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$B 527 633

m MEMORIAL

Irving Strlngham

-^

PRACTICAL APPLICATION

OF

TO THB

MENSURATION

or

DAmB TO

THE METHOD OP INSTRUCTION

IN SCHOOLS

AND ACADEMXEB.

BY JEREMIAH DAY,

I.4TS

PUMOBBT

Or

NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED BY MARK

No. 199

H.

NEWMAN

<k

CO.,

BROADWAY.

1848.

Entered, according

to

JEREMIAH DAY,

In the Clerk's OfBce of the District Court of the Unitd Southern District of New York.

States for the

THOMAS

B.

SMITH, STERKOTTPER,

J. D.

BEDFORD, PRINTER,

CONTENTS,

Sectioh

L Areas

II.

The Quadrature

...

. .

5

19

34 37

66

m.

rV.

The

76

V. Isoperimetry,

78

APPENDIX

Gauging of Casks,

Notes,

92

99

SECTION

I.

Art.

1.

The following

definitions,

same as

reference.

to I. Four-sided figures have different names, according the relative position and length of the sides. parallelogram has its opposite sides equal and parallel, as ABCD.

1 r

D|

1

|C

'

'

'

a'

1

its

;

(Fig. 2.)

site

A rectangle,

and

as

all its

oppo-

sides equal,

sides equal,

as

AC.

(Fig. 1.)

;

and

all its

angles

all its

right angles

ABGH.

(Fig. 3.)

A rhxmibus

has

\

as

ABCD.

its

(Fig. 3.)

A

\^

[ual,

and

as

ABCD.

;

parallel

is

angles obUque

its

two of

sides

figilre

(Fig. 4.)

Any

called

a trapezium.

6

II.

polygon.

its

A figure which has more than four sides is called a A regular polygon has all its sides equal, and all

is

dicular,

of the

figure

is the perpendicular distance between two of its par-

allel sides

as

CP. (Fig.

4.)

IV. The area or superficial contents of a figure is the space contained within the line or lines by which the figure

is

bounded.

2. In calculating areas, some particular portion of surface fixed upon, as the measuring unit, with which the given

is

figure is to be compared.

This

is

commonly a square

as a

square inch, a square foot, a square rod, &c. For this reason, determining the quantity of surface in a figure is called squaring it, or finding its quadrature ; that is, finding a

square or number of squares to which it is equal. 3. The superficial unit has generally the same name, as the linear unit which forms the side of the square.

The

superficial measures,

no corresponding denominations of length. The acre, for instance, is not a square which has a line of the same name

for its side.

The following

com-

mon

Linear Measures.

is

or rhomboid

ABCD,

(Fig. 2.)

GHCD.

equal to the length multiplied into the HC. And the rhombus ABCD, (Fig. 3.) perpendicular height is equal to ihe parallelogram ABGH. As the sides of a

area, therefore,

is

AB

square are

all

equal,

its

area

is

Ex.

long,

2.

1.

feet

and 18

broad

Ans.

23^X18=423.

is

What

66

feet square ?

3.

Ans. 4356

sq.

feet=16

sq. rods.

How many

is

room which

square feet are there in the four sides of a 22 feet long, 1*7 feet broad, and 11 feet high ?

Ans. 858.

5. If the sides and angles of a parallelogram are the perpendicular height may be easily found by triggiven, onometry. Thus, (Fig. 2.) is the perpendicular of a right angled triangle, of which BC is the hypothenuse.

Art.

CH

R

The area

the length

is

BC

sin

CH.

obtained by multiplying

CH

AB.

*

Thomson's Legendre,

1. 5.

Or, to reduce the two operations to one,

As

radius,

;

To the sine of any angle of a parallelogram So is the product of the sides including that To the area of the parallelogram.

For

the

angle,

arm=ABxCH, (Fig.

2.)

But

CH=^^^^'"

Therefore,

: :

ABxBC

thearea.

AB

be 58 rods,

BC

?

63,

what

is

As To

(

radius

10.00000

the sine of

is

63

9.94988

1.76343

So

the product of

AB

Into

BC

(Trig. 39.)

58 42

2170.5

1.62325

sq. rods 3.33656

To the area

2.

If the

73**,

side of a

rhombus

is

67

feet,

feet.

angles

C.

what

is

the area ?

Ans. 4292.7

the dimensions are given in feet and inches, the multiplication may be conveniently performed by the arith-

When

ination

is

in

which each

inferior

denom-

one-twelfth of the next higher. Considering a foot as the measuring unit, a prime is the twelfth part of a foot ;

It is to

;

be ob-

superficial

of a foot.

but in measure they are seconds. In both, a prime is -^ But iV of a square foot is a parallelogram, a foot

inch, w^hich is i -J y of

The

foot.

is

a square

a square

10

Ex.

1.

What

is

by

2 feet 1 inches.

F

9 2

5'

'7

18 10

5 5

11

24

2.

11^

or 24 feet 47 inches.

How many

window 4

feet

11 inches high, and 3 feet 5 inches broad ? Ans. 16 F. 9' 1", or 16 feet 115 inches.

Y.

If the area

given side.

and one side of a parallelogram be given, may be found by dividing the area hy the

if the area of a square be given, the side extracting the square root of the area. This

And

may be found by

is

Ex.

1

.

in Art. 4.

is

What

is

Ans. If yds.

2.

What

is

?

3. How many yards of carpeting 1^ yard wide, will cover a floor 30 feet long and 22^- broad ?

Ans.

30X22ifeet=10xH='75

yds.

And '75-Mi=60.

is

4. What is the side of a square which allelogram 936 feet long and 104 broad ?

5.

equal to a par-

dow

How many panes of 8 by 10 glass are there, in a win5 feet high, and 2 feet 8 inches broad ?

11

Problem

II.

To find

8.

the area

of a triangle.

Rule L

side

by the perpendicular, Or, multiply the whole side the perpendicular and take half the product. The area of the triangle ABC,

by

equal to ^

PC X AB,

because

allelogram.

is

Ex.

1.

If

AB

be 65

feet,

and

PC

31.2,

what

is

the area

feet.

of the triangle?

is

2. What is the surface of a triangular board, whose base 3 feet 2 inches, and perpendicular height 2 feet 9 inches ? Ans. 4 F. 4' 3", or 4 feet 51 inches.

two sides of a triangle and the included angle, are the perpendicular on one of these sides may be easily given, And the area may be found by rectangular trigonometry.

9.

If

calculated in the

same man-

ABC,

R BC

:

sin

CH

is

And

*

Thomson's Legendre,

2. 4.

12

radius,

;

As

To the sine of any angle of a triangle So is the product of the sides including that To twice the area of the triangle. (Art. 5.)

Ex. If

angle,

65

7'

AC be 39 feet, AB and the angle at A 53 feet, 48", what is the area of the

1014 square feet.

and the angles

&.

triangle ? Ans.

9.

If one side

;

then are given As the product of radius and the sine of the angle opposite the given side,

To the product of the sines of the two other angles; So is the square of the given side. To twice the area of the triangle.

If

PC

be perpendicular to AB.

sin

R ACB

:

sin

sin

BC

AB

: :

CP BC

BC

RX

AB^

:

AB X BC CP X sin A X sin B sin ACB ABxCP twice the area of the triangle.

:

feet,

is

sq. feet.

Ans. 1147

may

be found, by oblique trigonometry, Case IV, and then the perpendicular and the area may be calculated. But the area

may

Rule II. When the three sides are given, from half their sum subtract each side severally, multiply together the lialf sum and the three femainders, and extract the square root of

the product.

If the sides of the triangle are a,

their

h,

13

and

c,

andif A=half

sum, then

The area=Vhx{hra)x{fir-h)X{hc)

Ex.

1.

In the triangle

ABC,

;

as

tlio Irianrjle.

^a=26

A6=39 Ac=13

feet.

By

The

half

logarithms.

sum

14

The area

ABCD,

sum

is

of the sides

AB

or

of

PC

AH.

made up

ABC

into

and

ADC

of which is equal to the product the perpendicular PC, (Art. 8.) and the area of the other is equal to the product of half the

;

first

AB

base

DC

If

AH

or

PC.

38,

Ex.

70,

AB

is

: :

be 46

feet,

BC

31,

DC

?

what

sin

BC

which has two par?

2.

What

allel sides

Problem IV.

To find

the area

13. Divide the whole figure into triangles, by drawing DIAGONALS, AND FIND THE SUM OF THE AREAS OF THESE triangles. (Alg. 394.)

If the perpendiculars in two triangles fall upon the sa?ne diagonal, the area of the trapezium formed of the two trianis equal to half the gles,

ABCH,

is

iBHxALH-iBHxCM=iBHx(AL+CM.)

Ex. In the irregular polygon

ABCDH,

15

BH=36

'

if

the diagonals

(

)

-^^=5.3

CM =9.3

of a trapezium are given, the area found, nearly in the same manner as the area of a parallelogram in Art. 5, and the area of a triangle in Art. 9.

14. If the diagonals

may be

In the trapezium

ABCD,

N, 4he point of

all

intersec-

equal.

acute

the

90.)

for Putting, then, sin the sine of each of these angles, the areas of the four triangles of which the trapezium is composed, are given by the

following proportions

(Art. 9.)

sin

2 arm ABN"

: : :

2arxBCN

2

arm arm

CDN ADN

And by

8inN::BNxAN+BNxCN+DNxCN+DNxAN:

2 area

ABCD.

The 3d

the figure.

term=(AN4-CN)x(BN+DN)=ACxBD, by

Therefore

sin

N :: AC X BD

Euchd,

2, 5.

Cor.

16

As

Radius,

sine of the angle at the intersection of the

;

To the

diagonals of a trapezium

It is evident that this rule is applicable to a parallelogram, as well as to a trapezium. If the diagonals intersect at right angles, the sine of IST is equal to radius ; (Trig. 95.) and therefore the product of the

diagonals

is

If the two diagonals of a trapezium are 3*7 and 62, they intersect at an angle of 54, what is the area of the trapezium ? Ans. 928.

Ex.

1.

and

if

2.

?

inter-

section 74,

what

is

Problem V.

To find

15.

the area

of a regular polygon.

its sides

Multiply one of

into the

CENTRE,

number of

SIDES.

figure has sides.

many equal

triangles as the

ABDFGH

equal to

ABC.

The area

of one of

them

CP.

equal to the product of the side AB, into half the perpendicular

is

(Art. 8.)

therefore, is

*

Euclid, 14. 5.

E3C

1.

17

What

is

is

length of a side

the area of a regular octagon, in which the 60, and the perpendicular from the centre

72.42G?

Ans. 17382.

2. What is the area of a regular decagon whose sides are 46 each, and the perpendicular 70.7867 ?

polygon be given, the perpendicular from the centre may be The periphery of the circle easily found by trigonometry. in which the polygon is inscribed, is divided into as many

equal parts as the polygon has sides. (Euc. 16.4. Schol.)* The arc, of which one of the sides is a chord, is therefore

known

Let

circle

be one side of a regular polygon inscribed in the The perpendicular CP bisects the Imo AB,

3. 3.)t

this arc.

AB

ABDG.

polygon.

radius, (Trig. 122.)

Therefore,

BCP

if

is

the

BP

is

BCP,

BP

be

R

As

To So To

Ex.

is

1.

BP

cot

BCP

CP.

That

is.

