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Methodology

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Methodology

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for Energy Performance of Buildings

Republic of Moldova

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

2

March 2011

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................4

I. CALCULATION METHODOLOGY FOR THERMAL PROTECTION OF BUILDING COMPONENTS

AND BUILDINGS ...........................................................................................................................7

1. CALCULATION OF ENERGY NEED FOR SPACE HEATING ..........................................................8

1.1 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.......................................................................................................................8

1.2 CALCULATION OF ENERGY NEED FOR HEATING........................................................................................11

1.3 HEAT TRANSFER BY TRANSMISSION .....................................................................................................13

1.4 HEAT TRANSFER BY VENTILATION..........................................................................................................19

1.5 THERMAL GAINS ..............................................................................................................................21

1.6 DYNAMIC PARAMETERS......................................................................................................................25

1.7 TOTAL ANNUAL ENERGY NEED FOR SPACE HEATING................................................................................28

II. CALCULATION METHODOLOGY FOR ENERGY USE FOR SPACE HEATING ...........................29

2. ENERGY USE FOR SPACE HEATING..........................................................................................30

2.1 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ....................................................................................................................30

2.2 HEAT EMISSION SUBSYSTEM...............................................................................................................31

2.3 HEAT DISTRIBUTION SUBSYSTEM..........................................................................................................35

2.4 HEAT STORAGE SUBSYSTEM...............................................................................................................36

2.5 AUXILIARY ENERGY OF HEATING SYSTEM................................................................................................37

III. CALCULATION METHODOLOGY FOR ENERGY USE FOR HOT WATER PREPARATION........38

3. ENERGY USE FOR HOT WATER PREPARATION.......................................................................39

3.1 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ....................................................................................................................39

3.2 DOMESTIC HOT WATER VOLUME OF DHW PREPARED...........................................................................41

3.3 DOMESTIC HOT WATER DHW DISTRIBUTION SUBSYSTEM AND STORAGE SUBSYSTEM..................................41

3.4 DOMESTIC HOT WATER DHW SYSTEM AUXILIARY ENERGY...................................................................43

IV. CALCULATION OF GLOBAL INDICATORS..................................................................................44

4. CALCULATION OF GLOBAL INDICATOR....................................................................................45

4.1 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.....................................................................................................................45

4.2 DELIVERED ENERGY ..........................................................................................................................46

4.3 PRIMARY ENERGY AND EMISSIONS OF CO2............................................................................................49

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

4

Introduction

This Methodology of Calculation for Energy Performance of Buildings (hereinafter referred to

as Methodology) is supported by an Excel Tool developed for the calculation of energy

performance of and issuance of the Energy Performance Certificates for buildings. The

Methodology is available for all rated building categories, such as family houses, apartment

houses, schools, office buildings and mixed use buildings.

The Methodology focuses on energy (heat) needs for heating, energy use for space heating

and energy use for domestic hot water calculation.

For the calculation of energy use the following EN and EN ISO technical standards are used

as a basis. They are necessary only as additional information, detailed calculations, and/or

for special cases. These are not necessary for standard energy rating. The standard rating

calculation is a subject of next chapters in this methodology.

Num

ber

of

EN

Title of the standard

Part 1 Standard for energy (heat) use for space heating and cooling

EN ISO 13790 Thermal performance of buildings Calculation of energy use for space heating

and cooling (ISO 13790: 2008)

PART 2 Thermal protection of building components

EN ISO 13789

Thermal performance of buildings Transmission and

ventilation heat transfer coefficients Calculation method (ISO 13789: 2007)

EN ISO 6946

Building components and building elements Thermal resistance and thermal

transmittance Calculation method (ISO 6946: 2007)

EN ISO 13370 Thermal Performance of buildings - Heat transfer via the ground Calculation

methods (ISO 13370: 2007)

EN 13947

Thermal performance of curtain walling Calculation of thermal transmittance

EN ISO 10077-1

Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters

Calculation of thermal transmittance Part 1: General

EN ISO 10077-2

Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters Calculation of thermal

transmittance Part 2: Numerical method for frames

EN ISO 10211

Thermal bridges in building construction Heat flows and surface temperatures

Detailed calculations (ISO 10211: 2007)

EN ISO 14683 Thermal bridges in building construction - Linear thermal transmittance

Simplified methods and default values (ISO 14683: 2007)

EN ISO 10456 Building materials and products - Hydrothermal properties- Tabulated design

values and procedures for determining declared and design thermal values (ISO

10456: 2007)

Part 3 Standards for heating calculation

EN 15316-1 Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies Part 1: General

EN 15316-2-1 Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies Part 2.1: Space heating emission

systems

Data collection

on hot water preparation

(design, inspection, proposal)

Total delivered energy

(actual state, after realisation of proposed measures)

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

5

EN 15316-4

Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies

Part 4-1:: Space heating generation systems, combustion system

Part 4-2: Space heating generation systems, heat pump system

Part 4-3: Space heating generation systems, thermal solar systems

Part 4-4: Heat generation systems, building-integrated cogeneration systems

Part 4-5: Space heating generation systems, the performance and quality of

district heating and large volume systems

Part 4-6: Heat generation systems, photovoltaic systems

Part 4-7: Space heating generation systems, biomass combustion systems

EN 15316-2-3 Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies Part 2.3: Space heating distribution

systems

Part 4 Standards for domestic hot water calculation

EN 15316-3

Heating systems in buildings method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies

Part 3-1: Domestic hot water systems, characterization of needs (tapping

requirements)

Part 3-2: Domestic hot water systems, distribution

Part 3-3: Domestic hot water systems, generation

Part 5 Standards for automation and control

EN 15232

Energy performance of buildings - Impact of Building

Automation, Controls and Building Management

The Methodology is divided into four main separate chapters:

I. Calculation methodology for thermal protection of building components and buildings,

including the energy (heat) need for heating;

II. Calculation methodology for energy use for space heating;

III. Calculation methodology for energy use for hot water preparation;

IV. Calculation of global indicator (total delivered energy total energy use in building),

primary energy and CO2 emissions.

The procedures for thermal protection are based on EN ISO 13790 and on the technical

standards referenced in this standard.

Parts of the methodology on heating systems energy requirements for space heating and

systems for hot water (DHW) preparation are based on EN 15316.

