of the edge, let a section be made by the plane as ; parThis will divide the whole wedge into two allel to HBC.

ABGH

GMN,

parts

MBH<T
The

and

AMG.
is

The

latter is a

pyramid, whose

solidity (Art. 48.)

i hhx{Ll)
is,

solidity of the parts together,

therefore,

i6A?+,i&AX (L Z)=iM3Z+i&A2Li6A2Z=i6A X (2L+?)


If the length of the base be less than that of the edge, it evident that the pyi-amid is to be subtracted from half the

is

parallelepiped,

which

is

wedge, and equal in length

equal in height and breadth to the to the edge.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

51

The

solidity of the

wedge

is,

therefore,

Ex.

1.

If the base of a

and the perpendicular height 12.4


Ans. (70
If the base of a

wedge be 35 by 15, the edge 55, what is the solidity ?


;

+ 55)X^^^^^ = 3875.
30,

2.

the perpendicular height 42

wedge be 27 by 8, the edge what is the solidity?


;

and

Ans. 5040.

Problem VIII.

To find

the solidity

of a rectangular prismoid.

55. To the areas of the two ends, add four times the area of a parallel section equally distant from the ends, and multiply the sum by ^ of the height.

L and B be the length and breadth of one end, Let I and h be the length and breadth
Let
of the other end.

and m be the Let breadth of the section

length

and

in the middle.
pris-

And

h be the height of the

inoid.

The

solid

may be

divided into two wedges whose bases are

the ends of the prismoid, and whose edges are solidity of the whole, by the preceding article

L and
is,

/.

The

ii?Ax(2L+/)+i*AX(2/+L)=-iA(2BL-f-B^+2W+6L)

As

M is equally distant from L and

I,

2M=L4-/,2/w-B+J,and4Mm{L+/)(B+2')=BL+B;+
[bh+lb.

52

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

for its value, in the Substituting 4 pression for the sohdity, we have

Mm

preceding ex-

ih(BL+hl+AMm)
That
is,

the soHdity of the prismoid

is

equal to

-J-

of the

height, multiplied into the areas of the two ends, and 4 times the area of the section in the middle.

may be applied to prismoids of other forms. For, whatever be the figure of the two ends, there may be drawn in each, such a number of small rectangles, that the
sum of them shall differ less, than by any given quantity, from the figure in which they are contained. And the solids between these rectangles will be rectangular prismoids.
Ex.
1.

This rule

If one

23, the other end 36

end of a rectangular prismoid be 44 by 21, and the perpendicular

feet

by

heiglit

72

what

is

the solidity ?
of the larger end of the smaller end

The area

=44X23 = 1012

=36X21= 156 =40X22= 880 And the solidity= (101 2+756 +4 X 880) X 12 = 63456
of the middle section
2.

feet.

What

is

the solidity of a stick of

hewn

timber,

whose

ends are 30 inches by 27, and 24 by 18, and whose length is 48 feet ? Ans. 204 feet.

Other

solids

not treated of in this section,

if

they be

bounded by plane surfaces, may be measured by supposing them to be divided into prisms, pyramids, and wedges. And,
indeed, every such solid
triangular pyramids.

may

be considered as made up of

1.

54

MENSURATION OF REGULAR SOLIDS.

67. As the sides of a regular solid are similar and equal, and the angles are also alike it is evident that the sides are all equally distant from a central point in the solid. If then, planes be supposed to proceed from the several edges
;

to the centre, they will divide the solid into as

many

equal

The base of each pyramid will be 'pyramids, as it has sides. one of the sides ; their common vertex will be the central
point; and their height will be a perpendicular from the centre to one of the sides.

Problem IX.

To find
68.

the

surface of a regular solid.

Multiply the area of one of the sides by the


sides.

number of

Or,

Multiply the square of one of the edges, by the surface of a similar solid whose edges are 1.

As

all

the sides are equal,

it

is

evident that the area of


sides, will give

one of them, multiplied by the number of


area of the whole.
Or,
if

the

a table

is

prepared, containing the surfaces of the

several regular solids whose linear edges are unity ; this maybe used for other regular solids, upon the principle, that the

areas of similar polygons are as the squares of their homologous sides. (Euc. 20. 6.)* Such a table is easily formed, by

multiplying the area of one of the sides, as given in Art. 17, by the number of sides. Thus, the area of an equilateral Therefore, the siu:triangle whose side is 1, is 0.4330127.
face

Thomson's Legendre,

27. 4.

MEN SI RATION OP REGULAR SOLIDS.

5ff

Of aregular tetraedron =.433012'7X4 =1.7320508. Of a regular octaedron =.4330127x8 =3.4641016. Of a regular icosaedron =.4330127x20=8.0602540.
See the table
Ex.
1
.

in the following article.

What

is

the surface of a regular dodecaedron whose


?

edges are each 25 inches

The area

of one of the sides

is

1075.3

And
2.

the surface of the whole solid

=1075.3X12=12903.6.

What

is

the

surface of a

edges are each

102?

regular icosaedron whose Ans. 90101.3.

Problem X.
.

7b ^rw?

/^ solidity o/* a

REGULAR

solid.

59.

Multiply the surface by ^ of the perpendicular

DISTANCE from THE CENTRE TO ONE OF THE SIDES.


Or,

McLTIPLY the
SOLIDITY OF

ONE OF THE EDGES, BY THE A SIMILAR SOLID WHOSE EDGES ARE 1.


cube of
is

As

the solid

made up
sides,

of a

number

of equal pyramids,

and whose height is the perpendicular distance of the sides from the centre (Art. 57.) the solidity of the whole must be equal to the areas of all the
;

whose bases are the

sides midtiplied into ^ of this perpendicular. (Art. 48.) If the contents pf the several regular solids whose edges
table, this may be used to measure For two similar regular solids contain the same number of similar pyramids and the.se are to each

are

1,

be inserted in a
.solids.

other similar

other as the cubes of their linear sides or edges. 15. 3. Cor. 3.)*

(Sup. Euc.

Thomson's Legendre,

20. 7.

56

MENSURATION OF THE CYLINDER.

A TABLE OF REGULAR SOLIDS WHOSE EDGES ARE


Names.

1.

MENSX7RATI0N OF TUB CVLINDER.

lr

the axiSf which proceeds from the middle of the base to the
vertex.

The base

of an oblique cone

is

also a circle, but

is

not per-

pendicular to the axis.

height of a cone is the perpendicular distiince from the vertex to the plane of the base. In

The

a right cone, it is the length of the axis. The slant-height of a right cone is the distance from the vertex to the circumference of the base.
III.

A frustum of
is

parallel to the base.

frustum

is a portion cut height of the the perpendicular distance of

a cone

oflf

by a plane

The

the two ends.

The

slant-height of a

frustum of a right cone, is the distance between the peripheries of the two
ends, measured on the outside of the
solid
;

as

AD.

IV.

A sphere or globe is a solid which


A

has a centre equally distant from every It may be described by the revolution part of the surface. radius of the sphere is of a semicircle about a diameter.

any part of the surface. diameter is a line passing through the centre, and terminated The circumference is the same at both ends by the surface.
line

drawn from the centre

to

as the circumference of a circle

the centre of the sphere.


circle.

whose plane passes through Such a circle is called a great


is

V.

segment oi a sphere
is

a part cut

off

by any

plane.

The height of the segment

a per-

pendicular from the middle of the base to the convex surface, as LB.

VI.

A spherical zone or frustum

is

a part of the sphere included be-

tween two

It is parallel planes. called the middle zone, if the planes are equally distant from the centre.

3*

58

MENSURATION OF THE CYLINDER.


of a zone
is

The height LR.*


VII.

the distance of the two planes, as

A spherical

sector is

a solid produced by a circular

sector, revolving in tlie

same manner
spherical sec-

as the semicircle

which describes the

whole sphere.
tor tor
is

Thus a

ACP
CP.

described by the circular secor GCE revolving on the

axis

VIII.

solid described

by the

revolution of any figure about a fixed axis, is called a solid of revolution.