Radius,

half of one of the sides of the polygon is the cotangent of the opposite angle.

;

hexagon be 38

inches,

what

the area ?

Then,

19

cot 30*

32.909=CP,

the perpendicular.

And

the

area=10X 32.909X6=3751.6

2. 5. Schol.

Thomson's Lcgendre,

Ibid. 6. 2.

18

2.

What

is

each 62 feet

lY.

Ans. 29576.

the proportion in the preceding article, a table of perpendiculars and areas may be easily formed, for a series

of polygons, of

(Trig. 100.)

From

is

a unit.

Putting

R=l,

360

comes

1

*

t -2

cot

the

perpendicular

So

2n

equal to half the product of the perpendicular into the number of sides. (Art. 15.) Thus, in the trigon, or equilateral triangle, the perpendicthe area

is

And

360

ular=^

cot.

4 cot

60

= 0.2886752.

360

cot'

And

the area=0.4330127.

=-^ cot 45

= 0.5.

And

"8~

the area=l.

In this manner, the following table is formed, in which the side of each polygon is supposed to be a unit.

Names.

^.

1#

By this table may be calculated the area of any other regular polygon, of the same number of sides with one of these. For the areas of similar polygons are as the squares of their

homologous

sides. (Euc. 20. 0.)* then, the area of a regular polygon, multiply the square of one of its sides by tlce area of a similar polygon of

To

find,

Ex.

1.

is

a

is

unit.

What

?

2.

What

is

SECTION

II.

ITS PARTS.

line

Art. 18. Definition I. circle is a plane bounded by a which is equally distant in ail its parts from a point

The bounding

line is called

the

An arc is any portion of the circumference or periphery. semi-circle is half, and a quadrant onecircumference.

fourth of a circle.

II.

is

is

through

Radius

a straidit line which joins the

a

circumference.

III.

Circular Sector

is

arc.

two

*

radii

1. 5.

Thomson's Legendre

Cor.

20

It

MENSURATION

01<'

THE CIRCLE.

may

TV.

be

less

than a semi-circle, as

AC BO,

or greater, as

ACBD.

Segment is the space contained between an arc and its chord, as ABOorABD. The chord is sometimes called the base of the

is

Circular

PO.

the space

as

V.

Circular Zone

is

between

two

parallel

chords,

AGHB.

zone,

It is

called

the middle

are

equal, as

GHDE.

Circular

VI.

of

Ring

is

two concentric

circles, as

VII.

lar arcs

which

the Circle

is

ACBD.

(Fig. 14.)

19.

The Squaring of

exercised the ingenuity of distinguished mathematicians for many centuries. The result of their efforts has been only

ried to a degree of exactness far for practical purposes.

beyond what

necessary

f

21

20. If

were known,

the circumference of a circle of given diameter its area could be l\or the area is easily found.

equal to the product of half the circumference into half the diameter. (Sup. Euc. 5, l.*)t But the circumference of a circle has never been exactly determined. The method of

gons, or

it is by inscribing and circumscribing polyby some process of calculation which is, in principle, The perimeters of the polygons can be easily the same. and exactly determined. That which is circumscribed is

approximating to

greater,

;

is

inscribed

is

less,

phery of the circle and by increasing the number of sides, the difference of the two polygons may be made less than

4, 1.)

chord of an arc of 60, and therefore equal to the radius. (Trig. 95.)

The chord

is

BO,

arc,

and finding the chord, we may obtain the side of a polygon of an immense

number

of sides.

Or we may

which

will

of double the arc, (Trig. 82, cor.,) and the tangent, which will be half the side of a similar circumscribed polygon. Thus the sine AP, is half of AB, a side of the inscribed

hexagon

is half of NT, a side of the and the tangent circumscribed hexagon. The difference between the sine is less than the difference between the sine and the arc

;

NO

AO

is

the whole circumference.

*

obtained which

is

the ^ i\ii of

In

this

t TtioinMn's Legendre, 11. 5.

to in

this

work.

22

cosine of this,

sine is

if

The The

radius be

1, is

found to be .99999996'732

.00025566546

93.)

And

The

the

diff.

tangent=i^(Trig.

cosine

=.00025566347

And

between the sine and tangent is only .00000000001 the diflference between the sine and the arc is still less.

Taking then, .000255663465 for the length of the- arc, multiplying by 24576, and retaining 8 places of decimals, we have 6.28318531 for the whole circumference, the radius

being

1.

Half of

this,

3.14159265

is

is

-^j

and diam-

eter 1.

by

7,

the product

is

21.99+or

22 nearly.

So

that,

Diam

If

Circum

22, nearly.

is

3.14159265

nearly.

:

So

:

that,

Diam

Circum

113

The first of these ratios was demonstrated by Archimedes. There are various methods, principally by infinite series and fluxions, by which the labor of carrying on the approximation to the periphery of a circle may be very much The calculation has been extended to nearly 150 abridged.

places

for

of decimals.

But four or

After determining the ratio between the diameter and the circumference of a circle, the following problems are easily

solved.

2S

Problem

To find

23.

the

I.

circitmference of a

Or,

41 59*^

hy 22 and divide the product hy *l. Or, Multiply the diameter by 355, and divide the product by multiply

the diameter

Ex.

is

1.

what

the circimiference ?

2.

How many

;

diameter

8.

is

miles does the earth move, in revolving supposing the orbii to be a circle whose

?

is

is

Ans. 596,902,100.

What

?

V69843 rods

Problem

II.

To find

the

diameter of a

circumference by 3.1

Or,

41 59*

Multiply

22.

the circumference

by

Y,

and

Or, multiply the circumference by 113, and divide the product by 355. (Art. 22.)

Ex.

1.

what

2.

is

his

diameter?

25.

What is the diameter of a tree which is 5^ feet round ? As multiplication is more easily performed than divisbe an advantage in exchanging the divisor

3.1416 will be sufficiently accurate.

* In

many caset,

24

result.

In the proportion 3.14159

:

Circum

Diam.

first,

we may

by the

and multiply the quotient into the third. Xow, 1-^ 3.14159=0.31831. If, then, the circumference of a circle be multiplied by .31831, the product will be the diameter.

Ex.

1.

?

moon be 6850

miles,

Ans. 2180. 2. If the whole extent of the orbit of Saturn be 5650 million miles, how far is he from the siin ?

is

what

her diameter

3.

its

is

Problem To find

26.

the length

III.

circle.

of an arc of a

As

360,

to the

number of degrees

tlie

in the arc ;

So

is the

circumference of

circle, to the

The circumference

(Trig. 73.)

it is

of a circle being divided into 360jflH|L evident that the length of an arc of any less

number

Ex.

radius

of degrees

is

What

is

50

feet ?

The circumference

Then 360

2.

:

of the circle

is

314.159

:

feet.

(Art. 23.)

16

314.159

13.96

feet.

If

we

it

in

24 hours?

27.

and if the 365i days, how far are we carried Ans. 1 million 634 thousand miles.

in

The length of an arc may also be found, by multiplythe diameter into the number of degrees in the arc, and ing

MBNSURATION OF THE

product into .0087266, which gree, in a circle whose diameter is

this

is

CIRCIJB.

25

1.

0.00872 60.

And

Ex.

1.

What

is

?

2. If

is

what

28. The length of an arc is frequently required, when the number of degrees is not given. But if the radius of the circle, and either the cliord or the fieight of the arc, be

known

may

;

the angles at

AP

4.)

l.)t

As the height, of the arc AOB. P are right angles, and is equal to BP; (Art. 18. Def.

AO

is

equal to

BO. (Euc.

4,

Then,

)

BP is the sine, and CP the cosine, OP the versed sine, and BO the chord,

And

in the right angled triangle

^^

)

^^ . ^j^^ ^^ ^^^

GBP,

or

PR

Ex.

1.

is

R

radius

^1*

i

i

sin

BCP

BO.

CP

cosBCPorBO.

the chord

If the

CO=25, and

AB=43.3;

what

:

AOB ?

or

CB

BP

sin

BCP

The circumference

Ajid 360

*

:

:

60

157.08

26.18=OB. Therefore,AOB=62.36.

10. b.

Thomson's Legendre,

Ibid., 5. 1.

26

/

2.

What

is

is

is

216^, in a

circle

whose radius

126?

Ans. 261.8.

29. If only the chord and the height of an arc be given, the radius of the circle may be found, and then the length of the

arc.

If

BA be

PO

the

(Euc. 35. 3.)*

AOB,

then

DP=Jl_.

OP

And

DO=OP+DP=OP+S--' OP

That is, the diameter is equal to the height of the arc, the square of half the chord divided by the height. The diameter being found, the length of the arc may be

calculated

articles.

Ex.

1.

?

and the

heischt 50,

what

is

The diameter

(Art. 28.)

2.

=50+5^=200.

50

length

is

The

arc contains

120^

and

is

its

is 120, and Ans. 160.8.

What

height 45?

Problem IV.

To find

30.

the

area of a circle.

Multiply

the

decimals

.7854.

*

Thomson's Legendre,

10, 5.

Or,

%%

Multiply half the diameter into half the circumference. Or, multiply the whole diameter into the whole circumference, and take -^ of the product. The area of a circle is equal to the product of half the

diameter into half the circumference

;

(Sup. Euc,

5, 1.) or,

the same thing, ^ the product of the diameter and circumference. If the diameter be 1, the circumference is

which

is

different circles

The area of squares of their diameters. (Sup. Euc. Y, 1.)* any circle, therefore, is equal to the product of the square of its diameter into 0.7854, which is the area of a circle whose

diameter

Ex.

feet^.

2.

1.

is 1.

What

is

is

623

feet.

How many

is

whose

diameter

3.

124 rods.

Ans. 75

acres,

and 76

rods.

is

4.

the area ?

How many

is

diaraelcr

7 feet ?

be obtained, by

81. If the circumference of a circle be given, the area may firthe diameter or, without finding

;

For,

if

mu

;

1, tlie

diameter

1-^3.14159=0.31831

circumference

circles,

is

of different

being as the squares of their diameters, are also as the squares of their circumferences. (Sup. Euc. 8, 1.)

4.

Cor.

28

Ex.

is

1.

If the circumference of

a circle be 136

feet,

what

the area ?

2.

Ans. 1472

is

feet.

is

What

?

10 rods in circumference

may be

found,

square root of the quotient. This is reversing the rule in Art. 30.

Ex.

1.

What

is

is

380.1336 feet?

Ans. 380.1336H-.'7854

2.

= 484.

And

V4'84

is

= 22.

19.635

?

What

is

of a circle,

1

;

33.

The area

is

to that of the inscribed square

and

Let

the circumsquare, and scribed square, of the circle ABDF. The area of the circle is equal to

inscribed

AD"' X. 7854. (Art. 30.) But the area of the circumscribed square

\^

And

12

4.

:

:

the larger one. For the latter contains 8 equal triangles, of which the former contains only

Ex.

What

is

whose area

is

159

Problem V.

To find

the area

of a sector of a

circle.

34. Multiply the radius into half the length THE ARC.

of

Or,

As So

360, TO THE WUMBKR OF DEGREES IN THE ARC IS THE AREA OF THE CIRCLE, TO THE AREA OF THE

,*

SECTOR.

It is

has to

same which the length of the arc the length of the whole circumference or which the

evident, that the area of the sector has the

;

number of

Ex.