The last part is focused on calculation of global indicator, energy use, total delivered energy,

and primary energy and CO2 emissions. The calculation methodology is based especially on

EN 15603.

Calculations have to be performed by two different experts: one for thermal protection and

the second one for space heating and DHW. Therefore, the terms, definitions and symbols

have been provided for each chapter separately.

The principles of calculation and the connectivity of the calculation results with the

certification scheme are reflected in Figure 1 below. The calculation is repeated for actual

state and state of the building after realization of proposed energy saving measures for

improvement of building thermal protection or measures for improvement of heating system

performance. The dot lines in Figure 1 express the repeating of the calculations for the state

after realization of proposed energy saving measures.

Data collection

on hot water preparation

(design, inspection, proposal)

Total delivered energy

(actual state, after realisation of proposed measures)

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

6

Figure 1. Principles of Calculation and Connection of Calculation Results with the

Certification Scheme

Building data collection

(design, inspection, proposal for improvement)

External climate data collection -

seasonal

Indoor conditions, zoning, partitioning of

building into zones for calculation, building

boundaries

Assessment of building characteristics

Transmission heat transfer coefficients H

tr

Ventilation heat transfer coefficients H

ve

Seasonal method for calculation of

energy need for space heating

Monthly method for calculation of

energy need for space heating

External climate data collection -

monthly

Seasonal heat gains calculation

(solar, internal)

Heat gains calculation

(solar, internal)

for each month

Dynamic parameters calculation

(gain utilization factor for each

month)

Energy need for space heating

(actual state, after realisation of proposed

measures)

Data collection

on Heating systems for space heating

(design, inspection, proposal)

Energy need for hot water calculation

E

x

p

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Energy use for space heating

(actual state, after realisation of

proposed measures)

Data collection

on hot water preparation

(design, inspection, proposal)

Heating systems losses calculation

(distribution, emission, storage,

generation losses)

Energy use for hot water

preparation (actual state, after

realisation of proposed measures)

Total delivered energy

(actual state, after realisation of proposed measures)

E

x

p

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Primary energy calculation

(actual state, after realisation of

proposed measures)

CO

2

emissions calculation

(actual state, after realisation of

proposed measures)

Proposal for energy saving measures

Calculation of energy savings

(energy need, energy use, primary energy, CO

2

emissions)

Energy rating, energy classes, description

(global indicator, buiding thermal protection, space heating,

hot water preparation)

Energy certificate

Print energy certificate

Seasonal gain utilization factor

(constant)

Proposal for energy saving

measures

HOT WATER

PREPARATION

SPACE HEATING

Systems losses calculation

(distribution, emission, storage,

generation losses)

Proposal for energy saving

measures

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

7

I. Calculation Methodology for Thermal Protection of Building

Components and Buildings

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

8

1. Calculation of Energy Need for Space Heating

1.1 Terms and Definitions

calculation step - time interval for the calculation of the energy need and use (one month or

one heating season);

heating season - period of the year during which a significant amount of energy for heating

is needed. In this method seasonal method requires as calculation step a fixed season length

that has to be distinguished from the actual season length;

unoccupied period - period of several days or weeks without heating, e.g. due to holidays;

heated space - room or enclosure, which for the purposes of a calculation is assumed to be

heated to a given set-point temperature;

conditioned space - heated space to define the boundaries of the thermal zones and the

thermal envelope;

unconditioned space - room or enclosure that is not part of a conditioned space;

conditioned zone - part of a conditioned space with a given set-point temperature or set-

point temperatures, throughout which the same occupancy pattern is assumed and the

internal temperature is assumed to have negligible spatial variations, and which is controlled

by a single heating system with equal energy performance;

conditioned area - floor area of conditioned spaces excluding non-habitable cellars or non-

habitable parts of a space, including the floor area on all storeys if more than one. External

dimensions are used for calculation;

external temperature - temperature of external air;

internal temperature - arithmetic average of the air temperature and the mean radiant

temperature at the centre of a zone or space (approximately operative temperature)

set-point (of the internal) temperature - internal (minimum intended) temperature as fixed

by the control system in normal heating mode;

Note: The values are specified at national level. For monthly and seasonal methods, the value of

the set-point can include adjustment for intermittency.

set-back temperature - minimum internal temperature to be maintained during reduced

heating periods;

intermittent heating - heating pattern where normal heating periods alternate with periods

of reduced or no heating;

energy need for heating - heat to be delivered to, or extracted from, a conditioned space to

maintain the intended temperature conditions during a given period of time;

Note: The energy need is calculated and cannot easily be measured.

energy use for space heating - energy input to the heating system to satisfy the energy

need for heating;

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

9

delivered energy for space heating - energy, expressed per energy carrier, supplied to the

technical building systems through the system boundary, to satisfy the uses in building;

heat transfer coefficient -heat flow rate divided by the temperature difference between two

environments; specifically used for heat transfer coefficient by transmission and ventilation

Note: In contrast with a heat gain, the driving force for heat transfer is the difference between

the temperature in the considered space and the temperature of the environment at the other

side (in the case of transmission) or the supply air temperature (in the case of ventilation).

transmission heat transfer coefficient - heat flow rate due to thermal transmission

through the fabric of a building, divided by the difference between the environment

temperatures on either side of the construction;

Note: By convention, the sign is positive if the heat flow is going out of the space considered

(heat loss).

ventilation heat transfer coefficient - heat flow rate due to air entering an enclosed space,

either by infiltration or ventilation, divided by the difference between the internal air

temperature and the supply air temperature;

Note: By convention, the sign of the heat flow is positive if the supply air temperature is lower

than the internal air temperature (heat loss).

internal heat gains - heat provided within the building by occupants (sensible metabolic

heat) and by appliances such as domestic appliances, office equipment, etc., other than

energy intentionally provided for heating or hot water preparation;

Note 1: In this methodology, if not directly taken into account as a reduction to the system

losses, the recoverable system thermal losses are included as part of the internal heat gains.

Note 2: Included is heat from (warm) process sources that are not controlled for the purpose of

heating or domestic hot water preparation.

solar heat gains - heat provided by solar radiation entering, directly or indirectly (after

absorption in building elements), into the building through windows;

solar irradiation - incident solar heat on a surface, per area of surface;

heat-balance ratio - monthly or seasonal heat gains divided by the monthly or seasonal heat

transfer.

