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INTRODUCTION

GNA is amongst the worlds leading manufacturers of automotive transmission components. The worlds top OE manufacturers are amongst our customers. GNA employs over 2500 people across 3 locations in Mehtiana & Bundala, Punjab, North India. Our scale gives us the manufacturing capability that OE customers demand, plus the flexibility and reliability to meet any production challenge. We work with our customers to engineer products that provide optimum performance to driveline systems in a wide range of automotive applications. Whatever the specification, it is likely we have done something similar before and if not, our engineers are ever zealous to put their expertise to work, to customize and deliver accurate product solutions. Our product reliability has been proven in every market, while product durability has passed tests in the most demanding environments. Consistently stepping up to the challenge of manufacturing products that are worldclass, reliable and cost efficient for 60 years, we have come a long way.

HISTORY OF GNA
The existence of GNA came into being in 1946, in a small village called Bundala in District Jalandhar of Punjab. GNA has made its presence prominent not only in India but also across the world. Today, more than 6000 families are proud to be associated with this giant colossal tree that bloomed from a seedling sown 55 years ago. Founded with a modest beginning by Late Mr. Amar Singh Ji and nourished by his sons Mr. Rachhpal Singh and Mr. Gursaran Singh, with the artistic creativity that was gifted to the next generation by tradition, GNA is now boosted and taken care by the third generation Mr. Jasvinder Singh, Mr. Maninder

Singh, Mr. Ranbir Singh and Mr. Gurdeep Singh. Today GNA group has created an important place for itself in Indian as well as Global Automotive Industry. GNA group is on a fast moving track towards growth and globalization. The company has a

large customer base covering different sectors of the automotive industry with a diversified product range. GNA manufactures quality automobile components which meet the highest international standards.The products include Rear Axle Shafts and U. J. Crosses, Propeller Shaft Assemblies, Hydraulic Lift Shafts, Steering components, Wheel Spanners, Brake S-cam Shafts, P. T. O. Shafts and Forgings for the automobile industry, for use in all types of light, medium and heavy vehicles. GNA sincerely believes in technology up-gradation for keeping a competitive edge. Indeed, this explains the continuous replacement of conventional manufacturing equipment with modernized transfer lines resulting in increased productivity and efficiency at low cost. GNAs core competency lies in its strong knowledge base of engineering and over 55 years of experience in manufacturing. GNA has come a long way yet journey toward excellence is never ending.

GNA is the fast moving tracks towards growth and globilization .

The company has a large customers base covering different sectors of the the automobile industry with the diversified products range. Along with the company show steady growth profile even during the time when there is demand fluctuation sector Gna is a origninal equipment supplier to varrious automobile major besides having a strong presence in the replacement marks. GNA has been accureded with a ISO 9002 & QS 9000 certificates quality management at GNA is a driving force to go beyond. GNA manufactres quality automobile component which meet the highest international standard. The products rear axle shafts and U>J crosses propeller shafts assemblies, hydrallic lift shaft steering component wheel spanners: brake S-cam, shafts , P.t.o shafts and forgings for the automobile industries, for use in all types of lift, medium and heavy vehicals.

GNA sinerely belives in technology up gradation for keeping a competitive edge. Indeed this modernized transfer lines resulting productivity and efficeny at low cost. GNA core

explain the continous replacement of conventional manufacturing equipment with competency lies on its strong knowledge base of enggerring and over 55years of experince in manufacturing. GNA has come on a long way jet journey towards excellence is never ending.

Expanding the version & keeping pace with the evolving technology GNA has successfully extended is product line to serve the rising needs of the auto component market.

WORKING PROCEDURE OF GNA UDYOG

1. Raw material 2. Weight & inspected 3. Chemistry lab 4. Forging & heat treatment 5. Machining & final inspection 6. Packing & dispatch A raw material or feedstock is the basic material from which a product is manufactured or material that came from nature and is in an unprocessed or minimally processed state. Latex, iron ore, logs, and crude oil, would be examples. The use of raw material by non-human species includes twigs and found objects as used by birds to make nests.

made, frequently used with an extended meaning.[1] For example, the term is used to denote

In Marxian economics and some industries, the term is used in the sense of raw material that already undergone some alteration by labor. Therefore, it does not apply exclusively to materials in their entirely unprocessed state, for instance dimensional lumber, glass and steel.

is 'subject of labor', in other words, something that will be worked on by labor or that has

Weight and inspected of raw materail propely weight and inspected the raw material so that there is no damage is happen to them in the transport activity Chemistry lab in which all chemical test is performed in the raw materails. So that the composition is perfect for the manufacturing of the products.

After that of the machining process is under taken such as forging, heat treatment, machining etc.the maching process is futher explain...