1. If

number

of degrees

in the circumference.

the arc

AOB

circle

be 120, 226

what

is

the area of

the sector

AOBC?

The area

of the whole circle

is

And

2.

360

120

40115

sector.

AVhat

is is

the area of a semi-circle,

is

621

?

is

3.

What What

whose diameter

328?

4.

is

is less

its

than a semiarc 12 ?

circle, if

is

47

9^'

706.86

:

And

5.

360

47 9i'

706.86

If the

circle 113,

arc'ADB be 240 degrees, and the radius of the what is the area of the sector ADBC ? Problem VI.

To finl

2o.

the area

of a segment of a

circle.

Find the

has the

80

SAME ARC, AND ALSO THE AREA OF A TRIANGLE FORMED BY THE CHORD OF THE SEGMENT AND THE RADII OF THE SECTOR.

Then, if the segment be less than a semi-circle, subtract the area of the triangle from the area of

the sector.

SEMI-CIRCLE,

but, if the segment be greater than a ADD THE AREA OF THE TRIANGLE TO THE AREA

OF THE SECTOR.

If the triangle

ment AOBP,

cle.

And

will

if

added

to the sector

sum

be the segment

ADBP,

greater than a semi-circle. The area of the triangle (Art. 8.) is equal to the product of half the chord

is

BOA.

which

of the

If this

segment.

Or

CP

is

cosine and the chord of the segment are not given, they may be foimd from the arc and the radius.

Ex.

circle

1.

If the arc

feet,

AOB

is

the area of the segment

be 113

what

AOBP

BCP,

(Art. 28.)

R BC

:

sin

BCO

The cosine PC=i CO (Trig. 96, Cor.) The area of the sector AOBC (Art. 34.) The area of the triangle ABC=BPxPC The area

2. If

=56.5 =13371.67

= =

5528.97

7842.7

feet,

$X

is

tlie circle

12

feet,

what

the area

of the segment ?

The arc of the segment contains 49-J- degrees. The area of the sector =61.89 The area of the triangle =54.54

(Art. 28.)

(Art. 34.)

And

3.

is

What

is

4.

What

is

ADBP,

(Fig. 9.)

?

if

the base

AB

PD

169.5

Ans. 32272. j

36. The area of any figure which is bounded partly by arcs of circles, and partly by right lines, may be calculated, by finding the areas of the segments under the arcs, and then

arcs

the area of the rectilinear space between the chords of the and the other right lines.

contains

AC II, BCD,

angle

tri-

ABC.

Ex. If

the fines

10.435;

ments

ACH, BCD

what

is

areas of the two segments are

The The

1404

4593.4

5997.4

the whole figure

is

ABC

is

And

32

Problem VII.

To find

the area

of a circular zone,

37. From the area of the whole circle, subtract THE TWO segments ON THE SIDES OF THE ZONE.

If

circle there

ABC

and

DFH,

the zone

ACDH.

may

:

be

found by subtracting the segment ABC from the segment HBD Or,

by

GAH

(See Art. 36.)

latter

ACDH.

The

method

is

rather the

most expeditious

in practice, as the

two segments

at the

end

Ex.

7.75,

1.

What

is

ACDH,

circle 8 ?

if

AC

is

DH 6.93,

whole

circle is

The area

of the

50.26 17.32

9.82

of the zone

2.

ABC

DFH ACDH

in a circle

23.12

is

is

What

is

23.25,

whose diameter

24

Ans. 208.

38. If the diameter of the circle

is

not given,

it

may be

found from the sides and the breadth of the zone. Let the centre of the circle be at 0. Draw ON perpendicular to AH, perpendicular to LR, and HP perpen-

NM

dicular to

AL.

Then,

33

AN=iAH,

LM=iLR,

The

each.

triangles

PA=LARH.

are

siniilar,

MN=KLA+RH)

because the

API! and

OMN

Therefore,

PII

PA

MN

MO

And

being found,

we have

MO ML MO=OL.

:

the radius

CO=vOL+CL*.

;

(Fig. 12.)

ACDH

be

6.4,

what

is

PA=3.43=0.4.

Then, 6.4

:

And, MN=i(3.4+3)=3.2.

0.4

3.2

0.2=M,O.

And

^^

the radius

CO=V3'4-(3.4)'=4.534.

Problem VIII.

the area

To find

of a lune or

crescent.

39. Find the difference of the two segments which ARE between the ARCS OF THE CRESCENT AND ITS CHORD.

If

the

segment

ABC, be

;

ABD

crescent

ACBD.

the

AB

be 8B,

the

the

is

height

CH

;

20,

and

DH

ACBD ?

The area

f

2698 1220

1478

t ^^'^

^l- 4*

Thomson's Lcgendre,

6. 2.

^^

1^- 4.

84

Problem

IX.

To find

the area

ries of

two concentric

circles.

40.

Find tsk

CIRCLES.

Or,

sum and

diflference of the

two

is

cir-

is

equal

to the square of its diameter multiAnd plied into .78.54. (Art. 30.)

is

equal

to the product of the sum and difference of the diameters. (Alg. 191.)

the ring is equal to the product of the sum and diflference of the two diameters multiplied by .'7854.

Ex.

1.

If

AB

is

the area of

the ring?

2. If the

= 29535.

and 190,000

diameters of Saturn's larger ring be 205,000 miles, how many square miles are there on one

^

1. What is the expense of paving a street 20 rods and 2 rods wide, at 5 cents for a square foot ? long Ans. 544-^ dollars.

Ex.

35

2. If an equilateral triangle contains as many square feet as there are inches in one of its sides ; what is the area of

the trijingle ?

Let

;2;=the

number of square

And,

(Art. 11.)

3.

V3

whose area

is

area.

What

is

equal to that

4.

= 400.574.

?

is

What

is

is

equal to a

36 feet

5.

What

is

is

feet ?

diameter

132

/gf^^'

6.

8712 square

feet.

(Art. 33.)

carpeting, a yard wide, will be necessary to cover the floor of a room which is a regular octagon, the

sides being eight feet each

7.

?

How much

feet, feet.

If the

diagonal of a square be 16

what

is

the

area?

8.

Ans. 128

(Art. 14.)

If a carriage-wheel four feet in diameter revolve 300 round a circular green ; what is the area of

qrs.

9. What will be the expense of papering the sides of a room, at 10 cents a square yard if the room be 21 feet long,

;

3G 18

feet broad,

and 12

feet

3,

high

and

if

there be deducted 3

feet

10. If a circular

two doors 8

by

4^,

and one

of water

pond

10 rods in diameter be

;

surrounded by a gravelled walk 8} feet wide what is the area of the walk? Ans. 16^ sq. rods. (Art. 40.)

11.

If

CD,

isosceles triangle

feet,

VCD,

be 60

and the area 1200 feet; and if there be cut off, by the

line

LG

;

parallel to

CD, the

area

is

tri-

angle

feet

VLG, whose

what are the

432

sides of the

latter triangle ?

12.

feet.

What

is

is

in a circle

whose diameter

52

feet ?

Ans. 878.15

13. If a circular piece of land

is

sq. ft.

inclosed

by a

fence, in

which 10

in length; and if the field contains as many square rods, as there are rails in the fence ; what is the value of the land at 120 dollars an acre ?

rails

make a rod

Ans. 942.48

14. If the area of the equilateral triangle

feet

cle

is

;

dollars.

ABD

be 219.5375

cir-

what

is

OBDA,

in

inscribed?

sides of the triangle are each

The

is

630.93.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS. *

15. If 6 concentric circles are

87

between the

least or 1st,

and the 4th between the 4th and the 5th between the 5th and the 6th

is

is

35.343,

49.4802,'

is

63.6174,

is

V7.Y546;

what

the several diameters, supposing the longest to be to 6 times the shortest ? equal

Ihre

Aus.

16. If the area

3, 6, 0, 12, 15,

and

18.

circles

be 1202.64

square inches, and the diameter of the lesser circle be 19 uiche8t>what is the diameter of the other ?

17.

is 9,

What

is

SECTION

III.

Abt. 41. DEFINr^(0||^ I. prism is a solid bounded by or faces, two of which are parallel, similar, and plane figures

and the others are parallelograms. The parallel planes are sometimes called the bases or ends; and the other figures the sides of the prism. The

equal

II.

;

III.

prism

is riffht

perpendicular or oblique to the bases. IV. The height of a prism is the perpendicular distance

fore, tLe height

is

V.

In a right prism, thereto the length of one of the sides. equal Parallelopiped is a |)ri8ni whose bases are parallelo-

grams.

38

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

VI. Cuhe is a solid bounded by six equal squares. It a right prism whose sides and bases are all equal. VII. Pyramid is a solid bounded by a plane figure called the base, and several triangular planes, proceeding from

is

all

VIII. pyramid is reguUar, if its base is a regular polygon, and if a line from the centre of the base to the vertex of the pyramid is perpendicular to the base. This line is called the axis of the pyramid.

IX. The height of a pyramid is the perpendicular distance In a regular pyrto the plane of the base.

amid, it is the length of the axis. X. The slant-height of a regular pyramid, is the distance from the summit to the middle of one of the sides of the base.

XI.

A frustum or

of

is

The

height

the

frustum

planes.

of the

two

parallel

The

tum

of a regular pyramid, is the distance from the middle of one of the sides of the base, to the middle of the corres-

ponding side in the plane above. It is a line passing on the surface of the frustum, through the middle of one of

its sides.

XII.

base,

Wedge

is

viz.

a rectangular

edge, and

two

;

tri-

angular

ends

as

are

base

sides

ABHG

and

DCHG,

meeting in

BOH

ADG.

The

height of the

wedge

is

MSNSURATION OF SOLIDS.

39

perpendicular drawn from any point in the edge, to the plane of the base, as GP.

XIII.

allel,

Prismoid

is

It but not similar, and whose sides are quadrilateral. differs from a prism or a frustum of a pyramid, in having its ends dissimilar. It is a rectangular prismoid, when its ends

is

tion of

42.

The common measuring unit of solids is a cube, whose same name. The sides of a cubic

;

of a cubic foot, square feet, &c. Finding the capacity, solidity* or solid contents of a body, is fmding the number of cubic measures, of some given denomination contained in the body.

In

1728

2*7

solid mectsure.

cubic

incha

cubic feet

231

2150.42

1

=1 =1 =1 =1

cubic rod, cubic mile,

ale gallon,

=1

=1 =1

wine gallon,

bushel,

cubic foot of

Problkm

I.

To find

48. MlTLTIPLY THE

the

soLmnr of a

prism.

rule,

This

is

a general

applicable

to

parallelopipeds

<fec.

Sec note A.

40

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

surfaces are measured,

As

parallelogram (Art. 3.) ; so solids are measured, by comparing them with a right parallelepiped.

If

ABCD

standing erect,

it

is

number

mimber

the base.

And

if

other height, instead of one foot, the contents must have the same ratio. For parallelepipeds of the same base are to

each other as their heights. (Sup. Euc. 9. 3.)* The solidity of a right parallelopiped, therefore, is equal to the product of its length, breadth, and thickness. See Alg. 397.

And

of the

to a right

one

altitude, (Sup.

Euc.

7.

3)f

is

equal to

the area of the base multiplied into the perpendicular height. This is true also of prisms, whatever be the form of their

bases. (Sup. Euc. 2. Cor. to 8, 3. Thomson's Legendre, 12. 7.)

44.

