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AR 214B THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE 7:30 8:30 MW H708 1ST SEMESTER S.Y. 2012-2013





Table of Contents A Brief History of Interior Design The Interior Designer Pre-requisites to an Interior Designer The Interior Decorator Interior Design Trends 2012 Glossary of Terms

A Brief History of Interior Design Credit for the birth of interior design is most often given to the Ancient Egyptians, who decorated their humble mud huts with simple furniture enhanced by animal skins or textiles, as well as murals, sculptures, and painted vases. Beautiful gold ornaments found in Egyptian tombs (such as that of King Tutankhamen) revealed the importance of more lavish decoration for wealthier and powerful Egyptians. The Roman and Greek civilizations built upon the Egyptian art of interior decorating and accessorizing. Both cultures celebrated civic pride through their development of domed-roof public buildings. In the home, elaborate Greek wooden furniture had ivory and silver ornamentation. The Romans placed special emphasis on combining beauty and comfort, and home interiors reflected wealth and status. Roman furniture made of stone, wood, or bronze was accented by cushions and tapestries. Both the Romans and Greeks used vases, mosaic floors, and wall paintings or frescoes to beautify interior spaces. From this period of splendor and ornamentation, there was a sudden movement to austerity, brought on by the constant wars of Medieval Europe and the rise of the Christian church. The Dark Ages were a time of somber wood paneling, minimal furniture, and stone-slab floors. Even the wealthier individuals of the time, who added decorative touches like wall fabrics and stone carvings, stuck to muted colors and simple textiles. Coming out of the Dark Ages, Europeans once again introduced color and ornamentation to their homes. In the 12th century, the creative Gothic style was noted for its use of open interiors and windows to capture natural light. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the French Renaissance (rebirth) led to a renewed focus on art and beauty in interior design. Architects created spaces with elaborate decorative elements such as marble floors, inlaid woodwork, paintings, and furniture made of the finest woods. The best examples of Renaissance interior design are found in the royal palaces, villas, and chapels of Europe. Following the Renaissance, the ornate Italian Baroque style became popular throughout Europe. As exemplified in the Palace of Versailles in France, Baroque made use of such interior design elements as colored marble, stained glass, painted ceilings, and twisted columns. In the mid-18th century, European interior designers began favoring the Rococo style, showing particular appreciation for Asian porcelain, flower designs, and furniture inlaid with elegant materials like mother-of-pearl and tortoise shell. The late 18th century Neoclassical look, an offshoot of the classical design of ancient Rome, made heavy use of bronze, silk, satin, and velvet. From the early 1800s on, however, in Europe and America, a trend had also started towards more freedom and eclecticism in interior design. Over the next two centuries, a number of innovative and modern interior design styles would come and go into fashion including Art Deco, Art Nouveau, the minimalist look, and the industrial Bauhaus style. Another 19th century trend was the popularization

of interior design. While once reserved for royal palaces or the homes of wealthy citizens, interior design in the 1800s began to reach the masses. By the 20th century, the near-universal presence of home appliances such as stoves, washing machines, televisions, and telephones produced a new challenge for interior designers, who had to plan spaces not only for aesthetic purposes, but also for functionality. The field of interior design has come a long way from the mud and brick days of the ancient Egyptians. Designers today have access to both man-made and synthetic materials, and they can draw upon the influences of past generations while also continually striving to create new design trends. The Interior Designer
An interior designer is responsible for the interior design, decoration, and functionality of a clients space, whether the space is commercial, industrial, or residential. Interior designers work closely with architects and clients to determine the structure of a space, the needs of the occupants, and the style that best suits both. The position is a combination of engineer and artist, and it takes a unique type of mind to handle both of those concepts well. Interior designers have to be good with more than color, fabric, and furniture; interior designers must know materials, have budgeting skills, communicate well, and oversee the ordering, installation, and maintenance of all objects that define a space. They also have to know about electrical capacity, safety, and construction. This broader range of required knowledge distinguishes them from interior decorators. Interior designers have to be able to work with contractors and clients alike, planning and implementing all aesthetic and functional decisions, from faucet handles to miles of carpeting and all this usually must be done within a fixed budget. Interior designers are hired for their expertise in a variety of styles and approaches, not merely their own personal vision. Therefore, they have to be able to balance their own tastes and their clients tastesand be willing to put their clients tastes first. This requirement can be frustrating at first for many who enter the profession. Interior designers are often asked to begin their planning before construction of a space is finished; this means that they must be good at scheduling and comfortable reading blueprints. This element of the job comes as a surprise to many new interior designers, who expect to have less of an administrative and technical role and more of a role in influencing the overall feel and appearance of a space. Those who thrive in the industry say this ability to balance the practical with the aesthetic is crucial to being a successful interior designer. Interior design is hard work, but those who do it well find the work very satisfying. Pre-requisites to an Interior Designer To become an interior designer you usually have to complete a VET qualification in interior design or interior technology. Subjects and prerequisites can also vary between institutions. You may be able to study through distance education. Entry to this occupation may be improved if you have a degree in interior design, interior architecture or spatial design. To get into these courses you usually need to gain your HSC/ACT Year 12. Prerequisite subjects, or assumed knowledge, in one or more of English, mathematics, design and technology, visual communication and design, visual arts and studio arts are normally required. Applicants may also be required to complete an interview, aptitude test, design exercise and

presentation of a portfolio of recent design work. Universities have different prerequisites and some have flexible entry requirements.