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

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SYMBOLS

Table 1. Symbols and Units

Symbo

l

Quantity Unit

A Area m

C effective heat capacity of a conditioned space J/K

c specific heat capacity J/(kg.K)

E Energy MJ

F Factor 1

g total solar energy transmittance of a glazed element 1

H heat transfer coefficient W/K

h surface coefficient of heat transfer W/(mK)

Isol solar irradiance W/m

Q quantity of heat MJ

R thermal resistance m.K/W

t period of time s

U thermal transmittance W/(mK)

V volume of air in a conditioned zone m

heat-balance ratio 1

efficiency, utilization factor 1

centigrade temperature C

Density kg/m

time constant h

heat flow rate, thermal power W

point thermal transmittance W/K

linear thermal transmittance W/(m.K)

L thermal coupling coefficient W/K

Table 2. Subscripts

A Adjacent (building) Gn Gains nocc unoccupied period

a air Gl glazing, glazed

element

occ occupied period

adj adjusted H Heating red reduced

an annual Ht heat transfer s sum, total

B basement Hr Hourly se surface external

b building I internal (temperature) set set-point

bf basement floor Int internal (heat) sh shading

bw basement wall interm Intermittent si surface internal

con

t

continuous L Length sol solar (heat gains)

D direct m monthly, designated

month

tr transmission (heat

transfer

e external, exterior,

envelope

Mn mean (time or space) TB thermal bridge

F frame Nd Need u unconditioned

f floor N Standardized ve ventilation (heat

transfer)

g ground 0 base, reference w window

z zone

For calculation quasi-steady-state method calculating the heat balance over month or a

whole season is being used. Dynamic effects are taken into account by an empirically

determined gain utilization factor.

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

11

Gains utilization factor for the internal and solar heat gains takes account of the fact that only

part of the internal and solar heat gains are utilized to decrease the energy need for heating,

the rest is leading to an undesired increase of the internal temperature above the set-point.

For calculation of volume and total floor area the external dimensions are used.

Calculation Steps:

a) Choose the type of calculation method (seasonal method for dwelling buildings, monthly

method for non-dwelling buildings).

b) Define the boundaries of conditioned spaces and unconditioned spaces.

c) If required, define the boundaries of the different calculation zones (according to

temperature, generation, energy carrier , etc.).

d) Define the internal conditions for the calculations, the external climate and other data

inputs.

e) Calculate, for each time step and building zone, the energy need (heat need) for heating,

QH,nd.

f) Combine the results for different time steps and different zones serviced by the same

systems and calculate the energy use for heating taking into account the dissipated heat

of the heating systems.

g) Combine the results for different building zones with different systems.

Criteria for Single-Zone Calculation:

a) There are only small, unconditioned spaces.

b) Set-point temperatures for heating of the spaces differ by no more than 4 K.

c) The spaces are serviced by the same heating system (in case of one temperature zone

if only parts of building are supplied from different heating systems the heat need can

be calculated for whole building and divided according to floor area to separate heating

systems).

In other cases building should be divided in more temperature zones calculated separately.

For mixed use buildings the parts with separate use are always a separate calculation zones.

1.2 Calculation of Energy Need for Heating

For each building zone and each calculation step (month or season), the building energy

need for space heating, QH,nd, is calculated as:

QH,nd = QH,ht H,gn QH,gn (1)

where:

QH,ht is the total heat transfer for the heating in kWh;

QH,gn is the total heat gains for the heating in kWh;

H,gn is the dimensionless gain utilization factor.

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

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Energy Need for Intermittent Heating

Intermitted heating is applicable only for:

office buildings;

school buildings.

Possible situations considered are:

quasi-continuous heating at constant corrected internal set-point temperature taking into

account intermittency;

night-time and/or weekend reduced set-point or switch-off to set-back temperature;

unoccupied periods (e.g. holidays) only for school buildings.

1.2.1 Quasi-Continuous Heating at Corrected Internal Set-Point Temperature for

Intermitted Heating

Intermittent heating can be considered as continuous heating with corrected internal set-point

temperature if

the set-point temperature variations between normal heating and reduced heating

periods are less or equal to 3 K

and/or

if the time constant of the building is less than 0,2 x the duration of the shortest

reduced heating period. The set-point temperature for the calculation is the time

average of the set-point temperatures.

Standard corrected set-point temperatures for different building types are reported in the

Regulation on Energy Perfromance of Buildings.

1.2.2 Corrections for Intermittency

In the case of intermittent heating, which does not fulfill the conditions in the previous clause

for quasi-continuous heating, the energy need for heating, QH,nd,interm expressed in kWh is

calculated by using equation:

QH,nd QH,nd,interm = H,red . QH,nd,cont (2)

where:

QH,nd,cont is the energy need for continuous heating in kWh;

aH,red is the dimensionless reduction factor for intermittent heating.

The dimensionless reduction factor for intermittent heating, aH,red is calculated using equation:

H,red 1 bH,red(H,0/)H(1 fH,hr) (3)

(min. red,H = fH,hr , max. H,red = 1)

where:

fH,hr is the fraction of the number of hours in the week with normal (no reduced) set-point

temperature, example: (12 5)/(24 7) = 0,357;

bH,red is an empirical correlation factor, bH,red = 3;

is the time constant of the building in hours;

H,0 is the reference time constant in hours;

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

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H is the heat-balance ratio

H,gn

H

H,ht

Q

Q

=

.

1.2.3 Corrections for Unoccupied Period (monthly, simple hourly and detailed

simulation methods)

In school buildings, unoccupied periods during the heating season (holiday periods) are

taken into account by calculation as follows.

For the month which contains an unoccupied period, the calculation is performed twice:

a) for occupied (normal) heating settings; and

b) for unoccupied settings and then interpolate the results linearly according to the time

fraction of unoccupied mode versus occupied mode:

QH,nd = (1 fH,nocc) . QH,nd,occ + fH,nocc . QH,nd,nocc (4)

where:

QH,nd,occ the energy need for heating either QH,nd,cont or QH,nd,interm, assuming for all

days of the month the set-point temperature for occupied period in kWh;

QH,nd, nocc the energy need for heating either QH,nd,cont or QH,nd,interm, assuming for all

days of the month the set-back temperature for the unoccupied period in

kWh;

fH,nocc the fraction of the month which is the unoccupied (heating) period (e.g.

