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Copyright 2011 All Rights Reserved by Clare Nattress

Clare Nattress

Practice and Dissemination Journal The body in contemporary art - from traditional portraiture to active presence.

May 2012

Introduction This research journal aims to produce an edited, resolved document that will discuss developing observations, questions, speculation, self-awareness, analysis and synthesis, and self reflection. It will refine my documentation of studio and exhibition practice including works in progress over the course of the module and include visual documentation as well as an edited commentary focusing on process and exploring relationships between practice and dissemination. A tension will be proposed between the resolved and the unresolved, the drafted and the re-written, the finished and the unfinished through works which explore, respond or enact a state of being in process.

Placement of Practice in Context to body of Ideas/Knowledge

In this extended period, my practice-as-research has been directed into specific fields of discourse through my process of working and reflecting over the last year. To establish and understand my work as research I have looked to similar models, case studies, theories, and looked to the work of other practitioners. With forms of enquiry repeatedly rooted in explorations of body through the use of digital and scientific technologies, I have positioned my work within Performance/Action Art, Conceptual Art and New Media frameworks. I have unpicked and will discuss the issues arising out of creative practice and questioned the proliferating relationships between creative work and research. I have also considered the relevance to these questions as a part of broader issues: what is knowledge? what is research? what is dissemination? and how can we understand the creative process? Different conceptualizations of my body have been an ongoing observation through artistic process, specifically in my previous works Daylight Saving Time, Hypnosis, Reel Time and 48.869288,2.35425 [accessed at]. Through this development I have become interested in how my work creates physical situations which communicate the existence of a live being. The use of bodily endurance as a marker of time and interests in time-based art (particularly the work of Francis Alys and On Kawara) became pivotal in the making and production of work as I toyed with the idea that the art itself only lasts for the duration of the action / gesture performed. Working between this gap of bodyas-image and body-as-lived reality has not only encouraged performative tendencies but also has made me question the nature of self-portraiture in researching its conventions and contextualisations.

As I am aware, self-portraiture proposes to establish the identity, reveal the temperament and delineate the character of the individual. It displays the body as the point at which art and life converge. Taking this onboard I feel my work falls outside traditional modes of portraiture and lends more to conceptualize a live body in existence by exploring the body itself as a part or being in, and of, time and space. Ultimately this elucidates how it can become a tool of representation, dematerialization and immateriality and questions how our existence comes first and whether our awareness of it follows. While not all of these images and experiments are self portraits, all of them, as Amelia Jones discusses in Self/Image - enact the self in the context of the visual and performing arts. All of them, then, participate in what I call self imaging, the rendering of the self in and through technologies of representation (2006:4).

Reel Time 2011 explores the idea of body in trance (learnt through hypnosis), interests in consciousness, the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of self, unconsciousness and the gaps between.

- Historical Context Research into the historical context of performance and conceptual art has addressed the body-orientated work of performance artists in the 1960s, mainly how the body has become a potent signifier of lived experience as well as a medium to formal and aesthetic enquiry. It can also be mentioned that I have been influenced by the claims made for Happenings, a term coined by Allan Kaprow, whereby the art exists in the moment only, to be experienced by the whole body in the here and now. Happenings can be either a performance, event or situation meant to be considered art. In more recent modes of artistic practice, interests in the development of real time technologies in the 1990s combined with the Internet, favored the emergence of new and various forms of interactivity art that I have began to acknowledge and experiment with. Thinking of the work as a transmission, the relationship between the new media art aspect to happenings eliminates or reduces the boundary between the artwork and its viewer which is something to be considered for exhibition. The interactions between the audience and the artwork makes the audience, in a sense, part of the art. Even though my work isnt traditionally what we may call performance art, it does contain performative and live tendencies, and is still a context that my work can greatly relate to and one I have actively researched (particularly live actions that I have attended Oui Performance/Action Art Now). I believe my relation to performance art is how I think of the body as an interface that interacts with the surrounding world on an ontological level and it is in the sharing of these embodied phenomenologies that beings can engage and be made aware of self and other.