As

all

is

found by cubing one of its edges. On the other hand, if the solid contents be given, the length of the edges may be

found,

by

45. When solid measure is cast by Duodecimals, it is to be observed that inches are not primes of feet, but thirds. If the unit is a cubic foot, a solid which is an inch thick and

a foot square is a prime a parallelopiped a foot long, an inch broad, and an inch thick is a second, or the twelfth part of a prime and a cubic inch is a third, or the twelfth part

;

;

of a second.

of a foot,

a square inch

-ri t

Thomson's Legendre,

foot.

9. 7.

Ibid., 7. 7.

MKNSURATION OP SOLIDS.

Ex.

1.

is

41

What

tlmbe^

which

thick?

2.

31 feet long, 1 foot 3 inches broad, and 9 inches Ans. 29 feet 9", or 29 feet 108 inches.

is

What

feet high,

and 2

is

22 feet long, 12

feet.

3.

What

is

which

is

2 feet

3 inches deep ?

Ans. 11 F.

4. If the base of a

4'

8"

3'", or

solid contents ?

height 30

feet,

Ans. 27 cubic

6.

feet.

be 2\

feet,

and each

10^

feet,

what

is

the solidity ?

sq. feet.

feet.

6.

10ixl0i==106f

2-i-=240i cubic

feet,

23

and

its

ular pentagon,

lidity ?

whose perimeter

is

18

feet,

what

The number of gallons or bushels which a vessel will may be found, by calculating the capacity in inches, and then dividing by the number of inches in 1 gallon or

46.

contain

bushel.

a vessel of given dimensions is found by experiment, that a cubic foot of pure water weighs 1000 ounces avoirdupois. For the weight in ounces, then, multiply the cubic feet by 1000

in

;

easily calculated

as

it is

Ex.

1.

How many

is

is 1 1 feet

4 feet 2 inches

square?

42

"

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

The

cistern contains

And

2.

352500-7-282

= 1250.

How many

3.

wine gallons will fill a ditch 3 feet 11 inches 462 feet long ? Ans. 40608.

of water can be put into a cubical vessel

What weight

deep

?

feet

Ans. 4000

lbs.

Problem

II.

To find

4*7.

the

BASE.

Each of the sides of the prism is a right parallelogram, whose area is the product of its length and breadth. But the breadth is one side of the base; and therefore, the sum

of the breadths

is

Ex.

1.

If the

agon whose sides are each 2 feet 3 inches, and if the height be 16 feet, what is the lateral surface ? Ans. 216 square feet.

If the areas of the

face, the

sum

will

is

And

the superficies of any solid bounded by planes, equal to the areas of all its sides.

2.

evidently

If

the base of

is

a prism

if

be

an equilateral

triangle

whose perimeter

is

6 feet, and

the height be 17

feet,

what

the surface

The area

of the triangle

is

And

is

105.464.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

49

Problem

III.

To find

48.

the soLiDirr

of a pyramid.

HEIOUT.

The solidity of a prism is equal to the product of the area of the base into the height. (Art. 43.) And a pyramid is -^ of a prism of the same base and altitude. (Sup. Euc.

15,

3.

Cor.

1.)*

Therefore the

is

solidity

of a

pyramid

into

1.

Ex.

What

is

is

the

solidity

of

whose height

60,

a triangular pyramid, is 4 ?

is

6.928

138.56.

And

the solidity

is

2. Let ABC be one side of an oblique pyramid whose base is 6 feet square let BC be 20 feet, and make an angle

;

of

base

;

plane.

What

is

amid

R

And

3.

BC

sinB

::

PC = 18.'79.

is

225.48

feet.

What

is

is

height

72,

and the

the solidity of a pyramid whose perpendicular sides of whose base are 67, 54, and

40?

*

Ans. 25920.

Thomson's Legendre, 15 and

18. 7.

44

MENSURATION OP SOLIDS.

Problem IV.

To find

49.

the

Let the triangle

ABC

be one of

the sides of a regular pyramid. As the sides and BC are equal, the

AC

angles A and B

are equal.

Therefore

to the

to

middle of

AB is 'perpendicular

AB.

The area

of the triangle is equal to the product of half this perpendicular into AB. (Art. 8.) The perimeter of the base is the sum of its sides, each of

which

is

equal to

AB.

And

the areas of

all

the equal

tri-

surface of the pyramid, are together equal to the product of the perimeter into half the slant-height CP.

lateral

The

slant-height

is

tri-

angle, whose legs are the axis of the pyramid, and the distance from the centre of the base to the middle of one of the See Def. 10. sides.

Ex.

1.

What

is

pyramid, whose

are each 8 feet

?

axis is

the lateral surface of a regular hexagonal 20 feet, and the sides of whose base

The square

sides.

one of the

The

l.)*=:V48-f (20)'=21.16

And

2.

4X6=507.84

sq. feet.

What is

*

Thomson's Legendre,

11. 4.

ITION OP SOLIDS.

4ft.

amid whose

20.78?

axis

is 8,

and the

sides of

312 18 Y

The

lateral surface is

is

And

3.

is

499

a regular

What

is

the

lateral surface of

pyramid

feet.

whose

axis is 12 feet,

is

18

feet square ?

The lateral surface of an obliqiie pyramid may be found, by takmg the sum of the areas of the unequal triangles which form its sides.

Problem V.

To Jind

the soLiDrrr

of a fbustttm of a pyramid.

50. Add together the areas of the two ends, and AND THE square root OF THE PRODUCT OF THESE AREAS MULTIPLY THE SUM BY -^ OF THE PERPENDICULAR HEIGHT OF THE SOLID.

;

Let

CDGL

be a vertical

section,

amid

CDV, whose

base

is

square.

l/

Let CD=a,

LG=6, RN=A.

By

similar triangles,

:

LG

CD ::RV

NV

: :

LG

CDLG

RV

NVRV=RN.

hb

RNxLG

46

MENSURATION OF

is

SOLIDS.

The square of CD

the base

of the pyramid

CDV

V

i

And

amid LGV.

Therefore, the

solidity of

0/

is

3a

36

And

equal to

LG^XiRV=2''X

If the smaller

will

3a 36

3a 36

pyramid be taken from the larger, there remain the frustum CDLG, whose solidity is equal to

(Alg.l94.

a.)

^t::|^';=x^X^^=iAxK+a6+6^) a oa do

Or, because Va'6''=a6.

iAX(a^+6'+Va^F)

Here

A,

is

square.

is

supposed to be

pyramid of For the solid contents of pyramids are equal, when they have equal heights and bases, whatever be

is

But the

rule

equally applicable to a

*

And

the sec-

Thomson's Legendre,

14, 7.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

tions parallel to the bases,

and

Ex.

1.

If

square, the other end 6 feet square, and the height 36 feet, what is the sohdity ?

The areas of the two ends are 81 and 36. The square root of their product is 54.

And

frustum=(81+36+64)xl2=2062.

2. If the height of a frustum of {f pyramid be 24, and the areas of the two ends 441 and 121 what is the solid;

ity?

8.

Ans. 6344.

If the height of a frustum of a hexagonal pyramid be each side of one end 26, and each side of the other end 48, 16 ; what is the solidity ? Ans. 56034.

Problem VI.

To find

the

51. Multiply half Ihe slant-heioht by t^k sum of THE perimeters of the two ends.

Each

as

pyramid

is

a trapezoid,

(Def. 11.) though it is oblique to the base of the soHd, is perpendicular to the line AB.

is

ABCD.

The

slant-height

HP,

the

equal to the

sum

AB and DC.

all

(Art. 12.)

the

equal trapezoids which form tho lateral surface of the frustum, is equal to the

Thomson's Legendre,

13, 7, Cor,

48

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

sum

of the peri-

Ex. If the slant-height of a frustum of a regular octagonal pyramid be 42 feet, the sides of one end 5 feet each, and the sides of the other end 3 feet each ; what is the lateral

surface?

it

feet.

may be

obtained

from

the

17

the

ND

and

RG

rimeters of the

two ends.

^

:

Then.

PD

is

And the

slant-height

GD = v(GP'-fPD=^).

of a frustum of a regular hexagonal pyramid be 24, the sides of one end

13 each, and the sides of the other end 8 each what is the whole sur;

face?

The

difference of the

that

is,

And

two

radii

V8^ 4=

is,

6.928

4.33

therefore

Theslant-height=V(24+4.33')=24.3875.

TJie lateral surface is

1536.4

2 141. 7 5.

And

USV8URATI0N OF SOLIDS.

4i

The height of the whole pyramid may be calculated from the dimensions of the frustum. Let (Fig. 17.) be the

VN

or GP the height of the frusheight of the pyramid, and the radii of the circles inscribed in the tum,

RN

ND

RG

Then,

GPD

;

and

VND,

DP

The height

GP

DN

solidity

VR

and

the height of the small pyramid VLG. lateral surface of the frustum may then

The

be found, by subfrom the whole pyramid, the part which is above tracting

This method may serve to verify the calthe cutting plane. culations which are made by the rules in Arts. 50 and 51.

CDGL

(Fig. 17.) be

90

feet

square, the other end 60 feet square, and the height feet ; what is the height of the whole pyramid

RN 36 VCD and

:

solidity

and

frustum

DP=DNGR=45 30=15.

Then, 15

:

And,

GP=RN=36.

36

45

pyramid.

And,

10836=72 =VR,

VLG.

48.)

The

pyramid

is

of the frustum

CDGL

is

205200

21060 (Art. 9360

11700

The

pyramid

49.)

60

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

Problem VII.

To find

64.

the solidity

of a wedge.

to

twice the

product of the height of the wedge and the breadth of the base.

Let

= AB

the

Z=GH

of the base.

Let

A

Then,

of the wedge.

L Z=AB GH=AM

If the length of the base and the edge be equal, as BM and GH, the wedge MBHG is ha,lf a parallelepiped of the same base and height. And the soHdity (Art. 43.) is equal to half the product of the height, into the length and breadth

of the base

that

is

&AZ.

If the length of the base be greater than that of the edge, let a section be made by the plane as ; parThis will divide the whole wedge into two allel to HBC.

ABGH

GMN,

parts

MBH<T

The

and

AMG.

is

The

latter is a

pyramid, whose

i hhx{Ll)

is,

therefore,

If the length of the base be less than that of the edge, it evident that the pyi-amid is to be subtracted from half the

is

parallelepiped,

which

is

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

51

The

solidity of the

wedge

is,

therefore,

Ex.

1.

If the base of a

Ans. (70

If the base of a

;

+ 55)X^^^^^ = 3875.

30,

2.

;

and

Ans. 5040.

Problem VIII.

To find

the solidity

of a rectangular prismoid.

55. To the areas of the two ends, add four times the area of a parallel section equally distant from the ends, and multiply the sum by ^ of the height.

L and B be the length and breadth of one end, Let I and h be the length and breadth

Let

of the other end.

length

and

in the middle.

pris-

And

inoid.

The

solid

may be

the ends of the prismoid, and whose edges are solidity of the whole, by the preceding article

L and

is,

/.

The

ii?Ax(2L+/)+i*AX(2/+L)=-iA(2BL-f-B^+2W+6L)

As

I,

2M=L4-/,2/w-B+J,and4Mm{L+/)(B+2')=BL+B;+

[bh+lb.