The Interior Decorator Interior decorators plan and implement decoration schemes for homes, offices, shops and other professional spaces. They may advise clients on selection of color schemes, layouts, lighting, furniture, floor coverings, paint, wallpaper, hardware products and much more. They may provide sketches, designs, and specifications, as well as cost estimates for client approval. They may supervise and coordinate the installation and arrangement of furniture and furnishings during renovations. Interior decorators often work irregular and extended hours to meet their clients deadlines! Interior decorators are sometimes mistakenly interchanged with interior designers. This is misleading, as designers must undergo rigorous training and educational requirements to obtain regulated licenses. Interior decorators face much fewer strictures for practice. As a result, opportunities and pay for interior decorators are also more limited than those available to highly skilled and experienced designers. Interior Design Trends 2012 Modern interior design trends help find a fresh appreciation of existing homes, see properties through new eyes and find comfort in old rooms, decorated in chic style for 2012. Current economic situation forces people to stay where they leave, adding more comfort to their home interiors and creating luxurious and relaxing rooms with impressive, personal and interesting decorating ideas. Comfortable design, elegant style, luxurious materials and bright colors are back in favor. People will choose exotic materials, unique color combinations and exciting interior design ideas for very personal, peaceful and modern home decorating. The next level of creativity will allow to enjoy a new freedom to use bright and dark colors, mix exotic, traditional and luxurious materials, combine simple lines and adventurous interior design ideas, that exciting modern trends offer. Liberation brings unusual color schemes and materials combinations that create modern interior design trends for 2012. Interesting and personalized interior design ideas will include shiny fabrics, sleek and glossy surfaces and vibrant colors, combined with elegant and classy gray, white, golden and silver tones.

Modern interior design ideas, unique lighting fixture design, large mirrors and glass decor Chic design style and comfort themes will define interior decorating ideas in 2012. Soft home furnishings, luxurious and pleasant materials, attractive and cheerful colors, comfortable and beautiful furniture design with interesting details will help create welcoming, unique and stylish homes. Glorious colors, like emerald, ruby, amethyst and sapphire, golden yellow tones and exotic coral shades, vivid turquoise and luscious cream colors, (Brown and cream interior color schemes) combined with tender ivory, comfortable brown, elegant silver, light gray and warm whites are modern interior design trends for 2012. (Light gray, white and pink-red colors, 5 color schemes)

Brown-blue cushions, purple upholstery fabric and curtains, modern bedroom decorating ideas

Layers of silky fabrics and luxurious wool, the combination of velvet and brick, stainless steel and wood design ideas create attractive contrasts. (Carved wood wall paneling, contemporary room decorating) Mixing decor accessories, made of natural stone and shiny plastic, metal, wood and fabrics are interesting home decorating ideas that add charm and unique character to contemporary interior design. Large mirrors, mirrored tiles, beautiful wallpapers with Swarovski crystals or silver details, that reflect more light into the room, are modern interior design trends for 2012.

Modern interior design, luxurious bedroom decorating ideas, silk and wool, wood and glass, wooden ceiling design Modern paint colors and wallpaper patterns, inspired by natural plants, and beautiful wallpapers, made of leaves will add branches, flowers and leaves textures to decorating ideas, offering natural light colors and chic of interior design in eco style.

Feathers and wood, white and bright colors, simple bedroom decorating ideas and luxurious velvet cushions, modern interior design Warm and comfortable materials and luxurious finishes are among modern interior design trends for 2012. Marble and wood, leather and glass, wool and high quality plastic designs create light, relaxing and gender neutral home interiors (Interior design ideas, textures, colors for men and women) that feel luxurious, inviting and comfortable.

Interior design trends, modern decorating ideas in eco style, gray-white-pink color design

Interior design trends 2012 will celebrate your personality and take care of details, creating pleasant, comfortable and personal interior decorating.

Large mirrors, simple lines, silky fabrics, crystals and wool floor carpet, modern interior design trends 2012 Intricate details, wood carving, unique lighting fixtures, custom made designs and rich colors are perfect for elegant and truly personal interior decorating ideas. Beautiful combination of traditional, contemporary and exotic materials, various ethnic styles and colors, inspired by African, Asian and Middle Eastern decorating ideas, will offer warm, cheerful and stylish interior design. (Warm colors and decorating ideas for rainy fall and winter) Dark and warm colors, yellow and brown tones, deep color shades of precious and semi-precious stones are modern color design trends for 2012.

Wood and glass, natural stone and flowers, linen upholstery and silk

cushions, modern living room decorating ideas, wood wall paneling

Glossary of Terms Frescoes - The art of painting on fresh, moist plaster with pigments dissolved in water
Austerity - reduced availability of luxuries and consumer goods, Somber dark; gloomy melancholy; dull color Swarovski crystal - is the brand name for a range of precisely-cut crystal and related luxury products produced by Swarovski AG of Wattens, Austria