In the 1970s, Acconci produced a body of conceptual, performance-based film and video works, in which he engages in an intensive psychodramatic dialogue between artist and viewer, body and self, public and private, subject and object. In Following Piece (1969) the artist tracked individuals through the streets of New York and into public spaces. Each pursuit is carefully documented with photos and time coded text.

Strategies of decision-making & dissemination in practice through enquiries pursued - Thinking about practice as a form of research / how research is formulated Through intensive testing and experimentation with technology (particularly sound) over the course of this extended period, I collated weekly Heartbeat readings and data of my (a) live body. By adopting a medical discourse the enquiry inevitably holds an element of truth, a sharing of knowledge that is often explicit and factual of our human system. With these ideas circling in mind, a set of questions were interrogated: Is it still possible to be present without an image of my physical body, and what does it mean to have visibility or have live presence within the work? It was through these particular research questions that I became aware of fields of research and case studies such as The Sonic Body, a 2011 arts science collaboration between four interdisciplinary artists and a heart surgeon. This audio-installation uses interactive technology to create an orchestra of the human body bringing together art and medical-science to reveal internal unheard sounds. What I could engage with here was how the project creates a unique way for an audience to think about and experience the body through sound using various medical techniques. This community of practise adopts the use of arts to explain science to a wider public; utilising science as a factual grounding for arts practice. Here we can identify and analyse a strategy of dissemination used in order to communicate knowledge to the wider public. This is indeed why the work was constructed in parts, as the artists knew the work would tour the country.

My own electrocardiogram (ECG) this method of medical technology interprets the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body.

- Understanding Value Exchange With regard to my experimentations, sound was used in process as a strategy to explore another sensory capacity, rather than vision, to provide data perception for the viewer. With The Sonic Body in mind I considered how practice can circulate while contributing to the discussion of the specificity of the artistic research practice. By this I mean, the work can be accessed primarily as a form of art but also as a form of medical enquiry which therefore holds great value in the sharing of knowledge both artistically and medically. In analysing this, I can re-asses how I thought of value as having a monetary exchange, however through thinking about this specific form of research I have considered how knowledge can have a value in the communication of the work itself. Allsopp discusses this further with regard to professional practice and that of cultural economies, cultural production and cultural consumption. If we believe that artwork has a cultural function other than participating in the general proliferation of commodity values, then the question of how artwork is disseminated and distributed and of the economies that it moves within would seem to be a necessary and timely focus for research (Allsopp:1999). When thinking about knowledge, on a critical and reflective note, bringing together art and medical science does communicate typologies of knowledge, specifically explicit knowledge, and can place my work within a specific community of practice based research. How the work was experienced however, failed to engage into anything other than a factual bodily sound which was not completely integral or, from my perspective, wasnt at the time of making. The work being a scientific digitalization of biological information is interesting to my enquiry, however the recordings did not achieve a sense of real-time liveness in the works communication and output which is a strategy of decision making I need to re-consider. It was significant that I tried these experiments out even as an initial form of enquiry, particularly to help me consider my work as a form of research but also to recognise what I did, what I tested and what I considered through making-in-action ultimately broadening critical evaluation of my own work and others.