52

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

for its value, in the Substituting 4 pression for the sohdity, we have

Mm

preceding ex-

ih(BL+hl+AMm)

That

is,

is

equal to

-J-

of the

height, multiplied into the areas of the two ends, and 4 times the area of the section in the middle.

may be applied to prismoids of other forms. For, whatever be the figure of the two ends, there may be drawn in each, such a number of small rectangles, that the

sum of them shall differ less, than by any given quantity, from the figure in which they are contained. And the solids between these rectangles will be rectangular prismoids.

Ex.

1.

This rule

If one

feet

by

heiglit

72

what

is

the solidity ?

of the larger end of the smaller end

The area

=44X23 = 1012

=36X21= 156 =40X22= 880 And the solidity= (101 2+756 +4 X 880) X 12 = 63456

of the middle section

2.

feet.

What

is

hewn

timber,

whose

ends are 30 inches by 27, and 24 by 18, and whose length is 48 feet ? Ans. 204 feet.

Other

solids

if

they be

bounded by plane surfaces, may be measured by supposing them to be divided into prisms, pyramids, and wedges. And,

indeed, every such solid

triangular pyramids.

may

be considered as made up of

1.

54

67. As the sides of a regular solid are similar and equal, and the angles are also alike it is evident that the sides are all equally distant from a central point in the solid. If then, planes be supposed to proceed from the several edges

;

many

equal

The base of each pyramid will be 'pyramids, as it has sides. one of the sides ; their common vertex will be the central

point; and their height will be a perpendicular from the centre to one of the sides.

Problem IX.

To find

68.

the

sides.

number of

Or,

Multiply the square of one of the edges, by the surface of a similar solid whose edges are 1.

As

all

it

is

sides, will give

area of the whole.

Or,

if

the

a table

is

several regular solids whose linear edges are unity ; this maybe used for other regular solids, upon the principle, that the

areas of similar polygons are as the squares of their homologous sides. (Euc. 20. 6.)* Such a table is easily formed, by

multiplying the area of one of the sides, as given in Art. 17, by the number of sides. Thus, the area of an equilateral Therefore, the siu:triangle whose side is 1, is 0.4330127.

face

Thomson's Legendre,

27. 4.

5ff

Of aregular tetraedron =.433012'7X4 =1.7320508. Of a regular octaedron =.4330127x8 =3.4641016. Of a regular icosaedron =.4330127x20=8.0602540.

See the table

Ex.

1

.

What

is

?

The area

is

1075.3

And

2.

=1075.3X12=12903.6.

What

is

the

surface of a

102?

Problem X.

.

7b ^rw?

/^ solidity o/* a

REGULAR

solid.

59.

Or,

McLTIPLY the

SOLIDITY OF

cube of

is

As

the solid

made up

sides,

of a

number

of equal pyramids,

and whose height is the perpendicular distance of the sides from the centre (Art. 57.) the solidity of the whole must be equal to the areas of all the

;

sides midtiplied into ^ of this perpendicular. (Art. 48.) If the contents pf the several regular solids whose edges

table, this may be used to measure For two similar regular solids contain the same number of similar pyramids and the.se are to each

are

1,

be inserted in a

.solids.

other similar

other as the cubes of their linear sides or edges. 15. 3. Cor. 3.)*

(Sup. Euc.

Thomson's Legendre,

20. 7.

56

Names.

1.

lr

the axiSf which proceeds from the middle of the base to the

vertex.

The base

of an oblique cone

is

is

not per-

height of a cone is the perpendicular distiince from the vertex to the plane of the base. In

The

a right cone, it is the length of the axis. The slant-height of a right cone is the distance from the vertex to the circumference of the base.

III.

A frustum of

is

frustum

a cone

oflf

by a plane

The

The

slant-height of a

frustum of a right cone, is the distance between the peripheries of the two

ends, measured on the outside of the

solid

;

as

AD.

IV.

A

has a centre equally distant from every It may be described by the revolution part of the surface. radius of the sphere is of a semicircle about a diameter.

any part of the surface. diameter is a line passing through the centre, and terminated The circumference is the same at both ends by the surface.

line

to

circle.

is

V.

segment oi a sphere

is

a part cut

off

by any

plane.

a per-

pendicular from the middle of the base to the convex surface, as LB.

VI.

is

tween two

It is parallel planes. called the middle zone, if the planes are equally distant from the centre.

3*

58

of a zone

is

VII.

A spherical

sector is

same manner

spherical sec-

as the semicircle

whole sphere.

tor tor

is

Thus a

ACP

CP.

axis

VIII.

solid described

by the

Problem

I.

To find

62.

the

THE BASE.

If a right cylinder be covered with a thin substance like

paper, which can be spread out into a plane ; it is evident that the plane will be a parallelogram, whose length and

breadth will be equal to the length and circumference of the The area must, therefore, be equal to the length cylinder.

multiplied into the circumference. (Art. 4.)

Ex.

1. is

What

42

is

which

feet long,

Ans. 42X1.25X3.14159

2.

is

= 164.933

sq. feet.

What

is

*

According to some writers, a spherical segment is either a solid is cut off from the sphere by a single plane, or one which is included between two planes and a zone is the surface of either of these.

which

In

term zone

is

commonly used

in geography.

56

226.1945

The whole

3.

(Art. 30.)

is

6.2832

surface

is

232.4777

What

is

is

axis

82,

and circumference 71

prism and

same,

pyramid

and cone

selves.

in

in this.

In the base of a cylinder, there may be inscribed a polygon, which shall differ from it less than by any given space. If the polygon be the base of a (Sup. Euc. 6. 1. Cor.)*

prism, of the same height as the cylinder, the two solids may differ less than by any given quantity. In the same

manner, the base of a pyramid may be a polygon of so many sides, as to differ less than by any given quantity, from the

base of a cone in which

fore considered,

it is

inscribed.

by many

;

writers, as a prisr^ of

sides

sides.

and a cone, as a pyramid of an infinite " (For the meaning of the term infinite,"

mathematical sense, see Alg. Sec. XV.)

in the

Problem To find

64.

the solidity

II.

of a cyundkr.

The solidity ^f a parallelopiped is equal to the product of the base into the perpendicular altitude. (Art. 43.) And a parallelopiped and a cylinder which have equal bases and

altitudes are equal to each other. (Sup. Euc. 17. 3.)f

Thomson's Legendre,

9. 5.

t ^^^^y

2* 8.

60

Ex.

1.

What

is

?

is

2.

= 194156.6.

is

What

is

?

424,

3.

Ans. 1530837.

of

If

the side

AC

an oblique

cylinder be 27, and the area of the base 32.61, and if the side make an angle of 62 44' with the base,

what

is

the

sohdity

?

:

E AC

:

sin

BC = 24

the per-

pendicular height.

And

the soHdity

is

782.64.

4. The Winchester bushel is a hollow cylinder, 18^ inches What is its capacity ? in diameter, and 8 inches deep. The area of the base=(18. 5)' X. 7853982 268.8025.

And

is

See the

Problem

III.

To find

the

cir-

65. Multiply half the slant-height into the cumference OF the base.

it will evidently form a sector of a circle whose radius But the area of the equal to the slant-height of the cone. sector is equal to the product of half the radius into the

plane,

is

Or if the cone be considered length of the arc. (Art. 34.) as a pyramid of an infinite number of sides, its lateral sur-

61

face is equal to the product of half the slant-height into the perimeter of the base. (Art. 49.)

Ex.

1.

If

the slant-height of a right cone be 82, and the is the convex surface ?

Ans.

2.

41X24X3.14159=8091.3

the whole surface ?

square

feet.

le base 72,

what

is

The slant-height = V(36'+48')=60. (Euc. 47. The convex surface is 6786 The area of the base 4071.6

1.)

And

3.

the whole^urfaco

10857.6

;

what

is

Ans. 1206.4.

Problem IV.

To find

66.

the

sounrrY of a cone.

-^

of the

HEIGHT.

The solidity of a cylinder is equal to the product of the base into the perpendicular height. (Art. 64.) And if a cone and a cylinder have the same base and altitude, the cone is

Or if a cone be con\ of the cylinder. (Sup. Euc. 18. 3.)f sidercd as a pyramid of an infinite number of sides, the solidity is

48.

by Art.

Ex.

is

1.

What

is

is

101

Ans.

*

4. 8.

Thomcon's Legendre,

Cor.

62

2.

If the axis of

an oblique cone be 738, and make an of 30 with the plane of the base ; and if the circumangle ference of the base be 355, what is the solidity ?

Ans. 1233536.

Problem

V..

To find

67.

the

right cone.

This

and

is

is

; if

(Art. 51.)

a cone be

of

sides.

considered as a pyramid of

(Art. 63.)

an

infinite

number

Or

Let the sector

thus,

ABV

represent the

65.) andyDCV the surface of a portion of the cone, cat off by a plane parallel

to the base.

Then

will

ABCD

be tbe

Let

'^

ABV =iaX{h-\-d)=iah+iad.

And

the area

(Art. 34.)

'DCY=^bd.

Subtracting the one from the other. The area ABDC=iaA+iac/ ^bd.

But d

d-\-h :\h

a.

(Sup. Euc.

8.

1.)*

Therefore

^ad^

ibd=ibh.

The

is

equal to

^ah+^bh.

*

or^hx(a-{-b)

10, 5.

Thomson's Legendre,

Cor,

Cor.

63

The

is

of the slant-height into the circumference of a circle which is equally distant from the two ends. Thus, the surface

ABCD

Ex.

cone,

AD

DC.

mto MN.

For

MN is

AB

1. if

What is the convex surface of a frustum of a right the diameters of the two ends be 44 and 33, and

?

^

the slant-height 84

Ans. 10159.8.

2. If the perpendicular height of a frustum of a right cone be 24, and the diameters of the two ends 80 and 44,

what

*

is

is

18.

And V 18'+24'=30,

The The sum of the

areas of the two ends

is

is

6547

12390

And

Problem VI.

To find

68.

the solidity

of a frustum of a cone.

ends,

;

and

the square root of the product of these areas and multiply the sum by \ of the perpendicular height.

This rule, which was given for the frustum of a pyramid, is equally applicable to the frustum of a cone be;

(Art. 60.)

cause a cone and a pyramid which have equal bases and tudes are equal to each other.

alti-

Ex.

1.

What

is

other?

feet.

64

2.

What

is

tlie

top

3.

How many

gallons of ale can be put into a vat in the if the larger diameter be 7 feet, the

?

Problem VII.

To find

69.

the

surface of a sphere.

Let a hemisphere be described by the quadrant CPD, Let revolving on the line CD.

AB be the side

of a regular poly-

gon inscribed in the circle of which DBF is an arc. Draw AO and BN perpendicular to CD, and BH perpendicular to AO. Extend AB till it meets CD conThe triangle AOY, retinued.

as an axis, will volving on describe a right cone. (Defin. 2.)

OV

will

AB

from

AO

to

parallel to

is

the middle of

AB, draw

GM

by

AB.

equal to

ABxc^VcGM.*

From the centre C draw CG, which will be perpendicular to AB, (Euc. 3. 3.) and the radius of a circle inscribed in

*

which

By drc GM is GM.

is

of

05

and are similar, beThe triangles the polygon. cause the sides are perpendicular, each to each. Therefore,

ABH

GC

CGM

HB

or

ON

AB

GM

circ

GM

circ

GC.