Problem

I.

To find
62.

the

convex surface of a right cylinder.

Multiply the length into the circumference of

THE BASE.
If a right cylinder be covered with a thin substance like

paper, which can be spread out into a plane ; it is evident that the plane will be a parallelogram, whose length and

breadth will be equal to the length and circumference of the The area must, therefore, be equal to the length cylinder.
multiplied into the circumference. (Art. 4.)

Ex.

1. is

What
42

is

which

feet long,

the convex surface of a right cylinder and 15 inches in diameter?

Ans. 42X1.25X3.14159
2.
is

= 164.933

sq. feet.

What

is

the whole surface of a right cylinder, which

2 feet in diameter and 36 feet long ?


*

According to some writers, a spherical segment is either a solid is cut off from the sphere by a single plane, or one which is included between two planes and a zone is the surface of either of these.

which
In

this sense, the

term zone

is

commonly used

in geography.

MENSURATION OF THB CYLINDER.

56
226.1945

The convex surface is The area of the two ends


The whole
3.

(Art. 30.)

is

6.2832

surface

is

232.4777

What
is

is

axis

82,

and circumference 71

the whole surface of a right cylinder whose ? Ans. 6024.32.

63. It will be observed that the rules for the

prism and
same,

pyramid

in the preceding section, are substantially the

as the rules for the cylinder

and cone

some advantage, however,


selves.

in

There may be the latter by themconsidering


in this.

In the base of a cylinder, there may be inscribed a polygon, which shall differ from it less than by any given space. If the polygon be the base of a (Sup. Euc. 6. 1. Cor.)*
prism, of the same height as the cylinder, the two solids may differ less than by any given quantity. In the same

manner, the base of a pyramid may be a polygon of so many sides, as to differ less than by any given quantity, from the
base of a cone in which
fore considered,
it is

inscribed.

by many
;

writers, as a prisr^ of

cyhnder is therean infinite

number of number of when used

sides
sides.

and a cone, as a pyramid of an infinite " (For the meaning of the term infinite,"
mathematical sense, see Alg. Sec. XV.)

in the

Problem To find
64.
the solidity

II.

of a cyundkr.

Multiply the area op the base by the height.

The solidity ^f a parallelopiped is equal to the product of the base into the perpendicular altitude. (Art. 43.) And a parallelopiped and a cylinder which have equal bases and
altitudes are equal to each other. (Sup. Euc. 17. 3.)f

Thomson's Legendre,

9. 5.

t ^^^^y

2* 8.

60
Ex.
1.

MENSURATION OF THE CYLINDER.

What

is

the solidity of a cylinder, whose height


?

is

121, and diameter 45.2

Ans. 45.2'X.V854X 121


2.

= 194156.6.
is

What

is

the solidity of a cylinder, whose height


?

424,

and circumference 213


3.

Ans. 1530837.
of

If

the side

AC

an oblique

cylinder be 27, and the area of the base 32.61, and if the side make an angle of 62 44' with the base,

what

is

the

sohdity

?
:

E AC
:

sin

BC = 24

the per-

pendicular height.

And

the soHdity

is

782.64.

4. The Winchester bushel is a hollow cylinder, 18^ inches What is its capacity ? in diameter, and 8 inches deep. The area of the base=(18. 5)' X. 7853982 268.8025.

And

the "^^apacity table in Art. 42.

is

2150.42 cubic inches.

See the

Problem

III.

To find

the

convex surface of a right cone.


cir-

65. Multiply half the slant-height into the cumference OF the base.

If the convex surface of a right cone be spread out into a


it will evidently form a sector of a circle whose radius But the area of the equal to the slant-height of the cone. sector is equal to the product of half the radius into the

plane,
is

Or if the cone be considered length of the arc. (Art. 34.) as a pyramid of an infinite number of sides, its lateral sur-

MENSURATION OF THE CONE.

61

face is equal to the product of half the slant-height into the perimeter of the base. (Art. 49.)

Ex.

1.

If

diameter of the base 24, what

the slant-height of a right cone be 82, and the is the convex surface ?

Ans.
2.

41X24X3.14159=8091.3
the whole surface ?

square

feet.

If the axis of a right cone

be 48, and the diameter of

le base 72,

what

is

The slant-height = V(36'+48')=60. (Euc. 47. The convex surface is 6786 The area of the base 4071.6

1.)

And
3.

the whole^urfaco

10857.6

If the axis of a right cone


;

be 16, and the circumfer?

ence of the base 75.4

what

is

the whole surface

Ans. 1206.4.

Problem IV.

To find
66.

the

sounrrY of a cone.
-^

Multiply the area op the base into

of the

HEIGHT.

The solidity of a cylinder is equal to the product of the base into the perpendicular height. (Art. 64.) And if a cone and a cylinder have the same base and altitude, the cone is

Or if a cone be con\ of the cylinder. (Sup. Euc. 18. 3.)f sidercd as a pyramid of an infinite number of sides, the solidity is

equal to the product of the base into \ of the height,


48.

by Art.
Ex.
is

1.

What

is

the solidity of a right cone whose height


is

663, and the diameter of whose base

101

Ans.
*

ioPx. 7854X221 = 1770622.


4. 8.

Thomcon's Legendre,

Cor.

62
2.

MENSURATION OF THE CONE.


If the axis of

an oblique cone be 738, and make an of 30 with the plane of the base ; and if the circumangle ference of the base be 355, what is the solidity ?
Ans. 1233536.

Problem

V..

To find
67.

the

convex surface of a frustum of a

right cone.

Multiply half the slant-height by the sum of

THE peripheries OF THE TWO ENDS.


This

and

is

the rule for a frustum of a pyramid equally applicable to a frustum of a cone,


is

; if

(Art. 51.)

a cone be
of
sides.

considered as a pyramid of
(Art. 63.)

an

infinite

number

Or
Let the sector

thus,

ABV

represent the

convex surface of a right cone, (Art.


65.) andyDCV the surface of a portion of the cone, cat off by a plane parallel

to the base.

Then

will

ABCD

be tbe

surface of the frustum.

Let

AB=a, DC=6, YI>=d, AD=h.

'^

Then the area

ABV =iaX{h-\-d)=iah+iad.
And
the area

(Art. 34.)

'DCY=^bd.

Subtracting the one from the other. The area ABDC=iaA+iac/ ^bd.

But d

d-\-h :\h

a.

(Sup. Euc.

8.

1.)*

Therefore

^ad^

ibd=ibh.

The

surface of the frustum then,

is

equal to

^ah+^bh.
*

or^hx(a-{-b)
10, 5.

Thomson's Legendre,

Cor,

MENSURATION OF THE CONE.


Cor.

63

The

surface of the frustum

is

equal to the product

of the slant-height into the circumference of a circle which is equally distant from the two ends. Thus, the surface

ABCD
Ex.
cone,

is equal to the product of and equal to half the sum of

AD
DC.

mto MN.

For

MN is

AB

1. if

What is the convex surface of a frustum of a right the diameters of the two ends be 44 and 33, and
?
^

the slant-height 84

Ans. 10159.8.

2. If the perpendicular height of a frustum of a right cone be 24, and the diameters of the two ends 80 and 44,

what
*

is

the whole surface ?

Half the difference of the diameters

is

18.

And V 18'+24'=30,
The The sum of the

the slant-height, (Art. 52.) convex sur&ce of the frustum is 5843


areas of the two ends
is

is

6547
12390

And

the whole surface

Problem VI.