10/31).

Total Heat Transfer and Heat Gains

For each building zone and each calculation step (month or season), the total heat transfer,

Qht is calculated using equation:

QH,ht = Qtr + Qve (5)

where:

Qtr the total heat transfer by transmission in kWh;

Qve the total heat transfer by ventilation in kWh.

1.3 Heat Transfer by Transmission

The total heat transfer by transmission, Qtr in kWh is calculated for each month or season

and for each zone, z, as given by equation:

Qtr = Htr,adj(int,set,H e) . t (6)

where:

Htr,adj the overall heat transfer coefficient by transmission of the zone,

adjusted for the indoor/outdoor temperature difference (if applicable) in

W/K;

int,set,H the set-point temperature of the building zone in C; regulation for each

building category;

e the temperature of the external environment in C; set in regulation;

t is the duration of the calculation step (month, season) in hours.

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

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1.3.1 Transmission Heat Transfer Coefficient

The value for the overall transmission heat transfer coefficient, Htr,adj , expressed in W/K shall

be calculated in accordance with EN ISO 13789, using the following equation:

Htr,adj = HD +Hg + HU + HA (7)

where:

HD the direct heat transfer coefficient by transmission to the external

environment in W/K;

Hg the steady-state heat transfer coefficient by transmission to the ground in

W/K;

HU the transmission heat transfer coefficient by transmission through

unconditioned spaces in W/K;

HA the heat transfer coefficient by transmission to adjacent buildings in W/K.

It can be expressed by equation using the temperature adjustment factor btr,x:

1

]

1

+

k

k k

i

i i tr,x x

l .U A b H (8)

where:

Ai area of element i of the building envelope in m;

Ui thermal transmittance of element i of the building envelope in W/(m.K);

lk length of linear thermal bridge k in m;

k linear thermal transmittance of thermal bridge k in W/(m.K);

btr,x adjustment factor, with value btr,x 1 if the temperature at the other side of the

construction element is not equal to the external environment, such as in the

case of a partition to adjacent conditioned or unconditioned spaces.

Note: For U-value of building components the obviously used method is to be applicated

(e.g. according to EN ISO 6946 or appropriate national standard).

Taking into account the simplified calculation of influence of thermal bridges and the thermal

coupling coefficient for floor and walls in heated basement the equation for calculation of

transmission heat transfer can be expressed as following:

B tr,x

i

i i x

L b U A H + +

TB

H

(9)

where:

HTB increase of the transmission heat transfer due to thermal bridges in W/K;

LB thermal coupling coefficient of heated basement W/K.

Increase of the transmission heat transfer due to thermal bridges HTB is calculated using

equation:

i

i

A U

TB

H

(10)

where:

U increase of heat transfer coefficient due to thermal bridges in W/(m.K);

Ai area of element i of the building envelope in m.

U can be calculated, but in case of not known construction details can default

values be used:

U = 0,05 W/(m.K) for constructions with continual thermal insulation on the

external side of the envelope;

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

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U = 0,10 W/(m.K) for other structures.

The adjustment temperature factor btr,x is used instead of the temperature difference and

where the summation is done over all the building components separating the internal

environment and the environment at the other side of the construction (external,

unconditioned space or adjacent conditioned space).

Recommended values of adjustment factor btr,x are reflected in Table 2.

Table 2. Adjustment Temperature Factor btr,x

Heat Transfer via

Adjustment

temperature

factor btr,x

External walls, windows, doors 1.0

Roof (flat ,slope) 1.0

Floor on the ground 1.0

Ceiling under loft 0.8

Wall between heated space and loft

0.8

Wall or ceiling between heated and unheated space or basement

0.5

Wall or ceiling between heated space and space heated to lower temperature

(garage, adjacent building)

0.35

Wall or opening structure between heated and unheated space where unheated

space has the opening structure with

- single glass 0.7

- double glass 0.6

- double glass with inert glass

Ug 2.0 or triple glass 0.5

Floor/ceiling above exterior 1.0

Factor btr,x can be calculated from known temperatures at the other side of the structure using

equation:

e i

u i

x tr

int,

int,

,

b

(11)

where:

int,i set-point temperature in heated building zone in C;

u temperature in heated or unheated adjacent space in C;

e temperature of the external environment in C.

In case of ground floor btr,x =1 is used, while the U-value is calculated according to EN ISO

13370 taking into account the floor on the ground geometry.

In case of basement the steady-state thermal coupling coefficient Ls in W/K is calculated

according to chapter 1.3.2 based on EN ISO 13370.

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

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1.3.2 Calculation of Thermal Coupling Coefficient for Heated Basement

Characteristic Dimension of Floor

To allow for the 3-dimensional nature of heat flow within the ground, the formula in this

standard are expressed in terms of the "characteristic dimension" of the floor, B', defined as

the area of the floor divided by half the perimeter:

P

A

B

. 5 , 0

,

(12)

where:

P the exposed perimeter of the floor: the total length of external wall dividing the heated

building from the external environment or from an unheated space outside the

insulated fabric;

A total ground-floor area; A is the ground-floor area under consideration;

unheated spaces outside the insulated fabric of the building, such as porches,

attached garages or storage areas, are excluded when determining P and A (but the

length of the wall between the heated building and the unheated space is included in

the perimeter: the ground heat losses are assessed as if the unheated spaces were

not present).

Equivalent Thickness

The concept of "equivalent thickness" is introduced to simplify the expression of the thermal

transmittances.

A thermal resistance is represented by its equivalent thickness, which is the thickness of

ground that has the same thermal resistance. In this calculation:

dt is the equivalent thickness for floors;

dw is the equivalent thickness for walls of basements below ground level.

1.3.3 Calculation of Thermal Transmittance of Ground Floor

Slab-on-Ground Floor

Slab-on-ground floors include any floor consisting of a slab in contact with the ground over its

whole area, whether or not supported by the ground over its whole area, and situated at or

near the level of the external ground surface (see Figure 2). This floor slab may be:

uninsulated, or

evenly insulated (above, below or within the slab) over its whole area.

Fig. 2

dt is the equivalent thickness for floors:

dt = w + (Rsi + Rf + Rse) (13)

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Calculate the thermal transmittance depending on the thermal insulation of the floor.