DIE MAKING PROCESS

A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology. The die making process is Based on 3D CAD data prepared by the customer, the die maker prepares NC data and makes dies by CAM. The customer adds detailed modifications to the original dies and molds products with the modified dies. When the dies are worn out from long-term use, the die maker is asked to re-model the dies. The original 3D CAD/CAM data cannot be used because the customer added modifications to them .Thus, the die maker re-models the dies based on the original dies that have been modified by the customer. The die making process is start from the CAD/CAM section. Where the 3D design of a model is to be ready by the designer and then the model is send to the moulding section inside the CAD (computer Aided Design) where designer made a injection moulding of the component . There are various step are for making the injection moulding or the CORE AND CAVITY of the component. After that the CORE AND CAVITY is ready the with the help of the CAD software .

After the core cavity making the core and cavity is going for the further process where in the CAM software the die making virtually. And all the operation is done on the the die making and make a program so that the CNC machine make a die.

FORGING PROCESS
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is kilogram to 580 metric tonsForged parts usually require further processing to achieve a finished part. performed: "cold", "warm", or "hot" forging. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a

GNA udyog used : 1 Frictional Drop Forging : 3 nos 1.5 Ton -1 no 2.5 Ton 2 nos

2 Horizontal upsetter : 1 no 800 Tons

Upset forging increases the diameter of the workpiece by compressing its length.[12] Based on number of pieces produced this is the most widely used forging process.[12] A few examples of common parts produced using the upset forging process are engine valves, couplings, bolts, screws, and other fasteners. Upset forging is usually done in special high-speed machines called crank presses, but upsetting can also be done in a vertical crank press or a hydraulic press. The machines workpieces from one station to the next. The initial workpiece is usually wire or rod, but some machines can accept bars up to 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter and a capacity of over 1000 tons. The standard upsetting machine employs split dies that contain multiple cavities. The dies open enough to allow the workpiece to move from one cavity to the next; the dies then close and the heading tool, or ram, then moves longitudinally against the bar, upsetting it into the cavity. If all of the cavities are utilized on every cycle then a finished part will be produced with every cycle, which makes this process advantageous for mass production. are usually set up to work in the horizontal plane, to facilitate the quick exchange of

1. Mechanical press ( press forging ): 4 nos

400 Ton , 550 Ton 630 Ton , 1300 Ton

Press forging works by slowly applying a continuous pressure or force, which differs from the near-instantaneous impact of drop-hammer forging. The amount of time the dies are in contact with the workpiece is measured in seconds (as compared to the cold or hot. The main advantage of press forging, as compared to drop-hammer forging, is its ability to deform the complete workpiece. Drop-hammer forging usually only deforms the surfaces of the workpiece in contact with the hammer and anvil; the interior of the milliseconds of drop-hammer forges). The press forging operation can be done either

workpiece will stay relatively undeformed. Another advantage to the process includes the knowledge of the new part's strain rate. We specifically know what kind of strain can be put on the part, because the compression rate of the press forging operation is workpiece being in contact with the dies for such an extended period of time. The controlled. There are a few disadvantages to this process, most stemming from the operation is a time-consuming process due to the amount and length of steps. The workpiece will cool faster because the dies are in contact with workpiece; the dies facilitate drastically more heat transfer than the surrounding atmosphere. As the workpiece cools it becomes stronger and less ductile, which may induce cracking if deformation continues. Therefore heated dies are usually used to reduce heat loss, promote surface flow, and enable the production of finer details and closer tolerances. The workpiece may also need to be reheated. When done in high productivity, press forging is more economical than hammer forging. The operation also creates closer tolerances. In hammer forging a lot of the work is absorbed by the machinery, when in press forging, the greater percentage of work is used in the work piece. Another advantage is that the operation can be used to create any size part because there is no limit to the size of the press forging machine.

HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS


Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering

properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS Induction hardening : Induction hardening is a surface hardening technique in which the surface of the metal is heated very quickly, using a no-contact method of induction heating. The alloy is then quenched, producing a martensite transformation at the surface while leaving the underlying metal unchanged. This creates a very hard, wear resistant surface while maintaining
the proper toughness in the majority of the object. Crankshaft journals are a good example of an induction hardened surface

Hardening :Hardening is a metallurgical and metalworking process used to increase the hardness of a metal. The hardness of a metal is directly proportional to the uniaxial yield stress at the location of the imposed strain. A harder metal will have a higher resistance to plastic deformation than a less hard metal.