To find
68.

the solidity

of a frustum of a cone.
ends,
;

Add toosther the areas of the two

and

the square root of the product of these areas and multiply the sum by \ of the perpendicular height.
This rule, which was given for the frustum of a pyramid, is equally applicable to the frustum of a cone be;

(Art. 60.)

cause a cone and a pyramid which have equal bases and tudes are equal to each other.

alti-

Ex.

1.

What

is

long, 2 feet in diameter at one end,

the solidity of a mast which is 72 feet and 18 inches at the

other?

Ans. 174.36 cubic

feet.

64
2.

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.

What

is

tlie

feet deep, 4 feet in diameter at the bottom,

capacity of a conical cistern which is 9 and 3 feet at the

top

Ans. 87.18 cubic feet 652.15 wine gallons.

3.

How many

form of a conic frustum,

gallons of ale can be put into a vat in the if the larger diameter be 7 feet, the
?

smaller diameter 6 feet, and the depth 8 feet

Problem VII.

To find
69.

the

surface of a sphere.

Multiply the diameter by the circumference.

Let a hemisphere be described by the quadrant CPD, Let revolving on the line CD.

AB be the side

of a regular poly-

gon inscribed in the circle of which DBF is an arc. Draw AO and BN perpendicular to CD, and BH perpendicular to AO. Extend AB till it meets CD conThe triangle AOY, retinued.
as an axis, will volving on describe a right cone. (Defin. 2.)

OV

be the slant-height of a frustum of this cone extending


will

AB

from

AO

to

parallel to

BN. From G AO. The surface


is

the middle of

AB, draw

GM
by

of the frustum described

AB.

(Art. 67. Cor.)

equal to

ABxc^VcGM.*
From the centre C draw CG, which will be perpendicular to AB, (Euc. 3. 3.) and the radius of a circle inscribed in
*

which

By drc GM is GM.

is

meant the circumference of a

circle the radius

of

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.

05

and are similar, beThe triangles the polygon. cause the sides are perpendicular, each to each. Therefore,

ABH
GC

CGM

HB

or

ON

AB

GM

circ

GM

circ

GC.

So that ONxciVc
face of the frustum
is

GC=ABx>c GM,

that

is,

the sur-

the perequal to the product of into circ GC, the perpendicular distance pendicular height, from the centre of the polygon to one of the sides.
it may l>e proved, that the surfaces about the revolution of the lines BD and produced by the axis DC, are equal to

ON

In the same manner

AP

ND X circ
The

GC,

and

CO X circ GC.
1.

surface of the whole solid, therefore, (Euc.

2.) is

equal to

CDxcirc GC.

The demonstration is applicable to a solid produced by the revolution of a polygon of any number of sides. But a
be supposed which shall differ less than by any given quantity from the circle in which it is inscribed (Sup. Euc. 4. 1.)* and in which the perpendicular GC shall

polygon

may

than by any given quantity from the radius of the Therefore, the surface of a hemisphere is equal to the product of its radius into the circumference of its base ;
differ less
circle.

and

the surface
its

of a sphere

is

equal

to

the

product of

its

diameter into
Cor.
face of
1.

circumference.
this

From

demonstration

it

follows, that the sur-

any segment or zone of a sphere is equal to the product of the height of the segment or zone into the circumference of the sphere. The surface of the zone produced by the revolution of the arc about ON, is equal

AB

to

ON Xrc

CP.

And

the surface of the segment

pro-

Thomson's Legendre,

9. 5.

66

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.

ci7'c

duced by the revolution of CP.

BD

about

DN

is

equal to

DNx

Cor. 2. The surface of a sphere is equal to four times tlie area of a circle of the same diameter and therefore, the
;

equal to twice the area of For the area of a circle is equal to the product of its base. half the diameter into half the circumference (Art. 30.)
is
;

convex surface of a hemisphere

that

is,

to

^ the product

of the diameter

and circumference.

Cor. 3. The surface of a sphere, or the convex surface of any spherical segment or zone, is equal to that of the circumscribing cylinder.

hemis-

phere described by the revolution of the arc DBP, is cir-

cumscribed by a cylinder produced by the revolution of the


parallelogram Dc?CP. The con-

vex surface of the cylinder

is

equal to its height multiplied

by

its

And

this is also

circumference. (Art. 62.) the surface of

the hemisphere.

So the
to that

is surface produced by the revolution of equal the revolution of ab. And the surface produced by

AB

produced by
Ex.
1.

BD

is

equal to that produced by hd.

Considering the earth as a sphere 7 930 miles in

diameter,

how many

square miles are there on its surface ? Ans. 197,558,500.

2.

If the circumference of the

sun be 2,800,000, what


sq. miles.

is

his surface?
3.

Ans. 2,495,547,600,000

How many

a hemispherical

dome whose base

square feet of lead will it require, to cover is 13 feet across ?

Ans.

265i-.

UBNSITBATIOK OF THE SrUERE.

67

Problem VIII.

To find
70. 1.

the solidiit

of a sphere.

Multiply tse cube of the diameter by


Or,

5236.

Multiply the square of the diameter by \ of the circumfekence.


2.

Or,
3.

Multiply the' surface by \ of the diameter,

1. sphere is two-thirds of its circumscribing cylinder. (Sup. Euc. 21. 3.)* The height and diameter of the cylinder are each equal to the diameter of the sphere. The solidity of the cylinder is equal to its height multiplied into the

area of
eter,

its

base, (Art. 64.) that is putting

for the

diam-

DxD'X.7854
And

or

D'x.7854.
is

the solidity of the sphere, being f of this,

D'X.6236.
2. The base of the circumscribing cylinder is equal to half the circumference multiplied into half the diameter ; (Art. 30.) that is, if C be put for the circumference,

iC X D and
;

the solidity

is

\Q X D'.
is

Therefore, the solidity of the sphere

iofiCxD=DXiC.
8.

In

the last expression,

which

is

the same as

CxDxiD,

ThomMa's Legendre,

12. 8.

68

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.


substitute S, the surface, for

we may

CxD.

(Art. 69.)

We

then have the solidity of the sphere equal to

SxiD.
Or, the sphere may be supposed to be filled with small pyramids, standing on the surface of the sphere, and having
their

common

vertex in the centre.

The number

of these

may be such, that the difference between their sum and the sphere shall be less than any given quantity. The solidity
of each pyramid
is

equal to the product of

its

base into

-|-

The solidity of the whole, thereheight. (Art. 48.) fore, is equal to the product of the surface of the sphere into "i of its radius, or ^ of its diameter.
of
its

The numbers 3.14159, .7854, .5236, should be made The first expresses the ratio of the perfectly familiar.
71.

circumference of a circle to the diameter; (Art. 23.) the second, the ratio of the area of a circle to the square of the

diameter (Art. 30.)

and the

third, the ratio of the solidity

of a sphere to the cube of the diameter. of the first, and the third is ^ of the first.
.

The

secon(J*is

-J-

As

ical investigations,

these numbers are frequently occurring in mathematit is common to represent the first of them
letter n.

by the Greek

According to

this notation,

7r=3.14159,
If

i7r=.7854,
R=:the radius

i^=.5236.
of

D=the
;

diameter, and

any

circle or

sphere

Then,

And nD
Or, 27rR

^,^^^ ^
j

D = 2R D^=4R^ D'r=8R^ i-D= =the area oi-nW -j^^


)

^^^^

or ttR^

the

circ.

or f^iR^

solidity of the sphere.

Ex

1.

What

is

the solidity of the earth,

if it

be a sphere

7930 miles

in diameter ?

Ans. 261,107,000,000 cubic miles.

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.


2,

60

How many

wine gajlons will


is

fill

a hollow sphere 4 feet

in diameter ?

Ans. The capacity


3.

33.5104 fect=250f gallons.

If the

diameter of the

moon be 2180

miles,

what

is its

sohdity?

Ans. 6,424,600,000 miles.