If dt < B' (uninsulated and moderately insulated floors):

(14)

If dt > B' (well-insulated floors):1)

(15)

If the floor has horizontal and/or vertical edge insulation, the thermal transmittance can be

corrected using the formula:

U = Uo + 2 e /B' (16)

w is the full thickness of the walls, including all layers;

Rf thermal resistance of floor construction;

Rsi internal surface resistance;

Rse external surface resistance;

thermal conductivity of unfrozen ground.

Horizontal Edge Insulation

With insulation placed horizontally along the perimeter of the floor formula is used:

(17)

Vertical Edge Insulation

If insulation placed vertically below ground along the perimeter:

(18)

Heated Basement

Fig. 3

The procedures given for basements apply to buildings in which part of the habitable space

is below ground level. The basis is similar to that for the slab-on-ground, but allowing for the

steady-state thermal coupling coefficient Ls by formula:

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Ls = A Ubf + z P Ubw (19)

For basement floor:

If (dt + 0,5 z) < B' (uninsulated and moderately insulated basement floors):

(20)

If (dt + 0,5 z) B' (well-insulated basement floors):

(21)

For walls of the basement the result Ubw is obtained from formula:

(22)

where z is the depth of the floor of the basement below ground level.

1.3.4 Thermal Transmittance (U-value) of Windows

U-value of windows is calculated using a formula based on EN ISO 10077-1:

gl f

gl gl gl gl f f

w

A A

l A U A U

U

+

+ +

(23)

where:

Uf thermal transmittance in W(m.K);

Ugl thermal transmittance of the glazing in W(m.K);

Af area of the frame in m;

Agl area of the glazing in m;

gl linear thermal transmittance (join between glazing and sash) in W(m.K);

lgl perimeter of the glazing in m.

Table 3. Input Values for Linear Thermal Transmittance of Aluminium and Steel

Profiles Between Glasses W/(m.K)

Type of Window

Double glass, triple

glass, without

coating with air or

gas layer

Double glass, triple

glass, with coating

with air or gas layer

Wooden or plastic frame 0.04 0.06

Steel frame with interruption of the thermal bridge 0.06 0.08

Steel frame without interruption of the thermal bridge 0 0.02

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Table 4.Thermal Transmittance of Glazing for Windows Ugl W/(mK)

Type of Glazing

Dimension

mm

Ugl-value

Glazing

air argon krypton SF6

1. Single glazing

1.1 Simple glass 3-4 mm 5.2 - - -

1.2 Polycarbonate 8 4.8 - - -

2. Double glazing

2.1 Double glazing, closed air layer 340-3 2,7 - - -

440-4 2,7 - - -

3. Double glass

3.1 Two clear glasses, 1 = 2 = 0,89 4124 2.9 2.7 2.6 3.1

416-4 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.1

3.2 Clear + selective glass 2 0,4 4124 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.7

4-16-4 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.7

3.3 Clear + selective glass 2 0,2 4124 1.9 1.7 1.5 2.4

4-16-4 1.8 1.6 1.6 2.5

3.4 Clear + selective glass 2 0,1 4124 1.8 1.5 1.3 2.3

4-16-4 1.6 1.4 1.3 2.3

3.5 Clear + selective glass 2 0,05 4124 1.7 1.3 1.1 2.2

4-16-4 1.5 1.2 1.1 2.2

Triple glass

4.1 3 clear glasses, 1 = 2 = 3 = 0,89 4-6-4-6-4 2.3 2.1 1.8 2.0

4-12-4-12-4 1.9 1.8 1.6 2.0

4.2 Clear + two selective glasses 0,4 4-6-4-6-4 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.6

4-12-4-12-4 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.6

4.3 Clear + two selective glasses 0,2 4-6-4-6-4 1.8 1.5 1.1 1.3

4-12-4-12-4 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.4

4.4 Clear + two selective glasses 0,1 4-6-4-6-4 1.7 1.3 1.0 1.2

4-12-4-12-4 1.1 0.9 0.6 1.2

4.5 Clear + two selective glasses 0,05 4-6-4-6-4 1.6 1.3 0.9 1.1

4-12-4-12-4 1.0 0.8 0.5 1.1

Table 5. Input Values for Thermal transmittance of the Frame of the Window Uf in W/

(mK)

Type of Frame

Uf

W/(mK)

Wooden or plastic frame 2,0

Steel frame with interruption of the thermal bridge 2,0 < Uf 2,8

Steel frame without interruption of the thermal bridge > 2,8

1.4 Heat Transfer by Ventilation

For each building zone, z, and for each calculation step (month, season) the total heat

transfer by ventilation, Qve, in kWh, is calculated as given by equation:

Qve Hve,adj(int,set,H,z e)t (24)

where:

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Hve,adj the overall heat transfer coefficient by ventilation, adjusted for the indoor-

outdoor temperature difference (if applicable), expressed in W/K;

int,set,H,z the set-point temperature of the building zone for heating in C; set in for each

building category;

e the temperature of the external environment in C, set in regulation for each

building category;

t the duration of the calculation step (month, season) in hours.

1.4.1 Simplified Method for Calculation of Heat Transfer Coefficient by Ventilation HV

Heat transfer coefficient by ventilation HV in W/K without taking into account the adjacent

unheated spaces, without the pre-heating or heat recovery is calculated using equation:

m a a

V n c H .

adj ve,

(25)

where:

a . ca heat capacity of air per volume Wh/(m.K);

a.ca = 1200 J/(m.K) = 1200 / 3600 = 0,333 Wh/(m.K)

n average ventilation rate determined in accordance with equation (26) or (27)

in 1/h;

Vm volume of the internal air, estimated as 80% of building volume calculated

from external dimensions Vm = 0,8 . Vb in m.

Average ventilation rate n in 1/h is calculated using equation (26) or (27):

m

ve l

V

M B l i

n

. ) ( 3600

,

(26)

or

b

ve l

V

l i

n

) . (

. 25200

,

(27)

where:

B the characteristic value for the building location, (B=12 for detached/single buildings

in windy country, B = 8 for other buildings);

M the characteristic value for the room type (standard value M = 0,7);

Vb building volume (external dimensions) in m;

Vi,a volume of the internal air, estimated as 80% of building volume calculated from

external dimensions Vm = 0,8 . Vb in m;

il,ve coefficient of the gap permeability m/(s.Pa

0,67

);

l the length of the opening structures gaps (joints) in m.