Tempering : Untempered martensitic steel, while very hard, is too brittle to be useful for most applications. A method for alleviating this problem is called tempering. Most applications require that quenched parts be tempered. Tempering consists of heating a steel below the lower critical temperature, (often from 400 to 1105 F or 205 to 595 C, depending on the desired results), to impart some toughness. Higher tempering temperatures, (may be up to 1,300 F or 700 C, depending on the alloy and application), are sometimes used to impart further steels. Other methods of tempering consist of quenching to a specific temperature, which is internal stresses can be relieved. These include austempering and martempering Normalizing : Normalizing is a technique used to provide uniformity in grain size and composition throughout an alloy. The term is often used for ferrous alloys that have been heated above the upper critical temperature and then cooled in open air.[17] Normalizing gives harder and stronger steel, but with less ductility for the same composition, than full annealing. Carburizing : Carburizing or carburising is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon liberated when the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon bearing Depending on the amount of time and temperature, the affected area can vary in carbon material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide, with the intent of making the metal harder. content. Longer carburizing times and higher temperatures lead to greater carbon diffusion into the part as well as increased depth of carbon diffusion. When the iron or steel is cooled rapidly by quenching, the higher carbon content on the outer surface becomes hard via the transformation from austenite to martensite, while the core remains soft and tough as a ferritic and/or pearlite microstructure. This manufacturing ductility, although some yield strength is lost. Tempering may also be performed on normalized above the martensite start temperature, and then holding it there until pure bainite can form or

process can be characterized by the following key points: It is applied to low-carbon work pieces; work pieces are in contact with a high-carbon gas, liquid or solid; it produces a hard produces case hardness depths of up to 0.25 inches Shot blasting process: Abrasive blasting is the operation of cleaning or preparing a surface by forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against it. Usually explained as the use of a material against another material to make it smoother, remove surface contaminants or to shot blasting. roughen a surface. It is also the appropriate term for what is known as glass bead blasting or work piecel surface; workpiece cores largely retain their toughness and ductility; and it

Why shot blasting process is needed because In short it removes all contaminants such as rust, old paint etc and gives a good canvas and key to start the powder or painting process on and at the same time it normally reveals any problems such as corrosion weakness or broken weld joints.Good preparation is paramount to a good long lasting finish.

MACHINING PROCESS
Turning process ; Turning is the process whereby a single point cutting tool is parallel to the surface. It can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using a computer controlled and automated lathe which does not. This type of machine tool is referred to as having computer numerical control, better known as CNC. and is commonly used with many other types of machine tool besides the lathe. Types of turning process ;

Facing ;is part of the turning process. It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating workpiece.[1] This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the workpiece, and often the last- hence the phrase "ending up Parting ; This process is used to create deep grooves which will remove a completed or partcomplete component from its parent stock. Grooving ; is like parting, except that grooves are cut to a specific depth by a form tool instead of severing a completed/part-complete component from the stock. Grooving can be performed on internal and external surfaces, as well as on the face of the part . Knurling ; The cutting of a serrated pattern onto the surface of a part to use as a hand grip using a special purpose knurling tool.

Milling process ;
A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. Milling machines are often classed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refers to the orientation of the main spindle. Both types range in size from small, bench-mounted devices to room-sized machines. Unlike a drill press, which holds the work piece stationary as the drill moves axially to penetrate the material, milling machines also move the work piece radially against the

rotating milling cutter, which cuts on its sides as well as its tip. Types of milling cutting operation are ::

Climb cutting ; In this cutting process the rotating direction of cutter and the feed of the workpiece is in the same direction. Conventional cutting ; In this cutting process the direction of the cutter and the feed of the workpiece is in the opposite direction.

Drilling process
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit is pressed

against the workpiece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the workpiece, cutting off chips from what will become the hole being drilled. Exceptionally, specially-shaped bits can cut holes of non-circular cross-section; a square cross-section is possible

Broaching Process

Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. There are two main types of broaching: linear and rotary. In linear broaching, which is the more common process, the broach is run linearly against a surface of the workpiece to effect the cut. Linear broaches are used in a broaching machine, which is also sometimes shortened to broach. In rotary broaching, the broach is rotated and pressed into the workpiece to cut an axis symmetric shape. A rotary broach is used in a lathe or screw machine. In both processes the cut is performed in one pass of the broach, which makes it very efficient Broaches are shaped similar to a saw, except the teeth height increases over the length of the tool. Moreover, the broach contains three distinct sections Types of broaching tools ;

(Component after broaching operation)

Hobbing Process

Hobbing is a machining process for making gears, splines, and sprockets on a hobbing machine, which is a special type of milling machine. The teeth or splines are progressively cut into the workpiece by a series of cuts made by a cutting tool called a hob. Compared to other gear forming processes it is relatively inexpensive but still quite accurate, thus it is used for a broad range of parts and quantities Hobbing uses a hobbing machine with two skew spindles, one mounted with a blank workpiece and the other with the hob. The angle between the hob's spindle and the workpiece's spindle varies, depending on the type of product being produced. For example, if a spur gear is being produced, then the hob is angled equal to the helix angle of the hob; if a helical gear is being produced then the angle must be increased by the same amount as the helix angle of the helical gear.[4] The two shafts are rotated at a proportional ratio, which determines the number of teeth on the blank.

Modern hobbing machines, also known as hobbers, are fully automated machines that come in many sizes, because they need to be able to produce anything from tiny instrument gears up to 10 ft (3.0 m) diameter marine gears. Each gear hobbing machine typically consists of a chuck and tailstock, to hold the workpiece or a spindle, a spindle on which the hob is mounted, and a drive motor