Recording Internal Body Sounds at Salfords Anechoic Chamber

- Online Platforms Blog, Vimeo YouTube nattressclare?feature=guide I can identify the web sites above as strategy of dissemination that I use daily in order to spark process and place my work into online conversations. This is also a means whereby the process and outcome of artistic research can be propagated in a liquid, open system. Here the dissemination of work on web-based services allows me to construct a public or private profile and to connect with other users in a easy, accessible way. This concept of live-blogging or daily blogging becomes a methodology which has a presentness, inherent with regard to my work as my creative process is viewed as a rolling textual coverage of an ongoing idea. I can analyse this further through key text, Performance, Documentation and the archive within the Institution. Here Richmond discusses this notion of archiving further; The archive provides me with an access to my thinking and doing at the time of creation, yielding process, ideas, and methodologies that I do not necessarily have access to when I merely think of the various projects that I have made, after I have made them. (Reason 2011:149-171) I can agree that this tool of dissemination has provided me with a refined aesthetic, conceptual and formal knowledge of my own work as well as a place to store my thoughts previously confined to a studio sketchbook. Also, through communication with fellow artists here in York, I do believe blogging and archiving current exhibitions/creative happenings, going on in the city, will prove to be important in Yorks future artistic ventures, as there will be documents and writings to look back upon during the pivotal time that Yorks contemporary art scene materialised. - Own strategies of decision making in and through practice Through a creative enquiry with sound, I was interested in whether there might be different experiential or phenomenological engagement with the body through sound and vision and questioned the relationship between audio and visual; does one ground us more or less than the other in issues of identity, authenticity, intersubjectivity? I considered the idea that sound and image should be separate, adopting rules such as when you ascribe sounds to objects not to use a realistic sound, or at least not a sound that connects directly with the object, especially not if the image of the object is clear.

It was here creative decisions about how I was communicating the work outwards and how is the work being read became a turning point in my thinking. What is the most effective way to communicate a work of art? With these questions in mind, I believe the archive of data collated over this time using amps, speakers, microphones, found sound, placing sound in installation spaces, learning how to bring sound into being, allowed a process of doing and learning through repeated exercise and repeated action. In reflection, making upon action where this knowledge is generated has helped me acknowledge fundamental epistemologies in the making of work. By this I mean, all of these experiments did broaden my technical abilities, skills and understanding of sound and technology giving me knowledge on how sound is produced. Critically speaking, it is true to say that I lost sight of my works integral creative function as the concept of body was missing from the experiments. It was here my momentum shifted and my knowledge and enquiry became clearer. With regard to practice and knowledge Painter states: Practice as research acknowledges fundamental epistemological issues that can only be addressed in and through practice that practice can be both a form of research and a legitimate way of making the findings of such research publicly available. (Painter:1996) Critically thinking, the emphasis had shifted from an artistic practice directed towards final products to a testing of a body of practice exploring new modes of experience and knowledge. I do find my momentum increases creatively when there is a clear context for exhibition in mind. It is here that I have realised one of my main methodologies of working is being able to consider exhibition site, location and context. It was crucial for me at this point to re-deploy previous knowledge and methods of working with body, action and duration after questioning my recent strategies of making in practice. The following research questions became of interest: how can I create a work whereby viewers are engaged into a live body, a live presence, or a live space in time whilst also constituting and sharing knowledge in the discourses I am thinking about. Awareness that there was an artistic value in what I doing enabled my motivations for producing work to become clear, mainly due to securing an exhibition space. By contrast, the dialogue in the making of work changed as I began to think more clearly with regard to my work understanding its context and a greater sense of audience and reception.

- Location With regard to location, Bar Lane studios is a contemporary art space located in the heart of York. The main gallery space is the conventional white walled gallery which also functions as a cafe during the opening times of the space. As I will be approaching the gallery as a conventional white cube space, ODohertys writings Inside The White Cube was considered. Here I can identify why a clear idea of exhibition space is crucial for me in the making of work as issues such as the relationship between economics, social context, and aesthetics become paramount. ODoherty ultimately raises the question of how artists must construe their work in relation to the gallery space and system. It is here I can also question the reading of my work outside of a academic context and how that may differ from exhibitions within the institution. I can pinpoint that the function of the exhibition for my work will be to generate and circulate knowledge exchange instead of a an exchange in monetary value. This is particularly interesting in a context which has previously never had work without price tags attached. With space and system in mind, I questioned how both the collaborative nature of our exhibition and its function as a cafe during the day could hinder any sound piece involved. If sound was listened to through headphones, stethoscopes, telephones etc any embodied or phenomenological engagement with the work would be diminished, not to mention the small percentage of people who may not even put the headphones on. It was here the curatorial decisions in the works exhibition became clearer, by this I mean audience perception, space, interaction, visual components, implementations of new technologies, endurance and place of presentation were of importance.