Time-average airflow rate in m/s is calculated using equation:

qve,k,mn n. Vm (28)

where:

n average ventilation rate determined in accordance with equation (26) or (27) in 1/h;

Vm volume of the internal air, estimated as 80% of building volume calculated from

external dimensions Vm = 0,8 . Vb in m.

1.4.2 The Criterion of the Minimum Air Change

Minimum average air change rate for dwelling and non-dwelling buildings is required on level

nN = 0,5 1/h. Minimum this value shall be used for calculation of heat transfer coefficient by

ventilation Hve.

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Table 6. Input Values for the Coefficient of Gap Permeability il,ve

Type of window

Coefficient of gap permeability ilv m/

(s.Pa

0,67

)

Old steel doors and windows 1,8 . 10

-4

Old wooden doors and windows 1,4 . 10

-4

New doors and windows 1,0 . 10

-4

1.5 Thermal Gains

The total thermal gains in kWh are the sum of solar heat gains and internal heat gains given

by equation:

QH,gn = Qint + Qsol (29)

where:

Qint, internal heat gains;

Qsol, solar heat gains.

1.5.1 Internal Heat Gains

The internal heat gains, heat gains from internal heat sources, including negative heat gains

(dissipated heat from internal environment to cold sources or sinks), consist of any heat

generated in the conditioned space by internal sources other than the energy intentionally

utilized for space heating or hot water preparation.

The internal heat gains include:

metabolic heat from occupants and dissipated heat from appliances;

heat dissipated from lighting devices;

heat dissipated from, or absorbed by, hot and mains water and sewage systems;

heat dissipated from, or absorbed by, heating, cooling and ventilation systems;

heat from or to processes and goods.

Internal heat gains per m of total floor area calculated from the external dimensions:

family house qi 4 W/m;

apartment building qi 5 W/m;

public building qi 6 W/m.

Values are time average power of the internal heat sources for all calculation period. They

include metabolic heat from occupants, dissipated heat from appliances, lighting, and hot

water systems.

Values are used in equation:

Qint = i . t = qi . Ab . t (30)

where:

i time average heat flow rate from internal heat sources in W;

qi average power of the internal heat sources W/m;

Ab total floor area in m;

t length of the considered calculation period (month or season) in hours.

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1.5.2 Solar Heat Gains

Heat gains from solar heat sources depend on the solar radiation available in the locality, the

orientation of the collecting areas, the permanent shading, the solar transmittance and

absorption and thermal heat transfer characteristics of collecting areas.

The calculation procedure and input data depend on the type of calculation method (monthly

seasonal).

For the monthly and seasonal method, the sum of the heat gains from solar sources in the

considered building zone for the considered month or season, Qsol, expressed in kWh, are

calculated using equation:

( ) t b t Q

l

l u mn sol l tr

k

k mn sol sol

1

]

1

+

,

_

, , , , , ,

1

(31)

where:

btr,l adjustment factor for the adjacent unconditioned space with internal heat source;

sol,mn,k time-average heat flow rate from solar heat source k, in W;

sol,mn,u,l time-average heat flow rate from solar heat source l in the adjacent

unconditioned space in W;

t length of the considered month or season in hours.

Only if a huge part of solar gains is presented due to adjacent big sungardens the flow from

solar heat source in the adjacent unconditioned space is taken into account.

The extra heat flow due to thermal radiation to the sky is neglected.

If flow from solar heat source in the adjacent unconditioned space and heat flow due to

thermal radiation to the sky are neglected:

t Q

k

k mn sol sol

,

_

, ,

(32)

The heat flow by solar gains through building element k, sol,k

expressed in watts, is given by

equation: sol,k

= Asol,k

Isol,k

Heat gains from solar heat sources are

1

]

1

k n

n sol k sol sol

A t I Q

, ,

. . (33)

where:

Asol,n is the effective collecting area of surface n with a given orientation and

tilt angle, in the considered zone or space in m;

Isol,k the mean energy of the solar irradiation over the time step of the

calculation, per m of collecting area of surface k, with a given

orientation and tilt angle in W/m,set in the Regulation on Energy

Performance of Buildings;

t is the length of the considered month or season in hours, set in the

Regulation on Energy Performance of Buildings.

Values for duration of calculation step (season or month) Isol,k . t per m of collecting area of

surface k, with a given orientation and tilt angle in kWh/m is set in the Regulation on Energy

Performance of Buildings.

overhang

angle

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1.5.2.1 Effective Collecting Area

Effective collecting area is a coefficient that includes the characteristics and the area of the

collecting surface (including the impact of shading).

The Effective Solar Collecting aAea of a Glazed Envelope Element (e.g. a window), Asol,

expressed in m, is in simplified way given by equation:

Asol = Aw . Fsh . Fc . FF . ggl (34)

where:

ggl total solar energy transmittance of the transparent part of the element;

FF frame factor - transparent part of the element (clear glazing) fraction; ratio of

the projected transparent part area to the overall projected area of the glazed

element (e.g. window);

Aw overall projected area of the glazed element in m;

Fsh shading reduction factor;

FC shading devices reduction factor.

For the glazed parts of external walls the solar transmittance of radiation normal on the

glazing area gn, which is higher than the average value of the total solar energy transmittance

of solar energy ggl, therefore is this value adjusted by the correction factor Fw.

ggl Fw ggl,n (35)

where Fw is a correction factor for glazing without shading Fw = 0,90.

Table 7. Typical Values of Total Solar Energy Transmittance at Normal Incidence for

Common Types of Glazing

(according to the Table G.2 EN ISO 13790:2008)

Type of glazing ggl,n Fw ggl

Single glazing 0,85 0,9 0,765

Double glazing 0,75 0,9 0,675

Double glazing with selective low-emissivity coating 0,67 0,9 0,603

Triple glazing 0,70 0,9 0,630

Triple glazing with two selective low-emissivity coatings 0,50 0,9 0,450

Double window 0,75 0,9 0,675

1.5.2.2 Shading Reduction Factors for External Obstacles

The shading correction factor for external obstacles can be calculated from:

Fsh = Fhor . Fov . Ffin (36)

where:

Fhor partial shading correction factor for the horizon;

Fov partial shading correction factor for overhangs;

Ffin partial shading correction factor for fins.