So that ONxciVc

face of the frustum

is

GC=ABx>c GM,

that

is,

the sur-

the perequal to the product of into circ GC, the perpendicular distance pendicular height, from the centre of the polygon to one of the sides.

it may l>e proved, that the surfaces about the revolution of the lines BD and produced by the axis DC, are equal to

ON

AP

ND X circ

The

GC,

and

CO X circ GC.

1.

2.) is

equal to

CDxcirc GC.

The demonstration is applicable to a solid produced by the revolution of a polygon of any number of sides. But a

be supposed which shall differ less than by any given quantity from the circle in which it is inscribed (Sup. Euc. 4. 1.)* and in which the perpendicular GC shall

polygon

may

than by any given quantity from the radius of the Therefore, the surface of a hemisphere is equal to the product of its radius into the circumference of its base ;

differ less

circle.

and

the surface

its

of a sphere

is

equal

to

the

product of

its

diameter into

Cor.

face of

1.

circumference.

this

From

demonstration

it

any segment or zone of a sphere is equal to the product of the height of the segment or zone into the circumference of the sphere. The surface of the zone produced by the revolution of the arc about ON, is equal

AB

to

ON Xrc

CP.

And

pro-

Thomson's Legendre,

9. 5.

66

ci7'c

BD

about

DN

is

equal to

DNx

Cor. 2. The surface of a sphere is equal to four times tlie area of a circle of the same diameter and therefore, the

;

equal to twice the area of For the area of a circle is equal to the product of its base. half the diameter into half the circumference (Art. 30.)

is

;

that

is,

to

^ the product

of the diameter

and circumference.

Cor. 3. The surface of a sphere, or the convex surface of any spherical segment or zone, is equal to that of the circumscribing cylinder.

hemis-

parallelogram Dc?CP. The con-

is

by

its

And

this is also

the hemisphere.

So the

to that

is surface produced by the revolution of equal the revolution of ab. And the surface produced by

AB

produced by

Ex.

1.

BD

is

diameter,

how many

2.

sq. miles.

is

his surface?

3.

Ans. 2,495,547,600,000

How many

a hemispherical

Ans.

265i-.

67

Problem VIII.

To find

70. 1.

the solidiit

of a sphere.

Or,

5236.

2.

Or,

3.

1. sphere is two-thirds of its circumscribing cylinder. (Sup. Euc. 21. 3.)* The height and diameter of the cylinder are each equal to the diameter of the sphere. The solidity of the cylinder is equal to its height multiplied into the

area of

eter,

its

for the

diam-

DxD'X.7854

And

or

D'x.7854.

is

D'X.6236.

2. The base of the circumscribing cylinder is equal to half the circumference multiplied into half the diameter ; (Art. 30.) that is, if C be put for the circumference,

iC X D and

;

the solidity

is

\Q X D'.

is

iofiCxD=DXiC.

8.

In

which

is

the same as

CxDxiD,

ThomMa's Legendre,

12. 8.

68

substitute S, the surface, for

we may

CxD.

(Art. 69.)

We

SxiD.

Or, the sphere may be supposed to be filled with small pyramids, standing on the surface of the sphere, and having

their

common

The number

of these

may be such, that the difference between their sum and the sphere shall be less than any given quantity. The solidity

of each pyramid

is

its

base into

-|-

The solidity of the whole, thereheight. (Art. 48.) fore, is equal to the product of the surface of the sphere into "i of its radius, or ^ of its diameter.

of

its

The numbers 3.14159, .7854, .5236, should be made The first expresses the ratio of the perfectly familiar.

71.

circumference of a circle to the diameter; (Art. 23.) the second, the ratio of the area of a circle to the square of the

and the

of a sphere to the cube of the diameter. of the first, and the third is ^ of the first.

.

The

secon(J*is

-J-

As

ical investigations,

these numbers are frequently occurring in mathematit is common to represent the first of them

letter n.

by the Greek

According to

this notation,

7r=3.14159,

If

i7r=.7854,

R=:the radius

i^=.5236.

of

D=the

;

diameter, and

any

circle or

sphere

Then,

And nD

Or, 27rR

^,^^^ ^

j

)

^^^^

or ttR^

the

circ.

or f^iR^

Ex

1.

What

is

if it

be a sphere

7930 miles

in diameter ?

2,

60

How many

is

fill

in diameter ?

3.

If the

diameter of the

moon be 2180

miles,

what

is its

sohdity?

72. If the solidity of a sphere be ^Iven, the diameter may be found by reversing the first rule in the preceding article ; that is, dividing hy .5236 and extracting the cube root of the

quotient,

Ex.

1.

What

is

whose

solidity is

feet.

Ans. 5

2. What must be the diameter of a globe to contain 16755 Ans. 8 feet. poimds of water?

Problem IX.

To find

73.

the

spJiere.

Multiply the height of the segment or zone INTO the circumference OF THE SPHERE.

For the demonstration of

Ex.

1.

If the earth

pole,

be considered a perfect sphere 7930 if the polar circle be 23 28' from the

how many

?

zones

If

earth,

the pole

;

a meridian on the

of the polar circles,

and

is

PD.

rififht

The angle

ACD subtended by

And ACD,

in the

the arc

AP

is

23 28'.

angled triangle

10

R

Then, the segment.

AC

COS

ACD

CD=3C37.

the

CP~CD=3965363'7=328=PD

height of

2.

the surface.

miles,

7930

what

is

the

surface of the torrid zone, extending 23 28' on each side of the equator ?

If be the equator, and one of the tropics, then the angle is 23 28'. And in the right angled

EQ

GH

ECG

triangle

GCM,

:

CG

The

sin

ECG

is

is

78669700.

3.

What

The height

DN=CPCNPD = 2058.1

is

And

The

51273000.

is

surface of the

of the

102,546,000

16,342,800 78,669,700

197,558,500

Problem X.

To find

74.

the solidity

of a spherical sector.

Multiply the

spherical

surface by ^ of the

The

by the

revolution of

ACBD

about CD, may be supposed to be filled with small pyramids, standing on the

spherical surface ADB, Their in the point C.

differ less than by any given length from the radius CD, and the sum of their

bases shall differ less than by any given The quantity from the surface ABD.

solidity of

each

is

its

base into \ of

Therefore, the solidity of all of (Art. 48.) them, that is, of the sector ADBC, is equal to the product of the spherical surface into i of the radius.

the radius

CD.

sphere 7930 miles in diameter, and to be 23 28' the polar circle from the pole ; what is the solidity of

ADB

ACBP ?

Problem XI.

To find

the solidity

of a spherical segment.

75, Multiply half the heioht of the segment into the area of the base, and the cube of the height into .5236 and add the two products.

;

As

AOBC

consists of

two

parts, the

segment

AOBP

and the

triangle

ABC

(Art. 35.) so the spherical sector produced by the revolution of about OC consbts of two parts,

;

AOC

the segvient produced by the revolution of AOP, and the cone produced

If then

12

ment.

Let

PB=r,

the radius of the base of

the segment. PO=A, the height of the segment, Then h, the axis of the cone.

PC=R

'71,

73, Y4.)=f;rAR.

71,

66.)=i7rr"R

\7Tkr''

ButDOxPO=BO'

That

is,

(Trig.

97.*)=PO^-fPB^

So

that,

2R7i=:A^-f r^

R=^'+^'

2h

2= And R^=

A'+7-\= /^_j:!_\

V

= A4-f2AV='+H

2A

and R^,

their vahies,

and multi-

The

i^Ar"

iy +\n1ir^

The first term here is ihx^r^, half the height of the segment multiplied into the area of the base (Art. 71.) and the

;

other

* Euclid 31, 3,

and

8, 6.

Cor.

If the

IS

the 'cone

ABC

Let

ABD

Then

PD=A the height of the segment, PC=AR the axis of the cone.

The

sector

ACBD=inAR

The cone=nr*Xi(AR)=Wir'

Adding them

together,

\rtr*R

we have

as before.

solidity of a spherical segment is equal: to half a a sphere whose of the same base and height cylinder diameter is the height of the segment. For a cylinder is

Cor.

The

equal to a sphere

.5230.

its

is

height multiplied into the area of its base ; and equal to the cube of its diameter multiplied by

Thus,

ical

if

Oy

ivt/x -f

the sphere

Ex.

1.

If the height of

its

the diameter of

base 25 feet

;

Ans. (25)'X.V854X4+8'X.5236=2231.58

2.

feet.

If the earth

polar circle

be a sphere 7930 miles in diameter, and the 23 28' from the pole, what is the solidity of

one of the

? frigid zones

14

Problem XII.

To find

the SOLIDITY

16. From the solidity of the whole sphere, subtract THE TWO segments ON THE SIDES OF THE ZONE.

Or,

squares of the radii of the two ends, and ^ the square of their distance and multiply the sum by three times this distancc, and the product

;

BY .5236.

If

be taken the two segments ABP and GHO, there will remain the zone

or frustum

ABGH.

ABGH

GHP

and ABP.

i

DP

the radii of their bases.

GN=R

AD=r

] )

DN=c?=H h

Then the

two

bases, or the

larger segment=i7rHR'+^rrH^ smaller segment=^rrAr^+-6-^^^

)

,

.

.

And the

circle,

By

0]S^xH=:R^

Therefore,

(ON+H)xH=R^+H='

Or,

0P= R=+H^

In the same manner,

76

OP=!li

h

Therefore,

3Hx(r'+A*)=3Ax(R'+H*.)

(Alg.

l'/8.)

Or,

To reduce the expression for the sohdity of the zone to the required form, without altering its value, let these terms

be added to

it

:

and

it

will

become

Which

is

equal to

i^r

Or, as

\n

Hh equals d,

The zone=.6236X3rfx(R'+r2+i<i'.)

Ex.

1.

24

feet,

If the diameter of one end of a spherical zone is the diameter of the other end 20 feet, and the dis;

tance of the two ends, or the height of the zone 4 feet what is the solidity ? Ans. 1566.6 feet.

2.

If the earth

i?8'

;

what

is

the solidity of

3.

What

is

The

solidity of the

is

110,781,000,000

2,606,000,000

of the whole globe

4.

147,720,000,000

261,107,000,000

What

is

is

breadth

feet,

whose

76

5.

MENSURATION OF

SOLIDS.

What

is

is

teight

18

the solidity of a spherical segment, whose feet, and the diameter of its base 40 feet ?

Ex.

1.

How much

three feet deep, which has been previously filled with cannon balls of the same size, 2, 4, 6, or 9 inches in diameter, regularly arranged in tiers,

2. If a cone or pyramid, whose height is three feet, be divided into three equal portions, by sections parallel to the base what will be the heights of the several parts ?

;

Ans. 24,961,

6-.488,

3. What is the solidity of the greatest square prism which can be cut from a cylindrical stick of timber, 2 feet 6 inches in diameter and 56 feet long ?*

4.

feet.

How many

if

to the sun;

latter

such globes as the earth are equal in bulk the former is 7930 miles in diameter, and the

890,000

Ans. 1,413,678.

rule for

The common

is to

multiply the

square of the quarter-girt by the length. The quarter-girt is one-fourth of the circumference. This method does not give the whole solidity. It makes an allowance of about one-fifth, for waste in hewing, bark, &c.

The

solidity

of a cyUnder

is

If

C=the

circumference,

the

(Art. 31.)