72. If the solidity of a sphere be ^Iven, the diameter may be found by reversing the first rule in the preceding article ; that is, dividing hy .5236 and extracting the cube root of the
quotient,

Ex.

1.

What

is

the diameter of a sphere

whose

solidity is
feet.

65.45 cubic feet ?

Ans. 5

2. What must be the diameter of a globe to contain 16755 Ans. 8 feet. poimds of water?

Problem IX.

To find
73.

the

convex surface of a segment or zone of a


spJiere.

Multiply the height of the segment or zone INTO the circumference OF THE SPHERE.
For the demonstration of
Ex.
1.

this rule, see Art. 69.

If the earth

miles in diameter, and


pole,

be considered a perfect sphere 7930 if the polar circle be 23 28' from the

how many
?

square miles are there in one of the frigid

zones
If

earth,

PQOE be ADB one


the pole
;

a meridian on the
of the polar circles,

and
is

then the frigid zone

a spherical segment described by the revolution of the arc APB about

PD.
rififht

The angle

ACD subtended by
And ACD,
in the

the arc

AP

is

23 28'.

angled triangle

10

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.

R
Then, the segment.

AC

COS

ACD

CD=3C37.
the

CP~CD=3965363'7=328=PD

height of

And 328X^930X3.14159=8] 71400


2.

the surface.
miles,

If the diameter of the earth be

7930

what

is

the

surface of the torrid zone, extending 23 28' on each side of the equator ?

If be the equator, and one of the tropics, then the angle is 23 28'. And in the right angled

EQ

GH

ECG

triangle

GCM,
:

CG
The

sin

ECG

GM=C]Sr=15'78.9 the height of

half the zone.

surface of the whole zone


is

is

78669700.

3.

What

the surface of each of the temperate zones ?

The height

DN=CPCNPD = 2058.1
is

And
The

the surface of the zone

51273000.
is

surface of the
of the

two temperate zones two frigid zones

102,546,000
16,342,800 78,669,700

of the torrid zone of the whole globe

197,558,500

Problem X.

To find
74.

the solidity

of a spherical sector.

Multiply the

spherical

surface by ^ of the

radius of the sphere.

The

spherical sector produced

by the

revolution of

ACBD

laNSURATION OF THE SPHERfi.


about CD, may be supposed to be filled with small pyramids, standing on the
spherical surface ADB, Their in the point C.

and temainating number may be

so great, that the height of each shall


differ less than by any given length from the radius CD, and the sum of their

bases shall differ less than by any given The quantity from the surface ABD.
solidity of

each

is

equal to the product of

its

base into \ of

Therefore, the solidity of all of (Art. 48.) them, that is, of the sector ADBC, is equal to the product of the spherical surface into i of the radius.
the radius

CD.

Ex. Supposing the earth to be a


sphere 7930 miles in diameter, and to be 23 28' the polar circle from the pole ; what is the solidity of

ADB

the spherical sector

ACBP ?

Ans. 10,799,867,000 miles.

Problem XI.
To find
the solidity

of a spherical segment.

75, Multiply half the heioht of the segment into the area of the base, and the cube of the height into .5236 and add the two products.
;

As

the circular sector

AOBC

consists of

two

parts, the

segment

AOBP

and the

triangle

ABC

(Art. 35.) so the spherical sector produced by the revolution of about OC consbts of two parts,
;

AOC

the segvient produced by the revolution of AOP, and the cone produced

by the revolution of ACP.

If then

12

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.

the cone be subtracted from the sector,

the remainder will be the seg-

ment.

Let

CO=R, the radius of the sphere,


PB=r,
the radius of the base of

the segment. PO=A, the height of the segment, Then h, the axis of the cone.

PC=R

The sectors 27iRx^XiR. (Arts. The cone=7r/^xi (RA) (Arts.

'71,

73, Y4.)=f;rAR.

71,

66.)=i7rr"R

\7Tkr''

Subtracting the one from the other,

The segment =-|7rAR2|;rr^R+|7rAr^

ButDOxPO=BO'
That
is,

(Trig.

97.*)=PO^-fPB^
So
that,

(Euc. 47. 1.)

2R7i=:A^-f r^

R=^'+^'
2h

2= And R^=

A'+7-\= /^_j:!_\
V

= A4-f2AV='+H

2A

Substituting then, for plying the factors,

and R^,

their vahies,

and multi-

The

segment=i7r7i=' ^\nhr'' -\-\-j^

i^Ar"

iy +\n1ir^

Which, by uniting the terms, becomes

The first term here is ihx^r^, half the height of the segment multiplied into the area of the base (Art. 71.) and the
;

other

h^Xi^, the cube

of the height multiplied into .5236.

* Euclid 31, 3,

and

8, 6.

Cor.

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.


If the

IS

the 'cone

ABC

segment be greater than a hemisphere, as must be added to the sector ACBD.


Let

ABD

Then

PD=A the height of the segment, PC=AR the axis of the cone.
The
sector

ACBD=inAR

The cone=nr*Xi(AR)=Wir'
Adding them
together,

\rtr*R

we have

as before.

The segment =inhR'' \nr'R-^inhr\

solidity of a spherical segment is equal: to half a a sphere whose of the same base and height cylinder diameter is the height of the segment. For a cylinder is

Cor.

The

equal to a sphere
.5230.

its

is

height multiplied into the area of its base ; and equal to the cube of its diameter multiplied by

Thus,
ical

if

Oy

be half Ox, the spher-

segment produced by the revotution, of Oxt is equal to the cylinder produced by


ivt/x -f

the sphere

produced by Oyxz ; supposing each to revolve on the line Ox.

Ex.

1.

If the height of
its

the diameter of

base 25 feet

a spherical segment be 8 feet, and what is the solidity ?


;

Ans. (25)'X.V854X4+8'X.5236=2231.58
2.

feet.

If the earth

polar circle

be a sphere 7930 miles in diameter, and the 23 28' from the pole, what is the solidity of

one of the

? frigid zones

Ans. 1,303,000,000 miles.

14

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.

Problem XII.

To find

the SOLIDITY

of a sph rlcal zone or frustum,

16. From the solidity of the whole sphere, subtract THE TWO segments ON THE SIDES OF THE ZONE.

Or,

squares of the radii of the two ends, and ^ the square of their distance and multiply the sum by three times this distancc, and the product
;

Add together the

BY .5236.
If

from the whole sphere, there

be taken the two segments ABP and GHO, there will remain the zone
or frustum

ABGH.

is equal to the difference between the segments

Or, the zone

ABGH

GHP

and ABP.
i

DP

the Jieights of the two segments


the radii of their bases.

GN=R
AD=r

] )

DN=c?=H h
Then the

the distance of the

two

bases, or the

height of the zone.


larger segment=i7rHR'+^rrH^ smaller segment=^rrAr^+-6-^^^
)
,
.
.

And the

Therefore the zone

ABGH=i7r (SHR'^+H^ 3^r'A^)


circle,

By

the properties of the

(Euc. 35, 3.)

0]S^xH=:R^

Therefore,

(ON+H)xH=R^+H='

Or,

0P= R=+H^

MENSURATION OF THE SPHERE.


In the same manner,

76

OP=!li
h

Therefore,

3Hx(r'+A*)=3Ax(R'+H*.)
(Alg.
l'/8.)

Or,

8Hr+3lIA' 3AR' 3AH'=0.

To reduce the expression for the sohdity of the zone to the required form, without altering its value, let these terms
be added to
it
:

and

it

will

become

in(3HR'+3Hr 3AR' 3Ar+H 3H'A+3HAA3)


Which
is

equal to

i^r

X 3(HA) X (R'+r'+i (H-~A))

Or, as

\n

equals .6236 (Art. 71.) and

Hh equals d,

The zone=.6236X3rfx(R'+r2+i<i'.)
Ex.
1.