Bar Lane Studios, York. Photographs of space taken when exhibition space was secured. The role of the gallery as a public context

Identifying and analysing strategies of dissemination in the work of key Practitioners - Liveness With strong connections to my practice, Artist Stelarc calls his performances physical experience of ideas in which expression and experience are united and the body becomes an actual manifestation of a concept. (Kalem:2010) In Stelarcs work each new technology generates novel information and unexpected images of the body and the world. Here we can pinpoint this as a clear strategy used in order to destabilizes our paradigms of what a body is and how it operates. The technology used to achieve this generates uncertainty, it constructs the unexpected. In my case I believe, despite its temperamental nature, technology is exciting to incorporate as part of artistic expression. It was at this time I was experimenting with live sound and real time data exploring the notion of self as a part of a continuum in the time process. In exploring how to create a real time data body, I adopted software called Processing which uses Java script coding (I am only familiar with HTML script from my web site), to produce a specific visual output. It was a conscious decision to use Processing because Flash became very limiting with regard to visual output and their is a wider discussion online for help and guidance when coding java script. I wanted to produce my existence since birth in millisecond digits which will continue to increase over the duration of the exhibition.

Projected coding of my existence in milliseconds. Coded by Justin Mckeown and modified by myself. Experimentation with projections - monitors and positioning above head. Thinking about the work as a live piece

I was drawn around conceptualizations of body and its potential for meanings within a social context. With audience in mind, I believe the passage of time would be a kind of materiality, it would cease to be experienced as a linear flow and as French Philosopher Henri Bergson discusses would become an all encompassing present in the experience of the work. In embracing technological software I believe the body becomes dematerialized and transformed into something strange and other becoming significant in how the work is read especially significant in a society of technological means. It was here that Stelarcs Ear on Arm became a point of interest. The engineering of a new organ for the body creates an accessible and mobile organ for other bodies in other places, enabling people to locate and listen into from elsewhere via an online platform. This sense of liveness, the present tense, about presence, is therefore valuable in my works communication unlike pre-recorded heartbeat sounds, as liveness is constituted as something inherent to the work and the experience of the work. In Theatre Audience and Perceptions of Liveness in Performance, Reason speaks of the distinct perception of liveness and how different forms of performativity might be differently experienced by audiences. With this in mind, we can think about liveness through real-time technologies. It interests me how real-time data can be appropriated to that of performance with regard to the live status of the work and viewing of the work, Jellicoe describes this as live actors on stage in front of a live audience (1967:67).

Stelac Ear on Arm (2006) The body now performs beyond the boundaries of its skin and beyond the local space that it occupies. It can project its physical presence elsewhere.

- Critically applying strategies of dissemination Through further technological exploration of live body I have re-deployed interests in live locative media. The concept of tracking the body produces live data, connecting a set of coordinates with exact time, thus providing accurate information on speed, acceleration, elevation, accessibility of terrain, accuracy of satellite signal and so on. Locative media research can be categorized under one of two types of mapping, either annotative, the virtually tagging the world, or phenomenological, the tracing the action of the subject in the world. Here my interest in phenomenology becomes significant and similarly that of self imaging, as the bodys experience of social space that GPS formulates is an accurate portrait, a fundamental print of reality and certainly physical proof of existence. It is here I can address this relationship between body and machine which has been written about in key text - A Cyborg Manifesto Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. Here Harraway discusses the image of cyborg. She defines this image in four different ways. The first is as a cybernetic organism. The second is as a hybrid of machine and organism. The third is as a creature of lived social reality, and the fourth is as a creature of fiction. This idea of cyborg is interesting with regard to the immateriality between human and machine relationship. A cyborg would have elements that would qualify it as classically alive and then again, not. This lends hand to how the use of technology in my work brings forth the performative but not performance. Today, machines are making ambiguous the difference between the natural and the artificial, Without ever citing the Internet or virtual reality technologies, our machines are disturbingly lively, and we ourselves frighteningly inert (1991:149). With society now being very dependent on technology, this becomes a rapid strategy used in the making of work with regard to cultural context. Artists Stelarc, Katy Connor and Blast Theory all use interactive media to create ground breaking new forms of performance and interactive art that mixes audiences across the internet, live performance and digital broadcasting.