The area of

base^ =(--)=:(-)

4s\

y/47r/

V3.545/

If then the circumference were divided by 3.545, instead of 4, and the See quotient squared, the area of the base would be correctly found. note B.

MENSURATION OF SOLIDS.

5.

77

How many

tower 66 feet high, if the diameter of the base be 20 feet from outside to outside, and the diameter of the top 8 feet the thickness of the wall being 4 feet^t the bottom, and decreasing regularly, so as to be only two feet at the top ?

;

Ans. Viae.

6.

If

a metallic globe

its

filled

square inch of

surface

with wine, which cost as much 20 cents for every what is the diameter of the globe ?

7. If

the circumference

of the

earth

be 25,000 miles,

what must be the diameter of a metallic globe, which, when drawn into a wire j^ oi an inch in diameter, would reach Ans. 15 feet and 1 inch. round the earth ?

8.

If a conical cistern

at the bottom,

and 5

its

;

capacity ?

9. If a globe

20 inches

in

diameter, be perforated

by a

cylinder 16 inches in diameter, the axis of the latter passing through the centre of the former what part of the solidity, and the surface of the globe, will be cut away by the cyl;

inder ?

10.

solidity,

surface.

What

is

feet in

diameter ?

Ans. 6f

11.

feet.

What

f

i3

of which is

36

feet,

the solidity of a conic fhistum, the altitude the greater diameter 16, and the lesser

diameter 8

12.

is the solidity of a spherical segment 4 feet cut from a sphere 16 feet in diameter ? high,

What

VS

ISOPERIMETRY.

SECTION

ISOPERIMETRY.

Art. 77.

different

It

is

V.

often necessary to

compare a number of

or solids, for the purpose of ascertaining which has the greatest area, within a given perimeter, or the

figures

greatest capacity

We may

have oc-

fort, to

extent of

what must be the form of contain a given number of troops, with the least wall or what the shape of a metallic pipe to con;

vey a given portion of water, or of a cistern to hold a given quantity of liquor, with the least expense of materials. 78. Figures which have equal perimeters are called Isoperimeters.

When a

same

lines,

class, it is called

But

90

drawn within a

is

circle.

maximum.

a

circle,

Of

all

sines of angles,

is

is less

in

the sine of

maximum.

a quantity

When

it is

called a

minimum.

than any other of the same class, Thus, of all straight lines drawn

line,

pendicular to the given line

is

that which

is

per-

straight lines drawn from a given point in a circle, to the circumference, the maximum and the minimum are the two parts of

a minimum.

Of

all

the diameter which pass through that point. (Euc. 7, 3.) In isoperimetry, the object is to determine, on the one

is

maximum,

within a given

perimeter ; or the capacity a maximum, within a given surface and on the other hand, in what cases the perimeter is

:

ISOPERIMETRY.

Vd

given capacity.

Proposition

79.

I.

An

If

and perimeter.

ABC be an isosceles trianwhose equal sides are AC and i)C and if be a scalene trion the same base AB, and angle

gle

;

ABC

having

ilien

AC'-f-BC'

= AC+BC;

is

the area of

than that of

ABC ABC.

greater

raised

Let perpendiculars be

AC

and

to

D, make

CD'

equal to

and draw

is

CH

CH'

parallel to

AB.

(Euc. 5, 1.) and

As

angle,

the angle

;

CAB=ABC,

ABD

a right

Therefore

and by constniction,

CD'=

CHD

and

CHB

are equal;

AH'=iAD'. The line AD=AC+BC=AC HBC'=D'C+BC'. But D'C+BOBD'. (Euc. 20, 1.) BD>AD', (Euc. 47, 1.) and i BD> rhcrefore, AD>BD' AD'. But iBD, or BH, is the height of the isosceles triime manner,

;

ngle

i

iii'^'le

(Art. 1.) and |AD' or AH', the height of the scalene of two triangles which have the same ; and the areas

ire

\ijC

;

is

as their heights. (Art. 8.) Therefore the area of than that of ABC. Among all triangles, greater

lien,

upon a given

a

less

eles triangle is

a maximum.

perimeter than any

area.

Cor.

The

calene

triangle of the

The

triangle

80

ISOPERIMETRY.

it is

of the latter.

Proposition

80.

II.

triangle in

the

ANGLE, has a greater area than any triangle in which sides maJce an oblique angle.

If

same

BC,

if

be perpendicular to

ric^ht anfyled trian-

and

BC

AB

gle

then the

ABC,

the acute angled triangle 2VBC', or the oblique angled triangle C".

AB

be perpendicular to AP. Then, as the three triangles have the same base

their heights

Let

AB,

PC". P'C.

the perpendiculars BC, P'C, and ; is, But BC is equal to BC, and therefore greater than BC is also equal to BC", and therefore (Euc. 47. 1.)

that

as

greater than

PC".

Proposition

III.

81.

If

except one of a polygon be given, when the given sides are so disinscribed in a semicircle, of

is the

may he

which

the

undetermined side

diameter.

If the sides

side

whose length

is

is

not determined,

the figure

nmximum ;

may

ISOPERIMETRY.

81

be inscribed

in

AE is

Draw

at D, the triangle

ADE

AD, AC, EB, EC. By varying the angle may be enlarged or diminished, with-

whole

The out affecting the area of the other parts of the figure. area, therefore, cannot be a maximum, unless this tri-

and ED are given. angle be a maximum, while the sides be a maximum, under these conBut if the triangle is a ditions, the angle (Art. 80.) and right angle

AD

ADE ADE

D

is in the circumference of a circle, of therefore the point In the same man^vhich is the diameter. (Euc. 31,3.) and are ner it may be proved, that the angles

AE

ACE

ABE

B

right angles,

tlie

and therefore that the points C and circumference of the same circle.

is

are in

fjles,

and four-sided

figures,

well

as other

right-lined

figures.

82.

the

The area of a polygon, inscribed in a semicircle, in manner stated above, will not be altered by varying the

sides

arcs.

The

many

the

in

chords

of

so

whatever order

they are arranged, will evidently be equal to the semicircumAudi the segments between the given sides and the arcs will be the same in whatever part of the circle they are

ference.

But the area of the polygon is equal to the area the semicircle, diminished by the sum of these segments. 83. If a polygon, of which all the sides except one are given, be inscribed in a semicircle whose diameter is the un-ituated.

f

determined side

a polygon having the same given sides, cannot be inscribed in any other semicircle which is either

;

this,

is

the undeter-

mined

side.

The given

whose sum

sides

is

But

4*

180 degrees.

in

a larger

circle,

each

82

ISOPERIMETRY.

less

fore

number

the

sum

of the .arcs

would be

less

than 180

and in a

each would be the chord of a greater number of degrees, and the sum of the arcs would be greater than

smaller

circle,

180.

Proposition IV.

84.

A polygon inscribed

in

a circle has a

greater area,

than any polygon of equal perimeter, and the same number of sides, which cannot he inscribed in a circle.

If in the circle

ACHF,

(Fig.

polygon ABCDEFG and if another polygon ahcdefg (Fig. 31.) be formed of sides which are the same in number and

;

length, but which are so disposed, that the figure cannot be inscribed in a circle; the area of the former polygon is

greater than that of the latter. Draw the diameter AH, and the chords

DH

and EH.

Upon

de

and join

parts, of

make the triangle deh equal and ah. The line ah divides the figure

similar to

DEH,

which one at least cannot, by supposition, be inscribed in a semicircle of which the diameter is AH, nor in

any other semicircle of which the diameter is the undetermined side. (Art. 83.) It is therefore less than the corresponding part of the figure

the other part of abcdhefg

ABCDHEFG.

(Art. 81.)

And

is

ISOPERIMETRY.

ing part

of

83

the whole figure

ABCDHEFiS.

is

Therefore,

If greater than the whole figure ahcdhefy. from these there be taken the equal triangles DEU and dch, there will remain the polygon ABCDEFG greater than the

ABCDIIEFG

polygon ahcdcfg.

85.

polygon of which

all

num-

ber and length, cannot be inscribed in circles of different And the area of the polygon will not diameters. (Art. 83.)

Proposition V.

86.

the

When a polygon has a greater area than any other, of same number of sides, and of equal perimeter, the sides are

EQUAL.

polygons of the same number of sides, and of equal perimeters, unif any and FD, are unequal, let CH and FH be lual, and their sum the same as lie sum of CD and FD. The

it

less

be equilateral.

sides, as

For

two of the

CD

')sceles

triangle

CHF

is

greater than the polygon

ABCIIF

is

is

ABCDF

not

a maximum,

PBOP08inoN*VL

87.

sides.

REQULAB POLraoN has a greater area than any and of the same number of

84

For,

ISOPERIMETRY

by

tlie

preceding

article,. tlie

polygon which

is

a max-

others of equal perimeters, and the same number of sides, is equilateral, and by Art. 84, it may be inscribed in a circle.

imum among

But

is

if

a polyequilat-

gon

inscribed in a circle

is

eral, as

ABDFGH, it

For the

also equian-

gular.

sides of the

polygon

triangles,

The angles

;

the centre C.

at these

bases are

as

all

equal

AHC

and

the polygon,

GHC, are equal to AHG one of the angles of ^he polygon, then, being equiangular, as well

is

as equilateral,

re^z^Zar polygon.

(Art.

1.

Def. 2.)

equilateral triangle has a greater area, than any And a square has a other triangle of equal perimeter. greater area than any other four-sided figure of equal pe-

Thus an

rimeter;

Cor. regular polygon has a less perimeter than any other polygon of equal area, and the same number of

sides.

For if, with a given perimeter, the regular polygon is greater than one which is not regular ; it is evident the perimeter of the former must be diminished, to make its area

equal to that of the

latter.

Proposition VII.

88. If a polggon he BESCRiBEB about a circle, the areas of the two figures are as their ^perimeters.

Let

ST be

ISOPERIMETRY.

85

AA

\/o

1

isorKiiiM!:juv.

87

vf

perimeter

i

is

& minimurn

is

1.

^

But the

lateral surface is

s the perimeter. (Art- ^y.)^ Of two right prisms, then, vhich have the same altitude, the same solidity, and the

me number

iias

of sides, that whose bases are regular polygons the least lateral surface, while the areas of the ends are

equal.

Cor. right prism whose bases are regular polygons has a greater solidity, than any other right prism of the same surface, the same altitude, and the same number of sides.

PROPosmoN

91.

X.

surface than

A

if

right

the

cruNDER has a

less

any

right

prism of For

solidity.

But (Art. 64.) the perimeter of the cylinder is less, than that of the prism and therefore its lateral surface is less, (Art. 89. Cor. 1.)

solidity, the areas of their bases are equal.

;

Cor.

any right

PuorosiTioN XI.

92.

CUBE has a

the

less

surface titan

any

lelepiped of

same

solidity.

parallelepiped

is

may

be considered a base. (Art. 41. Def. I and V.) If these are not all squares, let one which is not a square be taken for a The perimeter of this may be diminished, without base.

altering its area (Art. 87. Cor.);

88

of

tlie

ISOPERIMETRY.

solid

may be

its

altitude

The same may be proved of or solidity. (Art. 43, 47.) each of the other faces which are not squares. The surface

is

is,

therefore a

minimum, when

is

when

the solid

a cuhc.

cube has a greater solidity than any other right Cor. parallelopiped of the same surface.

Proposition XII.