24

feet,

If the diameter of one end of a spherical zone is the diameter of the other end 20 feet, and the dis;

tance of the two ends, or the height of the zone 4 feet what is the solidity ? Ans. 1566.6 feet.
2.

If the earth

be a sphere 7930 miles in diameter, and


i?8'
;

the obliquity of the ecliptic 23** one of the temperate zones ?

what

is

the solidity of

Ans. 55,390,500,000 miles.


3.

What

is

the solidity of the torrid zone ?

Ans. 147,720,000,000 miles.

The

solidity of the

two temperate zones

is

110,781,000,000
2,606,000,000

of the two frigid zones of the torrid zone


of the whole globe
4.

147,720,000,000

261,107,000,000

What
is

is

breadth

feet,

the convex surface of a spherical zone, on a sphere of 25 feet diameter ?

whose

76
5.

MENSURATION OF

SOLIDS.

What
is

is

teight

18

the solidity of a spherical segment, whose feet, and the diameter of its base 40 feet ?

PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES OF SOLIDS.


Ex.
1.

How much

water can be put into a cubical vessel

three feet deep, which has been previously filled with cannon balls of the same size, 2, 4, 6, or 9 inches in diameter, regularly arranged in tiers,

one directly above another ? Ans. 96^ wine gallons.

2. If a cone or pyramid, whose height is three feet, be divided into three equal portions, by sections parallel to the base what will be the heights of the several parts ?
;

Ans. 24,961,

6-.488,

and 4.551 inches.

3. What is the solidity of the greatest square prism which can be cut from a cylindrical stick of timber, 2 feet 6 inches in diameter and 56 feet long ?*

Ans. 175 cubic


4.

feet.

How many
if

to the sun;
latter

such globes as the earth are equal in bulk the former is 7930 miles in diameter, and the

890,000

Ans. 1,413,678.
rule for

The common

measuring round timber

is to

multiply the

square of the quarter-girt by the length. The quarter-girt is one-fourth of the circumference. This method does not give the whole solidity. It makes an allowance of about one-fifth, for waste in hewing, bark, &c.

The

solidity

of a cyUnder

is

equal to the product of the height into the

area of the base.


If

C=the

circumference,
the

and t=3.14159, then

(Art. 31.)

The area of

base^ =(--)=:(-)
4s\

y/47r/

V3.545/

If then the circumference were divided by 3.545, instead of 4, and the See quotient squared, the area of the base would be correctly found. note B.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.
5.

77

How many

cubic feet of wall are there in a conical

tower 66 feet high, if the diameter of the base be 20 feet from outside to outside, and the diameter of the top 8 feet the thickness of the wall being 4 feet^t the bottom, and decreasing regularly, so as to be only two feet at the top ?
;

Ans. Viae.
6.

If

a metallic globe
its

filled

at 5 dollars a gallon, as the globe itself at

square inch of

surface

with wine, which cost as much 20 cents for every what is the diameter of the globe ?

Ans. 55.44 inches.


7. If

the circumference

of the

earth

be 25,000 miles,

what must be the diameter of a metallic globe, which, when drawn into a wire j^ oi an inch in diameter, would reach Ans. 15 feet and 1 inch. round the earth ?
8.

If a conical cistern

at the bottom,

and 5

feet at the top


its

be 3 feet deep, 7^ feet in diameter what will be the depth


;

of a fluid occupying half

capacity ?

Ans. 14.535 inches.


9. If a globe

20 inches

in

diameter, be perforated

by a

cylinder 16 inches in diameter, the axis of the latter passing through the centre of the former what part of the solidity, and the surface of the globe, will be cut away by the cyl;

inder ?

Ans. 3284 inches of the


10.

solidity,

and 502,655 of the

surface.

What

is

the solidity of the greatest cube which can


feet in

be cut from a sphere three

diameter ?

Ans. 6f
11.

feet.

What
f

i3

of which is

36

feet,

the solidity of a conic fhistum, the altitude the greater diameter 16, and the lesser

diameter 8
12.

is the solidity of a spherical segment 4 feet cut from a sphere 16 feet in diameter ? high,

What

VS

ISOPERIMETRY.

SECTION
ISOPERIMETRY.
Art. 77.
different
It
is

V.

often necessary to

compare a number of

or solids, for the purpose of ascertaining which has the greatest area, within a given perimeter, or the
figures

greatest capacity

under a given surface.

We may

have oc-

casion to determine, for instance,

fort, to

extent of

what must be the form of contain a given number of troops, with the least wall or what the shape of a metallic pipe to con;

vey a given portion of water, or of a cistern to hold a given quantity of liquor, with the least expense of materials. 78. Figures which have equal perimeters are called Isoperimeters.

When a

same
lines,

class, it is called

quantity is greater than any other of the a maximum. multitude of straight

But
90

of different lengths, may be among them all, the diameter

drawn within a
is

circle.

maximum.
a
circle,

Of

all

sines of angles,
is

which can be drawn


is less

in

the sine of

maximum.
a quantity

When
it is

called a

minimum.

than any other of the same class, Thus, of all straight lines drawn
line,

from a given point to a given straight


pendicular to the given line
is

that which

is

per-

straight lines drawn from a given point in a circle, to the circumference, the maximum and the minimum are the two parts of

a minimum.

Of

all

the diameter which pass through that point. (Euc. 7, 3.) In isoperimetry, the object is to determine, on the one

hand, in what cases the area

is

maximum,

within a given

perimeter ; or the capacity a maximum, within a given surface and on the other hand, in what cases the perimeter is
:

ISOPERIMETRY.

Vd

a minimum for a given area, or the surface a minimumf for a


given capacity.

Proposition
79.

I.

An

Isosceles Triangle has a greater area than any

scalene triangle, of equal base


If

and perimeter.

ABC be an isosceles trianwhose equal sides are AC and i)C and if be a scalene trion the same base AB, and angle
gle
;

ABC

having
ilien

AC'-f-BC'

= AC+BC;
is

the area of

than that of

ABC ABC.

greater
raised

Let perpendiculars be

from each end of the base, extend

AC
and

to

D, make

CD'

equal to

AC, join BD,

and draw
is

CH

CH'

parallel to

AB.
(Euc. 5, 1.) and

As
angle,

the angle

ABC-f CBD=CAB+CDB = ABC+CDB.


;

CAB=ABC,

ABD

a right

Therefore

CBD = CDB, so that CD=CB AC. The perpendiculars of the

and by constniction,

CD'=

CHD

and

CHB

are equal;

equal right angled triangles In the therefore, BH=iBD.

AH'=iAD'. The line AD=AC+BC=AC HBC'=D'C+BC'. But D'C+BOBD'. (Euc. 20, 1.) BD>AD', (Euc. 47, 1.) and i BD> rhcrefore, AD>BD' AD'. But iBD, or BH, is the height of the isosceles triime manner,
;

ngle
i

iii'^'le

(Art. 1.) and |AD' or AH', the height of the scalene of two triangles which have the same ; and the areas

ire

\ijC
;

is

as their heights. (Art. 8.) Therefore the area of than that of ABC. Among all triangles, greater

lien,

of a given perimeter, and

upon a given
a
less

base, the isos

eles triangle is

a maximum.
perimeter than any
area.

Cor.

The

isosceles triangle has

calene

triangle of the

same base and

The

triangle

80

ISOPERIMETRY.
it is

ABC being less than ABC,


of the latter.

former must be enlarged, to make

evident the perimeter of the its area equal to the area

Proposition
80.

II.

triangle in

which two given sides make a right


the

ANGLE, has a greater area than any triangle in which sides maJce an oblique angle.
If

same

BC,
if

BC and BC" be equal,


be perpendicular to
ric^ht anfyled trian-

and

BC

AB
gle

then the

ABC,

has a greater area than

the acute angled triangle 2VBC', or the oblique angled triangle C".