A miniature, hand held application for a mobile and global audience; PURE FLOW [mobile edition] reveals the noise generated between GPS data systems and multiple satellites, 3G networks and Wifi hotspots as a tangible presence in the environment. The APP visualises the instability and fragility of Live signals, passing through cloud cover and urban architecture; absorbed by bodies, reflecting off concrete and refracting through glass. Here the use-value of GPS as a surveying and navigational tool; reveals these invisible data streams and highlights their increasing ubiquity, as sophisticated military technologies become key components in daily life.

By using digital software to output data of myself, the transmission of work and the work as a transmission both circulate within the dialogue of a specific discourse. It is here that I am beginning to understand the relationship between practice and dissemination by thinking about what the work communicates and how/if that is being communicated outwards. Artists Thomson and Craighead have consistently attempted to bridge the gap between the Web and the gallery space. Their works, particularly The Distance Travelled and Light from Tomorrow, collate information of what is happening now; artworks that sculpt with time, in real time (2010:67). In the context of their work and mine, conceptual considerations and the notion of time are both significant. With regard to the dissemination of my work, I believe one of the main challenges of presenting digital art is that the context and the work are generally displayed via the same means: a screen. Thomson and Craighead, however adopt a wide range of other technological means; projectors, light boxes, telephones, clocks, webcams etc. With The Distance Travelled particularly in mind, I tested the idea of pairing two TV screens facing each other with real time data information running at the same time in real time, curated as a part-to-whole juxtaposition which is effective in the reading of their work as the viewer can comprehend both digits in relation to each other and themselves.

The Distance Travelled - Projection of digits are a similar mode of dissemination to what I have been testing with projecting digits on ceilings and floors.

Analysis of Strategies of Dissemination meeting exhibition context Strategies of decision making in practice - now here I have worked with the Criminal Justice System in order to have an electronic tag fitted for the duration of the exhibition. The mapping and data interface which is accessed from the device through to a html webpage will sit in situ alongside the live digits of my body in number. In considering the relationship between the form of the exhibition and the particularity of the work itself, the viewer will be engaged in the tracking devices output in Google Maps. Google Maps is of course a culturally recognizable interface which is a visual technique and strategy of dissemination I will use purposefully in the output of idea. To explain this further, Henk Slager explains in Is the Medium the Message; At the moment, I am trying to develop the concept of information culture simply starting from the way we interact and the interfaces we use. As several theorists and curators have noted, such forms of interaction, social exchange, participation, and transformation serve as this common ground which becomes implicit in how the artwork communicates what it communicates (Slager:2010). The idea of virtually tracking a body is discussed in Jim Giles article Mind-reader: Facebook of revelations. Giles speaks of advanced software algorithms which can glean a surprising amount of detail about your life and personal data. He explains of how Facebook can map humans via their relationships even those whom choose not to reveal their physical addresses, and how its possible to infer the general location of the majority of users based on the few who do. Similar software can figure out who is likely to be your friend and what kind of personality you might have as well as your rough locations using GPS from Twitter feeds (Giles:2012).

