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PSPP Users Guide

GNU PSPP Statistical Analysis Software Release 0.7.3

This manual is for GNU PSPP version 0.7.3, software for statistical analysis. Copyright c 1997, 1998, 2004, 2005, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.” (a) The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”

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The authors wish to thank Network Theory Ltd http://www.network-theory.co.uk for their financial support in the production of this manual.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction

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2

2 Your rights and

obligations

 

3

3 Invoking

pspp .

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4

3.1 Main

Options

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4

3.2 PDF, PostScript, and SVG Output Options

 

7

3.3 Plain Text Output Options

 

8

3.4 HTML Output Options

 

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9

3.5 OpenDocument Output

 

Options

 

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9

3.6 Comma-Separated Value Output Options

 

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4 Invoking

psppire

 

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11

4.1

The graphic user interface

 

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5 Using

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12

5.1 Preparation of Data Files

 

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5.1.1 Defining

Variables

 

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13

5.1.2 Listing the

data

 

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13

5.1.3 Reading

data

from

 

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text

file

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14

5.1.4 Reading

data

from

a

pre-prepared PSPP file

 

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5.1.5 Saving data to a PSPP

 

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5.1.6 Reading data from other sources

 

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5.2 Data Screening and Transformation

 

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5.2.1 Identifying incorrect data

 

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5.2.2 Dealing with suspicious data

 

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5.2.3 Inverting negatively coded variables

 

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5.2.4 data

Testing

consistency

 

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17

5.2.5 for

Testing

normality

 

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18

5.3 Hypothesis

Testing

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21

5.3.1 Testing for differences

 

of

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21

5.3.2 Linear

Regression

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22

6 The PSPP language

 

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6.1 Tokens .

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26

6.2 Forming commands of tokens

 

27

6.3 Variants of

syntax.

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28

6.4 Types

of Commands

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28

6.5 . 6.6 Handling missing observations 6.7 .

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Order

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Commands

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29

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6.7.1 Attributes of Variables

 

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6.7.2 Variables Automatically Defined by PSPP

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31

6.7.3 Lists of

variable

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32

6.7.4 Input and Output Formats

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32

6.7.4.1 Basic Numeric Formats

 

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6.7.4.2 Custom Currency Formats

 

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6.7.4.3 Legacy Numeric Formats

 

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6.7.4.4 Binary and Hexadecimal Numeric Formats

 

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6.7.4.5 Time and Date Formats

 

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6.7.4.6 Date Component

Formats

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40

6.7.4.7 String

Formats

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41

6.7.5

Scratch

Variables

 

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41

6.8 Files Used by

PSPP

 

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41

6.9 File

Handles

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42

6.10 Backus-Naur

Form

 

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43

7

Mathematical Expressions

 

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7.1 Boolean

Values

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44

7.2 Missing Values in Expressions

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44

7.3 Grouping

Operators

 

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44

7.4 Arithmetic

Operators

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44

7.5 Logical

Operators

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45

7.6 Relational

Operators

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45

7.7 Functions

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46

7.7.1 Mathematical Functions

 

46

7.7.2 Miscellaneous Mathematical Functions

 

46

7.7.3 Trigonometric

Functions

 

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47

7.7.4 Missing-Value

Functions

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47

7.7.5 Set-Membership Functions

 

48

7.7.6 Statistical

Functions

 

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48

7.7.7 String

Functions

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49

7.7.8 Time &

Date

Functions

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51

7.7.8.1 How times & dates are defined and represented

 

51

7.7.8.2 Functions

that

Produce Times

 

51

7.7.8.3 Functions

that

Examine Times

 

51

7.7.8.4 Functions

that

Produce Dates

 

52

7.7.8.5 Functions

that

Examine Dates

53

7.7.8.6 Date Arithmetic

Time and

 

54

7.7.9 Miscellaneous Functions

 

55

7.7.10 Statistical Distribution

Functions

 

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55

7.7.10.1

Continuous Distributions

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56

7.7.10.2

Discrete Distributions

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