AB

be perpendicular to AP. Then, as the three triangles have the same base
their heights

Let

P'C and PC"

AB,

their areas are as

PC". P'C.

the perpendiculars BC, P'C, and ; is, But BC is equal to BC, and therefore greater than BC is also equal to BC", and therefore (Euc. 47. 1.)
that
as

greater than

PC".
Proposition
III.

81.

If

all the sides

the area will be the greatest,

except one of a polygon be given, when the given sides are so disinscribed in a semicircle, of
is the

2)osed that the figure

may he

which

the

undetermined side

diameter.

If the sides

AB, BC, CD, DE,

be given, and if their position be such that the area, included

between these and another

side

whose length
is

is

not determined,
the figure

nmximum ;

may

ISOPERIMETRY.

81

be inscribed

in

a semicircle, of which the undetermined side

AE is

the diameter. the lines

Draw

at D, the triangle

ADE

AD, AC, EB, EC. By varying the angle may be enlarged or diminished, with-

whole

The out affecting the area of the other parts of the figure. area, therefore, cannot be a maximum, unless this tri-

and ED are given. angle be a maximum, while the sides be a maximum, under these conBut if the triangle is a ditions, the angle (Art. 80.) and right angle

AD

ADE ADE
D

is in the circumference of a circle, of therefore the point In the same man^vhich is the diameter. (Euc. 31,3.) and are ner it may be proved, that the angles

AE

ACE

ABE
B

right angles,
tlie

and therefore that the points C and circumference of the same circle.
is

are in

The term polygon


fjles,

used in this section to include trianas

and four-sided

figures,

well

as other

right-lined

figures.

82.

the

The area of a polygon, inscribed in a semicircle, in manner stated above, will not be altered by varying the
sides
arcs.

order of the given sides.

The

many

AB, BC, CD, DE, are The sum of these arcs,

the
in

chords

of

so

whatever order

they are arranged, will evidently be equal to the semicircumAudi the segments between the given sides and the arcs will be the same in whatever part of the circle they are
ference.

But the area of the polygon is equal to the area the semicircle, diminished by the sum of these segments. 83. If a polygon, of which all the sides except one are given, be inscribed in a semicircle whose diameter is the un-ituated.
f

determined side

a polygon having the same given sides, cannot be inscribed in any other semicircle which is either
;

greater or less than

this,

and whose diameter

is

the undeter-

mined

side.

The given
whose sum

sides
is

AB, BC, CD, DE,


But
4*

are the chords of arcs

180 degrees.

in

a larger

circle,

each

82

ISOPERIMETRY.
less

would be the chord of a


fore

number

of degrees, and there-

the

sum

of the .arcs

would be

less

than 180

and in a

each would be the chord of a greater number of degrees, and the sum of the arcs would be greater than
smaller
circle,

180.

Proposition IV.
84.

A polygon inscribed

in

a circle has a

greater area,

than any polygon of equal perimeter, and the same number of sides, which cannot he inscribed in a circle.
If in the circle

ACHF,

(Fig.

30.) there be inscribed a

polygon ABCDEFG and if another polygon ahcdefg (Fig. 31.) be formed of sides which are the same in number and
;

length, but which are so disposed, that the figure cannot be inscribed in a circle; the area of the former polygon is

greater than that of the latter. Draw the diameter AH, and the chords

DH

and EH.

Upon

de

and join
parts, of

make the triangle deh equal and ah. The line ah divides the figure

similar to

DEH,

abcdhefg into two

which one at least cannot, by supposition, be inscribed in a semicircle of which the diameter is AH, nor in
any other semicircle of which the diameter is the undetermined side. (Art. 83.) It is therefore less than the corresponding part of the figure
the other part of abcdhefg

ABCDHEFG.

(Art. 81.)

And

is

not greater than the correspond-

ISOPERIMETRY.
ing part
of

83
the whole figure

ABCDHEFiS.
is

Therefore,

If greater than the whole figure ahcdhefy. from these there be taken the equal triangles DEU and dch, there will remain the polygon ABCDEFG greater than the

ABCDIIEFG

polygon ahcdcfg.
85.

polygon of which

all

the sides are given in

num-

ber and length, cannot be inscribed in circles of different And the area of the polygon will not diameters. (Art. 83.)

be altered by changing the order of the sides. (Art. 82.)

Proposition V.
86.
the

When a polygon has a greater area than any other, of same number of sides, and of equal perimeter, the sides are

EQUAL.

The polygon ABCDF (Fig. 29.) cannot be a maximum, among all


polygons of the same number of sides, and of equal perimeters, unif any and FD, are unequal, let CH and FH be lual, and their sum the same as lie sum of CD and FD. The
it

less

be equilateral.
sides, as

For

two of the

CD

')sceles

triangle

CHF

is

greater than the scalene triangle

L'DF (Art. 19.); and therefore the polygon


greater than the polygon

ABCIIF
is

is

ABCDF

so that the latter

not

a maximum,

PBOP08inoN*VL
87.

other polygon of equal perimeter,


sides.

REQULAB POLraoN has a greater area than any and of the same number of

84
For,

ISOPERIMETRY

by

tlie

preceding

article,. tlie

polygon which

is

a max-

others of equal perimeters, and the same number of sides, is equilateral, and by Art. 84, it may be inscribed in a circle.

imum among

But
is

if

a polyequilat-

gon

inscribed in a circle

is

eral, as

ABDFGH, it
For the

also equian-

gular.

sides of the

polygon

are the bases of so


triangles,

many isosceles whose common vertex is


The angles
;

the centre C.

at these

bases are
as

all

equal

and two of them,

AHC

and

the polygon,

GHC, are equal to AHG one of the angles of ^he polygon, then, being equiangular, as well
is

as equilateral,

re^z^Zar polygon.

(Art.

1.

Def. 2.)

equilateral triangle has a greater area, than any And a square has a other triangle of equal perimeter. greater area than any other four-sided figure of equal pe-

Thus an

rimeter;

Cor. regular polygon has a less perimeter than any other polygon of equal area, and the same number of
sides.

For if, with a given perimeter, the regular polygon is greater than one which is not regular ; it is evident the perimeter of the former must be diminished, to make its area
equal to that of the
latter.

Proposition VII.
88. If a polggon he BESCRiBEB about a circle, the areas of the two figures are as their ^perimeters.

Let

ST be

one of the sides of a polygon, either regular or

ISOPERIMETRY.

85

AA
\/o
1

isorKiiiM!:juv.

87
vf

perimeter
i

is

& minimurn

hen the base

is

1.
^

(Art. 87. Cor.)

But the

lateral surface is

s the perimeter. (Art- ^y.)^ Of two right prisms, then, vhich have the same altitude, the same solidity, and the

me number
iias

of sides, that whose bases are regular polygons the least lateral surface, while the areas of the ends are

equal.

Cor. right prism whose bases are regular polygons has a greater solidity, than any other right prism of the same surface, the same altitude, and the same number of sides.

PROPosmoN
91.

X.
surface than

A
if

right
the

cruNDER has a

less

any

right

prism of For

same altitude and

solidity.

the prism and cylinder have the same altitude and

But (Art. 64.) the perimeter of the cylinder is less, than that of the prism and therefore its lateral surface is less, (Art. 89. Cor. 1.)
solidity, the areas of their bases are equal.
;

while the areas of the ends are equal.


Cor.

right cylinder has a greater solidity, than

any right

prism of the same altitude and surface.

PuorosiTioN XI.
92.