Shading from Horizon

Fhor - the partial shading correction factor for the horizon.

overhang

angle

Example 1:

Cold months, building without insulation

= 24 h,

= 0,3

H,gn

= 0,95

Example 2:

Transitional months, well insulated

building: = 24 h, = 1,0

H,gn

= 0,7

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The effect of shading from the horizon depends on horizon angle, latitude, orientation, local

climate and heating season.

Typical horizontal obstacles are for exemple:

the ground;

trees;

other buildings.

Shading correction factors for typical average Northern hemisphere climates and the heating

season from October to April are given in Table 8.

The horizon angle is an average over the horizon facing the faade considered.

- horizon angle

Table 8. Partial Shading Correction Factor for Horizon, Fhor

Horizon Angle

45 N Latitude

S E/W N

0 1,00 1,00 1,00

10 0,97 0,95 1,00

20 0,85 0,82 0,98

30 0,62 0,70 0,94

40 0.46 0,61 0,90

Shading from Overhang and Fins

Fov is the partial shading correction factor for overhangs.

Typical obstacles are for exemple:

roof overhang;

attics overhangs;

balconies, loggias;

side walls of balconies, loggias.

Table 9. Partial Shading Correction Factor for Overhang, Fov

Horizon Angle

45 N Latitude

S E/W N

0 1,00 1,00 1,00

overhang angle

overhang

angle

Example 1:

Cold months, building without insulation

= 24 h,

= 0,3

H,gn

= 0,95

Example 2:

Transitional months, well insulated

building: = 24 h, = 1,0

H,gn

= 0,7

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30 0,90 0,89 0,91

45 0,74 0,76 0,80

60 0,50 0,58 0,66

Shading from Fins

Ffin is the partial shading correction factor for fins.

Table 10. Partial Shading Correction Factor for Fins, Ffin

Horizon Angle

45 N Latitude

S E/W N

0 1,00 1,00 1,00

30 0,94 0,92 1,00

45 0,84 0,84 1,00

60 0,72 0,75 1,00

The values are valid for fins on one side.

For south-facing windows, with fins on both sides, the two shading correction factors shall be

multiplied.

1.6 Dynamic Parameters

The dynamic effects are taken into account by the gain utilization factor H,gn. It is

dimensionless factor for decrease of heat gains to compensate the situation when the heat

gains are higher then thermal losses and therefore the gains contribute to increase of internal

temperature instead of decrease of energy consumption. This situation occurs especially in

the transitional period (spring, autumn).

Gain Utilization Factor for Heating

The dimensionless gain utilization factor for heating, H,gn is a function of the heat-balance

ratio H and a numerical parameter, aH, that depends on the building inertia.

For standard energy rating for dwelling buildings (apartment buildings, family houses) and for

seasonal calculation the gain utilization factor for heating is to take H,gn 0,95.

In other cases the gain utilization factor for heating is calculated for each month as given by

next equations:

if H > 0 and H 1:

1

,

1

1

+

H

H

a

H

a

H

gn H

(37)

if H 1:

1

,

+

H

H

gn H

a

a

(38)

if H < 0:

H gn , H

/ 1

(39)

Example 1:

Cold months, building without insulation

= 24 h,

= 0,3

H,gn

= 0,95

Example 2:

Transitional months, well insulated

building: = 24 h, = 1,0

H,gn

= 0,7

Legend

1 time constant 8 h

2 time constant 1 d

3 time constant 2 d

4 time constant 7 d

5 time constant infinite (high inertia)

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where H is a heat-balance ratio for heating mode during the calculation period

H,gn

H

H,ht

Q

Q

=

(40)

QH,ht total heat transfer for the heating mode in kWh;

QH,gn total heat gains for the heating mode in kWh;

aH dimensionless numerical parameter depending on the time constant, H.

Numerical parameter aH is given by equation:

H,0

H,0 H

+ a a

(41)

where:

aH,0 dimensionless reference numerical parameter;

time constant of the building zone expressed in hours;

H,0 a reference time constant in hours.

The parameter values are empirical values and may also be determined at national level. If

there are no national values available the values from Table 11 may be used.

Table 11. Values of the Numerical Parameter, a 0,H, and Reference Time Constant, H,0

Type of Method aH,0

H,0

h

Monthly calculation method 1,0 15

Seasonal calculation method

*)

0,8 30

Note: The values for seasonal method are only informative.

Illustration of gain utilization factor for different time constants with example is in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Example of Gain Utilization Factor Estimation

(using the figure in EN ISO 13790: 2008.)

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Source : EN ISO 13790: 2008

The gain utilization factor is defined independently of the heating system characteristics,

assuming perfect temperature control and infinite flexibility. A slowly responding heating

system and a less-than-perfect control system can significantly affect the use of the heat

gains.

Building Time Constant

The time constant of the building zone expressed in hours, characterizes the internal

thermal inertia of the conditioned zone both for the heating and cooling periods. It is

calculated by using equation:

adj ve, adj tr,

m

600 3 /

H H

C

+

(42)

where:

Cm internal heat capacity of the building or building zone kWh/K;

Htr,adj a representative value of the overall heat transfer coefficient by transmission,

adjusted for the indoor-outdoor temperature difference W/K;

Hve,adj a representative value of the overall heat transfer coefficient by ventilation,

adjusted for the indoor-outdoor temperature difference W/K.

Internal Heat Capacity of the Building

For the monthly and seasonal method, the internal heat capacity of the building zone Cm

expressed in J/K is calculated by summing the heat capacities of all the building elements in

direct thermal contact with the internal air of the zone under consideration, as given by

Equation:

j

j j m

A C

(43)

where:

j internal heat capacity per area of the building element j in J/(m.K) or in kWh/(m.K);

Aj area of the element j in m.

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The values may be approximately estimated using the values in Table 12

Table 12. Internal Heat Capacity

(according EN ISO 13790: 2008 for monthly and seasonal method)

Type of Construction

Internal Heat Capacity

C

(J/K)

Very light 80 000. Ab

Light 110 000. Ab

Medium 165 000. Ab

Heavy 260 000. Ab

Very heavy 370 000. Ab

1.7 Total Annual Energy Need for Space Heating

The annual energy needs for heating for the given building zones, QH,nd,an expressed in kWh

is calculated as given by equation (44), by summing the calculated energy

i

i nd H an nd H

Q Q

, , , ,

(44)

where:

QH,nd,i

energy need for heating of the considered zone per calculation step (month) in

kWh

The standard length of heating season (number of months) is defined in the Regulation on

Energy Perfromance of Buildings.