- using Internet as a tool for both forms of dissemination It is here we can begin to consider the issues around net art and how the internet has become not only a mode of information transmission (web sites, blogs etc) but a context for art to exist for public exhibition (Blast Even though my work isnt specifically what I would call net art, I do believe it is distributed via the net. Even though the differences between online art, internet art and net art are continuously questioned, my work does not necessarily entail that the art is actually located, stored or experienced online, on the net (as it is in actual space in exhibition), but rather passes through it. By using everyday interfaces such as Google Maps, cultural and social discourses in the work then start to create social conversations which provide different ways to express ideas and knowledge. I can begin to establish what the context of the medium means in terms of knowledge experience - the viewer has the common ground of these interfaces to contemplate the discourses I am thinking about. Here it is important to re-iterate the significance of participating in a dialogue around questions that generate the context for the works emergence and its very existence. The connectivity of the body through technology presents a possibility to disconnect and to reconnect to another interfaces, which provides it with a bodily multiplicity through the plugging and unplugging of the body to technology.

Vopos (2002) A Self-surveillance system for complete digital transparency. For an entire year the artists have been wearing a GPS transmitter, sending their co-ordinates to their website. The work consists of monitoring and making public, in real time, the biggest quantity of data concerning an individual in the actual society.

My Electronic Tag - fitted for duration of exhibition.

With regard to my work in exhibition, now here displays the body as a site of social interaction, interactions which sometimes mask the bodys presence and sometimes open it up in ways that reveal its diverse movements through the world. I can consider the ideas of the body is a locus of morality, the point from which morality is delivered and the site to which it is applied. Looking into the physical body and its configuration as locus of meaning, or react and respond to that methodology by embedding the into a much more densely configured set of social codes that trace its presence in the world. With regard to my practice, case studies within text; Practice as Research Knowledge and their Place in the Academy have been helpful when acknowledging how I am communicating my work outwards and the particular questions to practice-as-research such as, how I am framing my work, where am I framing it? Here I can be more explicit about the working process as a form of research and about decisions taken around the dissemination and publication of work as practice-as-research. Firstly, creative work in itself is a form of research and generates detectable research outputs; secondly, to suggest that creative practice the training and specialized knowledge that creative practitioners have and the processes they engage in when they are making art - can lead to specialized research insights which can then be generalized and written up as research (Smith & Dean:2009:5).

now here- testing of work through artificial wall built for exhibition. Google Mapping Interface accessed via Electronic tag database.

This not only emphasizes creative practice in itself but also highlights the insights, conceptualization and theorization which can arise when artists reflect on and document their own creative practice. Practice is crucially constituted by embodied, materially mediated arrays of human activity and shared skills and understanding or tacit knowledge (Schatzki et al. 2000. 2-3). In my case I believe practice as research therefore provides enquiries combining creative doing and reflexive being through this testing of a nascent body of practice.

Post exhibition
Through intensive testing and experimentation over the course of this extended period it is now apparent that I have recognised my strategies of decision making and dissemination in order to find my angle and direct my research. My work for exhibition was carefully considered and was a product of my ideas in process, all be it, a test of the work at that point (the exhibition was indeed a beginning rather than an end). I do believe the work was well discussed and created a conversational dialogue around the performative nature of the work and the concept itself. With this in mind, I believe I have produced an exhibition full of questions both for the viewer and myself, ultimately questions and ideas that I can take forward into my Independent Project. Questions of the visibility of the work became apparent, and I began to questions how I could formalise this piece of work without any visual components. Does the work have to be visible? How can I produce an exhibition whereby my data is live but isnt obvious, even somewhat unnoticeable. In hindsight, through my works loss of momentum previously in the year, I have been able to address why that was, particularly that of how detrimental it is for me to work in the studios for a lengthy period and not applying for regular exhibition opportunities.

now here- Work in Exhibition. to begin show. Bar Lane Studios, York.