CUBE has a
the

less

surface titan

any

other right paral-

lelepiped of

same

solidity.

parallelepiped

is

a prism, any one of whose faces

may

be considered a base. (Art. 41. Def. I and V.) If these are not all squares, let one which is not a square be taken for a The perimeter of this may be diminished, without base.
altering its area (Art. 87. Cor.);

and therefore the surface

88
of
tlie

ISOPERIMETRY.
solid

may be

diminislied, without altering

its

altitude

The same may be proved of or solidity. (Art. 43, 47.) each of the other faces which are not squares. The surface
is
is,

therefore a

minimum, when
is

all the faces are squares, that

when

the solid

a cuhc.

cube has a greater solidity than any other right Cor. parallelopiped of the same surface.

Proposition XII.
^93.
to ike

CUBE has a greater

solidity than

any

other right par-

allelojriped, the

sum

breadth and depth, is equal the corresponding dimensions of the cube. of

sum of whose length,

The

solidity is equal to the


If

and depth.
solidity

the length and

product of the length, breadth, breadth are unequal, the

may be

three dimensions.

increased, without altering the sum of the For the product of two factors whose

sum

is

In the same manner, if* the breadth and (Euc. depth are unequal, the solidity may be increased, without
Therefore, the altering the sum of the three dimensions. solid cannot be a maximum, unless its length, breadth, and

given, 27. 6.)

is

the greatest

when

the factors are equal.

depth are equal.

Proposition XIII.
94.

If a PRISM BE

cap>acities

DESCRIBED ABOUT A CYLINDER, of the two solids are as their surfaces.

the

capacities of the solids are as the areas of their bases, as the perimeters of their bases. (Art. 88.) But the lateral surfaces are also as the perimeters of the bases.

The

that

is,

Therefore the whole surfaces are as the


Cor.

solidities.

The capacities of different prisms, described about the same right cylinder, are to each other as their surfaces.

ISOrERIMETUY.

80

Proposition XIV.
J...

right cylinder
ITS

whose height

is

equal to the
t/iak

DIAMETER OF

BASE hos a greater solidity

any

other

right cylinder of equal surface.

Let

be a
its

rij^ht

cylinder

whose

ameter of

base

and

C another right cylinder having the


If a square prism

lieight is equal to the di-

same

surface, but a different altitude.

be described about the former, it square prism P' described about the

will

be a cube.

But a

latter will not

be a cube.

Then the
and 88.)
7,
;

are as their bases (Art. 47. and P', (Sup. Euc. which arc as the bases of

surfaces of

C and P

1.); 80 that,

surf C

aurfV

base

base

V base C mrfV.
:
:

base P'

surfC \

is, by supposition, equal to the surTherefore, (Alg. 396.) the surface of P is equal And by the preceding article, to the surface of P'.

But the surface of C

face of

solid

solid

surfP

sur/C
:

siirfV

surfC

solid

solid

C.

Cut the
Cor.)

solidity of P is greater than that of P'. (Art. 92. Therefore the solidity of C is greater than that of C.

Schol.

A right
its

ameter of
is

base,

cylinder whose height is equal to the diis that which circumscribes a It sjihere.
;

also called

Archimedes* cylinder
its

as

ratio of

a sphere to

circumscribing cylinder

he discovered the and these


;

are the figures which were put

upon

his tomb.

Cor. Archimedes* cylinder has a less surface^ than any other right cylinder of the same capacity. -Mt^'*

90

ISOPERIMETRY.

Proposition XY.
96.

If a SPHERE BE CIRCUMSCRIBED hy a
the capacities

'plane surfaces ;

solid hounded hy of the two solids are as their

surfaces.

If planes be supposed to be drawn from the centre of the sphere, to each of the edges of the circumscribing soHd,

faces.

they will divide it into as many pyramids as the solid has The base of each pyramid will be one of the faces
;

and the height

The sphere. capacity of the pyramid will be equal, therefore, to its base multiplied into -^ of the radius (Art. 48.) and the capacity of the whole circumscribing solid, must be equal to its whole
will

be the radius

of

the

surface multiplied into ^ of the radius. But the capacity of the sphere is also equal to its surface multiplied into ^ of its
radius.

(Art.

'70.)

Cor. The capacities of same sphere, are as their

different solids circumscribing the surfaces.

Proposition XVI.
97.

SPHERE has a greater

solidity than

any

7'egularpoly-

edron of equal suyface.


If a sphere

and a regular polyedron have the same


;

centre,

and equal surfaces


fall

partly 2vithin

each of the faces of the polyedron must For the solidity of a circumthe sphere.

scriUng solid is greater than the solidity of the sphere, as the one includes the other and therefore, by the preceding article, the surface of the former is greater than that of the
:

latter.

But if the faces of the polyedron fall partly within the sphere, their perpendicular distance from the centre must be less than the radius. And therefore, if the surface of the

180PERIMETRY.

91
its

polyedron be only equal to that of the sphere,

solidity

solidity of the polyedron is equal to its surface multiplied into -J of the distance from the centre. And the solidity of the sphere is equal to its (Art. 59.) surface multiplied into -^ of the radius.
less.

must be

For the

Cor. sphere has a less surface than any regular polyedron of the same capacity.

APPENDIX
GAUGING OF CASKS.
Art. 119. Gauging
is

mit of being treated in a very

a practical art, which does not adscientific manner. Casks are

not commonly constructed in exact conformity with any regular mathematical figure. By most writers on the subject,

however, they are considered as nearly coinciding with one of the following forms
r

1. 2.

^,

^^^ ^^^^^" ^^^'*^^


i

.-,,,/.

3.'

I
f )

4.

..! frustums The equal ^...,.. ^


rri..

S ]

of a spheroid, of a parabolic spindle. ^f a paraboloid. of a cone.


.

The second

of these varieties agrees

more nearly than any

of the others, with the forms of casks, as they are commonly made. The first is too much curved, the third too
little,

and the fourth not

at

all,

from the head to the bung.

120. Rules have already been given, for finding the capacity of each of the four varieties of casks. (Arts. 68, 110,

112, 118.)

As

the dimensions are taken in mcAes, these rules

will give the contents in cubic inches.

To abridge

the com-

putation,

and adapt

it

to the

gauging, the factor .'7854 is the quotient is used instead of .7854, for finding the capacity in ale gallons or

particular measures used in divided by 282 or 231 ; and

wine gallons.

GAUGING.

9S

Now ^^rr^ =.002785,


And -l^^.OOSi
231
If then .0028

or .0028 nearly

and .0034 be substituted

for .'7854, in the

rules referred to above; the contents of the cask will be

given in ale gallons and wine gallons. to eacli other nearly as 9 to 11.

These numbers are

Problem

I.

To

calculate the contents of

a cask, in

the form

of a middle

frustum of a spheroid.
121. Add together the square of the head diameter, and twice the square of the bung diameter multiply the sum by ^ of the length, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or
:

by .0034
If

for

wine gallons.
;

and fl?=the two diameters, and /=the length

The

capacity in inches=(2D'+c?')Xi/X.'7854. (Art. 110.)


substituting .0028 or .0034 for .7854,

And by
Ex.

we have

the capacity in ale gallons or wine gallons.

What

is

the capacity of a cask of the


its

first
its

form,

whose length is 30 inches, diameter 24 ?

head diameter 18, and

bung

Ans. 41.3 ale gallons, or 50.2 wine gallons.

Problem

II.

To

calculate

t/u:

contents of

a cask, in

the

form of

tlie

mid-

dle frustum of a

parabouc spixdle.

122. Add together the square of the head diameter, and twice the square of the bung diameter, and from the sum

94

GAUGING.

subtract | of the square of the difference of the diaraeters ; multiply the remainder by -^ of the length, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.

The capacity in .Y854. (Art. 118.)


Ex.

inches

={2J)^+cPl

(Ddy)xX

What

is

the capacity of a cask of the second form,


inches,
its

whose length is 30 bung diameter 24 ?

head diameter

18,

and

its

Ans. 40.9

ale gallons, or 49.7

wine gallons.