^93.

to ike

solidity than

any

allelojriped, the

sum

The

If

and depth.

solidity

may be

three dimensions.

increased, without altering the sum of the For the product of two factors whose

sum

is

In the same manner, if* the breadth and (Euc. depth are unequal, the solidity may be increased, without

Therefore, the altering the sum of the three dimensions. solid cannot be a maximum, unless its length, breadth, and

is

the greatest

when

Proposition XIII.

94.

If a PRISM BE

cap>acities

the

capacities of the solids are as the areas of their bases, as the perimeters of their bases. (Art. 88.) But the lateral surfaces are also as the perimeters of the bases.

The

that

is,

Cor.

solidities.

The capacities of different prisms, described about the same right cylinder, are to each other as their surfaces.

ISOrERIMETUY.

80

Proposition XIV.

J...

right cylinder

ITS

whose height

is

equal to the

t/iak

DIAMETER OF

any

other

Let

be a

its

rij^ht

cylinder

whose

ameter of

base

and

If a square prism

same

be described about the former, it square prism P' described about the

will

be a cube.

But a

be a cube.

Then the

and 88.)

7,

;

are as their bases (Art. 47. and P', (Sup. Euc. which arc as the bases of

surfaces of

C and P

1.); 80 that,

surf C

aurfV

base

base

V base C mrfV.

:

:

base P'

surfC \

is, by supposition, equal to the surTherefore, (Alg. 396.) the surface of P is equal And by the preceding article, to the surface of P'.

face of

solid

solid

surfP

sur/C

:

siirfV

surfC

solid

solid

C.

Cut the

Cor.)

solidity of P is greater than that of P'. (Art. 92. Therefore the solidity of C is greater than that of C.

Schol.

A right

its

ameter of

is

base,

cylinder whose height is equal to the diis that which circumscribes a It sjihere.

;

also called

Archimedes* cylinder

its

as

ratio of

a sphere to

circumscribing cylinder

;

upon

his tomb.

Cor. Archimedes* cylinder has a less surface^ than any other right cylinder of the same capacity. -Mt^'*

90

ISOPERIMETRY.

Proposition XY.

96.

If a SPHERE BE CIRCUMSCRIBED hy a

the capacities

'plane surfaces ;

surfaces.

If planes be supposed to be drawn from the centre of the sphere, to each of the edges of the circumscribing soHd,

faces.

they will divide it into as many pyramids as the solid has The base of each pyramid will be one of the faces

;

The sphere. capacity of the pyramid will be equal, therefore, to its base multiplied into -^ of the radius (Art. 48.) and the capacity of the whole circumscribing solid, must be equal to its whole

will

be the radius

of

the

surface multiplied into ^ of the radius. But the capacity of the sphere is also equal to its surface multiplied into ^ of its

radius.

(Art.

'70.)

Proposition XVI.

97.

solidity than

any

7'egularpoly-

If a sphere

;

centre,

fall

partly 2vithin

each of the faces of the polyedron must For the solidity of a circumthe sphere.

scriUng solid is greater than the solidity of the sphere, as the one includes the other and therefore, by the preceding article, the surface of the former is greater than that of the

:

latter.

But if the faces of the polyedron fall partly within the sphere, their perpendicular distance from the centre must be less than the radius. And therefore, if the surface of the

180PERIMETRY.

91

its

solidity

solidity of the polyedron is equal to its surface multiplied into -J of the distance from the centre. And the solidity of the sphere is equal to its (Art. 59.) surface multiplied into -^ of the radius.

less.

must be

For the

Cor. sphere has a less surface than any regular polyedron of the same capacity.

APPENDIX

GAUGING OF CASKS.

Art. 119. Gauging

is

not commonly constructed in exact conformity with any regular mathematical figure. By most writers on the subject,

however, they are considered as nearly coinciding with one of the following forms

r

1. 2.

^,

i

.-,,,/.

3.'

I

f )

4.

rri..

S ]

.

The second

of the others, with the forms of casks, as they are commonly made. The first is too much curved, the third too

little,

at

all,

120. Rules have already been given, for finding the capacity of each of the four varieties of casks. (Arts. 68, 110,

112, 118.)

As

To abridge

the com-

putation,

and adapt

it

to the

gauging, the factor .'7854 is the quotient is used instead of .7854, for finding the capacity in ale gallons or

wine gallons.

GAUGING.

9S

And -l^^.OOSi

231

If then .0028

or .0028 nearly

given in ale gallons and wine gallons. to eacli other nearly as 9 to 11.

Problem

I.

To

a cask, in

the form

of a middle

frustum of a spheroid.

121. Add together the square of the head diameter, and twice the square of the bung diameter multiply the sum by ^ of the length, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or

:

by .0034

If

for

wine gallons.

;

The

substituting .0028 or .0034 for .7854,

And by

Ex.

we have

What

is

its

first

its

form,

bung

Problem

II.

To

calculate

t/u:

contents of

a cask, in

the

form of

tlie

mid-

dle frustum of a

parabouc spixdle.

122. Add together the square of the head diameter, and twice the square of the bung diameter, and from the sum

94

GAUGING.

subtract | of the square of the difference of the diaraeters ; multiply the remainder by -^ of the length, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.

Ex.

inches

={2J)^+cPl

(Ddy)xX

What

is

inches,

its

head diameter

18,

and

its

Ans. 40.9

wine gallons.

Problem

III.

To

frustums of a paraboloid.

123. Add together the square of the head diameter, and the square of the bung diameter multiply the sum by half the length, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or

;

The capacity

Cor.)

in inches

=(D'+d')xilX.'7854.

(Art. 112

Ex.

What

is

are, as before, 30, 18,

whose dimensions

and 24

Problem IV.

To

frustums of a

coine.

124. Add together the square of the head diameter, the square of the bung diameter, and the product of the two diameters multiply the sum by \ of the length, and the product by.0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.

;

The capacity

in

GAUGINO.

Ex.

95

What

is

is

30, and its diameters 18 and 24 ?

.ale

whoso length

Ans. 37.3

12o. The precedini^ rules, though correct in theory, are not very well adapted to practice, as they suppose the form of the cask to be Jcnoion^ The two following rules, taken from Hut ton's Mensuration, may be used for casks of the

For the first, three dimensions are required, usual forms. It the length, the head diameter, and the bung diameter. is evident tliat no allowance is made by this, for different If the degrees of curvature from the head to the bung.

cask

is

more or

less

is

which /owr dimensions are required, the head and bung diameters, and a third diameter taken in the middle between the bung and the head. For the demonto be preferred, for

V.

Sec. 2. Ch. 5

and

7.

Problem V.

To

any common

cask,

from three

dimcnsums.

126.

Add

together

25 times the square of the head diameter, 39 times the square of the bung diameter, and 20 times the product of the two diameters

;

Multiply the sum by the length, divide the product by 90, and multiply the quotient by .0028 for ale gallons, or .0034

for

wine gallons.

in

The capacity

Ex. Wliat

inches, the

inches=(39 D'-f25cr'4-26D(/)x

the capacity of a cjisk

- X. 7854.

is

is

whose length

30

head diameter 18, and the bung diameter 24? Ans, 39 ale gallons, or 47^ wine gallons.

96

GAUGING.

Problem VI.

2h

four dimensions,

the

length, the

in the

head and hung diameters, and a diameter taken middle between the head and the hung.

127. Add together the squares of the head diameter, of the bung diameter, and of double the middle diameter multiply the sum by -^ of the length, and the product by

;

If

D=the bung

in

;

m=the

The capacity

Ex.

inches=(D'-|-c?'+2m^)Xi?X.'7854.

is

What

is

30

head diameter 18, the bung diameter 24, and the middle diameter 22^ ? Ans. 41 ale gallons, or 49| wine gallons.

inches, the

the preceding rules, the multiplications and divisions are frequently performed by means of a Sliding Rule, on which

are placed a number of logarithmic lines, similar to those on See Trigonometry, Sec. VI., and Note C. Gunter's Scale.

p. 149.

Diagonal Rod.

in

gauging

is

the

the capacity of a cask is very expeditiously found, from a single dimension, the distance from the bung to the intersection of the opposite stave with the

By

this,

head

is

is

40

gallons.

The measure

taken by extending the rod through the cask, from the bung to the most distant part of the head. The number of

marked on the

gallons corresponding to the length of the line thus found, is rod. The logarithmic lines on the gauging

GAUGING.

97

rule.

ULLAGE OF CASKS.

129.

divided,

least

a cask is partly filled, the whole capacity is by the surface of the liquor, into two portions the of which, whether full or empty, is called the ullage.

;

When

t]e

cask

is

supposed to be in one of

its

two

positions

;

axis perpendicular to

the horizon

oj- lyi7i(/,

with

its

The

rules for ullage which are exact, particularly those for The follying casks, are too complicated for common use. lowing are considered as sufficiently near approximations.

Problem VII.

To

130.

standing

cask.

Add

and two

;

multiply the sum by \ of the distance between the surface and the nearest end, and the product by .0028 for ale gallons, or .0034 for wine gallons.

If

D=the

The ullage

in

inches=(D'+rf'+2m^)Xi/X-V8o4.

Ex. If the diameter at the surface of the liquor, in a standing cask, be 32 inches, the diameter of the nearest end 24,

the middle diameter 29, and the distance between the sur5

98

face of the liquor

GAUGING.

what

is

the ul-

lage?

Problem VIII.

To

131. Divide the distance from the buna: to the surface of the liquor, by the whole bung diameter, find the quotient in the column of heights or versed sines in a table of circular segments, take out the corresponding segment, and multiply

it

of the cask,

1-^

for the part which is empty. If the cask be not half full, divide the depth of the liquor

&c., for the contents of the part

which

is full.

Ex. If the whole capacity of a lying cask be 41 ale galwine gallons, the bung diameter 24 inches and the distance from the bung to the surface of the liquor 6

lons, or 49-f

inches

what

is

the ullage

Ans.

or 9^ Avine gallons.

NOTES

Note A.

p. 39.

,

The term

solidity i

express the magnitude of any geometrical quantity of three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness whether it be a

;

empty

space.

This

use of the word, however, is not altogether free from objection. The same term is applied to one of the general properties of matter and also to that peculiar quality by which

;

There distinguished from fluids. seems to be an impropriety in speaking of the solidity of a body of water^ or of a vessel which is ejnpty. Some writers have therefore substituted the word volume for solidity. But

latter term, if it be properly defined, without danger of leading to mistake.

the

may

be retained

Note

The following simple

or of any cylinder,

is

B. p. 76.

:

round timber,

nearly exact

Multiply

fereiice.

of ^ of

the circum,'

If

C=the

circumference of a cylinder;

It is

by multiplying the

This gives ex-

common

100

NOTES.

are squares. actly the solidity of a parallelopiped, if tLc ends the area of each is less if the ends are parallelograms, than the square of the quarter-girt. (Euc. 27. 6.)

But

Timber which is taiKring may be exactly measured by the rule for the frustum of a pyramid or cone (Art. 50, 68.)

;

or, if

by the

ficient to

But for common purposes, it will be sufthe length by the area of a section in the multiply middle between the two ends.

LOAN DEPT.

This book

due on the last date stamped below, or on the date to which renewed. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.

is

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REC'D LD

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NQV 13

1957

n^.-O LD

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REC'D LD

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A.

OCT 2 6

1959

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NOV

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1959

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DEC 4

LD

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21A-50m-8,'57

(C848l8l0)476B

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