This is one of the main reasons my blog was discussed as a strategy of dissemination as it has become a true sketchbook in my daily thoughts ultimately sparking process of making in action. It has provided me with a refined aesthetic, conceptual and formal knowledge of my own work as well as a place to store my thoughts previously confined to a studio sketchbook. In addition, having an exhibition context helped me garner a greater knowledge and understanding in considering audience and reception in the production of work. The exhibition at Bar Lane has helped me question how artists go about making something previously private into public, and how I make work in response to a context particularly one within a non-institutional and non academic environment. With regard to dissemination, I have considered location, medium, economy, discourses, communication and spectatorship and also stated my research questions throughout process. This has helped me understand the relationship between practice and dissemination. Critically thinking, I believe I have identified, analysed and evaluated my own strategies of dissemination and also other practitioners work. Particularly the work of artists whom I have seen in exhibition or researched with regard to my own practice and its conventions. Throughout this process, I have become increasingly aware of the proliferating relationships between creative work and research. I have also discussed the relevance to these questions as a part of broader issues: what is knowledge? what is research? what is dissemination? I have addressed the importance of curating knowledge ideas, questioning what is the value in the work? instead of work which has a monetary value. I have spoken about the conscious decision of the works progression and critically discussed my own decision making. Through making now here with all these questions in mind, I have been able to consider my work as a form of enquiry which will lead me into practice as research. In considering and analysing strategies of dissemination and decision making I have formed an increasingly confident practice.

now here- Work in Exhibition.Millisecond digits running for duration.

Bibliography Alberro, A. (2003) Conceptual Art and the Politics of Publicity. England: The MIT Press. Allsopp, R. (1999) Performance Research: On Ritual. England: Routledge. Auslander, P. (1999) Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture. England: Routledge. Boyd, D. and Ellison, N. (2007b) Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1), article 11, vol13/issue1/ ml, (1 April 2010). Cook, S & Graham, B. (2010) Re-thinking Curating: Art after New Media. England: The MIT Press. Harraway, D. (1991) A Cyborg Manifesto Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. England: Routledge. Jellicoe, A (1967) Some unconscious influences in the theatre. England: Cambridge U.P Jones, A. (2006) Self/Image: Technology, Representation and the Contemporary Subject. New York: Routledge. Kershaw, B. (2011). Practice as Research - Transdisciplinary Innovation in Action. United Kingdom: Edinburgh University Press. Kershaw,Baz (2011). ePractice as Research Knowledge and their Place in the Academy f. In Allegue, Jones, Kershaw and Piccini Eds Practice-as Research in performance and screen. Palgrave: Basingstoke.pp.112-30 Marincola, p. (2006) What makes a Great Exhibiton? Philadelphia: Philadelpia Exhibitions Initiative. Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002) Phenomenology of Perception. New York: Routledge. Ranciere, J. (2004) The Politics of Aesthetics. London: Continuum. Reason, M, Dorey Richmond, J, Gray, V & Walker, N (2011) Performance, Documentation and the archive within the Institution. In McGillivray Ed Hidden Archives. Peter Lang: Amsterdam. pp 149-71. Schon, Donald. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Basic Books: New York. Extract pp49-69

Smith, Hazel & Dean, Rogers (2009). Introduction: Practice-led-research, research-ledpractice. Towrds the Iterative Cyclic Web University of Edinburgh Press: Edinburgh. pp 1-5. ODoherty, B. (1976) Inside The White Cube - Ideology of the Gallery space.London, England: University of Californa Press.

Wesbites/Journals Accessed

Adams, C., Cole, T., DePaolo, C. and Edwards, S. (2001) Bringing the Curatorial Process to the Web. In Museums and the Web, [online] Available at: mw2001/papers/depaol o/depaola.html, [Accessed 1st April 2012] Slager, H (2010) Is the Medium the Message. [online] Available at: research/mahkuzine1.html, [Accessed 5th April 2012]. Giles (2012) How the Internet can read your mind - Mindreader Facebook of revelations. [online] Available at:, [Accessed 20th April 2012]. Kalem (2010) Becoming through Performance An analysis of the body in Stelarcs performances. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3rd March 2012]. The Sonic Body - Oui Performance - Websites Accessed