Problem

III.

To

calculate the contents of a cask, in the

form of two equal

frustums of a paraboloid.
123. Add together the square of the head diameter, and the square of the bung diameter multiply the sum by half the length, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or
;

.0034 for wine gallons.

The capacity
Cor.)

in inches

=(D'+d')xilX.'7854.

(Art. 112

Ex.

What

is

the capacity of a cask of the third form,


are, as before, 30, 18,

whose dimensions

and 24

Ans. 37.8 ale gallons, or 45.9 wine gallons.

Problem IV.

To

calculate the contents of a cash, in the form of tivo equal

frustums of a

coine.

124. Add together the square of the head diameter, the square of the bung diameter, and the product of the two diameters multiply the sum by \ of the length, and the product by.0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.
;

The capacity

in

inches=(D-+c^'+Dc?)x-J^X.7854. (Art. 68.)

GAUGINO.
Ex.

95

What

is
is

the capacity of a cask of the fourth form,


30, and its diameters 18 and 24 ?
.ale

whoso length

Ans. 37.3

gallons, or 45.3 wine gallons.

12o. The precedini^ rules, though correct in theory, are not very well adapted to practice, as they suppose the form of the cask to be Jcnoion^ The two following rules, taken from Hut ton's Mensuration, may be used for casks of the

For the first, three dimensions are required, usual forms. It the length, the head diameter, and the bung diameter. is evident tliat no allowance is made by this, for different If the degrees of curvature from the head to the bung.
cask
is

more or

less

curved than usual, the following rule

is

which /owr dimensions are required, the head and bung diameters, and a third diameter taken in the middle between the bung and the head. For the demonto be preferred, for

stration of these rules, see Hutton's Mensuration, Part

V.

Sec. 2. Ch. 5

and

7.

Problem V.

To

calculate the contents of

any common

cask,

from three

dimcnsums.
126.

Add

together

25 times the square of the head diameter, 39 times the square of the bung diameter, and 20 times the product of the two diameters
;

Multiply the sum by the length, divide the product by 90, and multiply the quotient by .0028 for ale gallons, or .0034
for

wine gallons.
in

The capacity
Ex. Wliat
inches, the

inches=(39 D'-f25cr'4-26D(/)x
the capacity of a cjisk

- X. 7854.
is

is

whose length

30

head diameter 18, and the bung diameter 24? Ans, 39 ale gallons, or 47^ wine gallons.

96

GAUGING.

Problem VI.

2h

calculate the contents of a cask from

four dimensions,

the

length, the

in the

head and hung diameters, and a diameter taken middle between the head and the hung.

127. Add together the squares of the head diameter, of the bung diameter, and of double the middle diameter multiply the sum by -^ of the length, and the product by
;

.0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.


If

D=the bung
in

diameter, c:?=the head diameter,


;

m=the

middle diameter, and Z=the length

The capacity
Ex.

inches=(D'-|-c?'+2m^)Xi?X.'7854.
is

What

is

the capacity of a cask, whose length

30

head diameter 18, the bung diameter 24, and the middle diameter 22^ ? Ans. 41 ale gallons, or 49| wine gallons.
inches, the

128. In making the calculations in gauging, according to


the preceding rules, the multiplications and divisions are frequently performed by means of a Sliding Rule, on which

are placed a number of logarithmic lines, similar to those on See Trigonometry, Sec. VI., and Note C. Gunter's Scale.
p. 149.

Another instniment commonly used


Diagonal Rod.

in

gauging

is

the

the capacity of a cask is very expeditiously found, from a single dimension, the distance from the bung to the intersection of the opposite stave with the

By

this,

head
is

but this process

is

not considered sufficiently accurate

for casks of a capacity exceeding

40

gallons.

The measure

taken by extending the rod through the cask, from the bung to the most distant part of the head. The number of

marked on the

gallons corresponding to the length of the line thus found, is rod. The logarithmic lines on the gauging

GAUGING.

97

rod are to be used in the same manner, as on the sliding


rule.

ULLAGE OF CASKS.
129.

divided,
least

a cask is partly filled, the whole capacity is by the surface of the liquor, into two portions the of which, whether full or empty, is called the ullage.
;

When

In finding the ullage,

t]e

cask

is

supposed to be in one of
its

two

positions
;

either standinr/, with

axis perpendicular to

the horizon

oj- lyi7i(/,

with

its

axis parallel to the horizon.

The

rules for ullage which are exact, particularly those for The follying casks, are too complicated for common use. lowing are considered as sufficiently near approximations.

See Hutton's Mensuration.

Problem VII.

To
130.

calculate the ullage of a

standing

cask.

Add

together the squares of the diameter at the sur-

face of the liquor, of the diameter of the nearest end,

of double the diameter in the middle between the other

and two
;

multiply the sum by \ of the distance between the surface and the nearest end, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.
If

D=the

diameter of the surface of the liquor,

rf=the diameter of the nearest end, m=the middle diameter, and

/=the distance between the surface and the nearest end


The ullage
in

inches=(D'+rf'+2m^)Xi/X-V8o4.

Ex. If the diameter at the surface of the liquor, in a standing cask, be 32 inches, the diameter of the nearest end 24,
the middle diameter 29, and the distance between the sur5

98
face of the liquor

GAUGING.

and the nearest end

what

is

the ul-

lage?

Ans. 2li ale gallons, or 33^ wine gallons.

Problem VIII.

To

calculate the ullage of a lying cask.

131. Divide the distance from the buna: to the surface of the liquor, by the whole bung diameter, find the quotient in the column of heights or versed sines in a table of circular segments, take out the corresponding segment, and multiply
it

by the whole capacity

of the cask,

and the product by

1-^

for the part which is empty. If the cask be not half full, divide the depth of the liquor

by the whole bung diameter, take out the segment, multiply,


&c., for the contents of the part

which

is full.

Ex. If the whole capacity of a lying cask be 41 ale galwine gallons, the bung diameter 24 inches and the distance from the bung to the surface of the liquor 6
lons, or 49-f

inches

what

is

the ullage

Ans.

Vf- ale gallons,

or 9^ Avine gallons.

NOTES
Note A.
p. 39.
,

The term

solidity i

used here in the customary sense, to

express the magnitude of any geometrical quantity of three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness whether it be a
;

solid body, or a fluid, or even a portion of

empty

space.

This

use of the word, however, is not altogether free from objection. The same term is applied to one of the general properties of matter and also to that peculiar quality by which
;

There distinguished from fluids. seems to be an impropriety in speaking of the solidity of a body of water^ or of a vessel which is ejnpty. Some writers have therefore substituted the word volume for solidity. But
latter term, if it be properly defined, without danger of leading to mistake.

certain substances are

the

may

be retained

Note
The following simple
or of any cylinder,
is

B. p. 76.

rule for the solidity of


:

round timber,

nearly exact

Multiply

the length into twice the square


fereiice.

of ^ of

the circum,'

If

C=the

circumference of a cylinder;

The area of the


It is

base=-^=^^ But 2(^\ =-^14^ 12.566 \5/ 12.5


by multiplying the
This gives ex-

common

to mea.siire heton timber,

length into the square of the quarter-ffirt.

100

NOTES.

are squares. actly the solidity of a parallelopiped, if tLc ends the area of each is less if the ends are parallelograms, than the square of the quarter-girt. (Euc. 27. 6.)

But

Timber which is taiKring may be exactly measured by the rule for the frustum of a pyramid or cone (Art. 50, 68.)
;

or, if

the ends are not similar figures,

by the

rule for a pris-

moid. (Art. 55.)


ficient to

But for common purposes, it will be sufthe length by the area of a section in the multiply middle between the two ends.

14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED

LOAN DEPT.
This book

due on the last date stamped below, or on the date to which renewed. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.
is

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General Library University of California Berkeley