1.7.1 Total Annual Energy Need for Space Heating per Combination of Systems

In the case of a multi-zone calculation (with or without thermal interaction between zones),

the annual energy needs for a given combination of heating and different zones, QH,nd,an,zs is

calculated as the sum of the energy needs over the zones, that are serviced by the same

combination of systems, as given by Equation:

z

z an nd H s an nd H

Q Q

, , , , , ,

(45)

where:

QH,nd,an,z annual energy need for heating of zone z, serviced by the same

combination of systems in kWh.

Specific heat need is heat need for all heating season per m of total floor area in kWh/m

estimated as given by equation:

b

s an nd H

m nd H

A

Q

Q

, , ,

, ,

(46)

where: Ab total floor area in m,

QH,nd,an,s total annual energy need in kWh.

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II. Calculation Methodology for Energy Use for Space Heating

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2. Energy Use for Space Heating

2.1 Terms and Definitions

Technical Building Systems

technical building subsystem - part of a technical building system that performs a specific

function (e.g. heat generation, heat distribution, heat emission);

system thermal loss - thermal loss from a technical building system for heating (cooling),

domestic hot water (humidification, dehumidification or ventilation) that does not contribute to

the useful output of the system;

Note 1: A system loss can become an internal heat gain for the building if it is recoverable.

Note 2: Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system

thermal loss but as heat recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.

Note 3: Heat dissipated by the lighting system or by other services (e.g. appliances of computer

equipment) is not part of the system thermal losses, but part of the internal heat gains.

auxiliary energy - electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating (cooling,

ventilation) and/or domestic water to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs;

Note: This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics, etc. Electrical energy input to the

ventilation system for air transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but

as energy use for ventilation.

system thermal loss - thermal loss from a technical building system for heating (cooling),

domestic hot water (humidification, dehumidification or ventilation) that does not contribute to

the useful output of the system;

Note 1: A system loss can become an internal heat gain for the building if it is recoverable.

Note 2: Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system

thermal loss but as heat recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.

Note 3: Heat dissipated by the lighting system or by other services (e.g. appliances of computer

equipment) is not part of the system thermal losses, but part of the internal heat gains.

recoverable system thermal loss - part of a system thermal loss which can be recovered to

lower either the energy need for heating (or cooling) or the energy use of the heating (or

cooling) system;

recovered system thermal loss - part of the recoverable system thermal loss which has

been recovered to lower either the energy need for heating (or cooling) or the energy use of

the heating (or cooling) system.

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Table 13. Symbols and Units

Symbol Quantity Unit

A

Area

m

C, c specific heat capacity J/(kg.K)

D Diameter m

E system performance coefficient (expenditure factor) -

E energy generally (energy

use, primary energy)

kWh

F conversion factor

Factor m

L length m

M Mass kg

M mass kg

N number of operating times

O Occupancy persons

P electrical power W

Q quantity of heat, energy kWh

T time, period of time S

T thermodynamic temperature K

V Volume m

W electrical auxiliary energy kWh

Z running time h/d

heat conductivity W/(m.K)

Efficiency

Celsius temperature C

thermal power W

density of water kg/m

Table 14. Subscripts

a Air gl generation losses pr produced, generation

an Annual gs Gains ren renewable energy

aux Auxiliary H,h heating energy rbl recoverable

c Control i Internal rvd recovered

CO2 Related to CO2

emissions

in Input system r recovered

d Distribution l Loss sys system

dh district heating nd Need s storage

e External ngen without generation t total

em Emission nrvd non recovered V ventilation

exp Exported nren non renewable w domestic hot water

f Final out output from system

gen Generation p Primary

2.2 Heat Emission Subsystem

Calculation of heat emission subsystem allows the combination of four heat emission

subsystems per building. In case of more types of heat emission subsystems the calculation

has to be performed either in more excel sheets or by reducing the calculation to three (four)

major types of subsystem used.

For calculation of heat emission subsystem efficiency following procedure can be used.

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The heat losses in kWh of heat emission are calculated as:

Q l,em = Q em,str + Q em,emb + Q em,c (47)

where:

Q em,str heat loss due to non-uniform temperature distribution in (kWh);

Q em,emb heat loss due to emitter position (e.g. embedded) in (kWh);

Q em,c heat loss due to control of indoor temperature in (kWh).

h

em l

hydr radiant

em l

Q

f f f

Q

,

_

1

,

int

,

(48)

where:

em l

Q

,

heat loss from the heat emission subsystem over time period (year) in kWh;

h

Q

calculated heat demand for heating for solved period of time in kWh. This value is

available in building characteristics;

hydr

f

is the factor for the hydraulic equilibrium;

Value of factor of hydraulic equilibrium depends on system configuration:

f hydr = 1.00 when hydraulic balanced by automatic balancing valves at each raiser and

group of 8 emitters;

1.03 documented hydraulic balancing at installation or by commissioning;

1.05 for others;

int

f

is the factor for intermittent operation (as intermittent operation is to be understood

the time dependent option for temperature reduction for each individual room space);

radiant

f

is the factor for the radiation effect (only relevant for heating of large indoor spaces

with h > 4 m);

em l ,

is the total efficiency level for the heat emission in the room space;

int

f

for continuous operation, 0,75 (to be used for electrical heating systems with an

integrated feedback control system);

radiant

f

is to be set to 1.

The total efficiency level is fundamentally evaluated as:

( ) ( )

B C L

em l

+ +

4

1

,

( )

2

2 1 L L

L

+

(49)

where:

L

C

B

the part efficiency level for specific losses of the external components.

The part and total efficiencies levels prescribed in the following tables are based on the

following assumptions:

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standard room heights h 4m (with the exception of large indoor space buildings

with h > 4 m);

domestic and non-domestic buildings;

different heat protection levels;

continuous mode of operation (intermittent modes of operation are taken into account

by means of the factor fint );

reference to one room space in each case.

In this section system solutions not covered are to be taken from other documented sources

or are to be interpolated or matched in a suitable manner.

Table 15. Efficiencies Air Heating

(non-domestic ventilation systems) (room heights 4 m)

System Configuration Control Parameter h,ce

low quality of

control

high quality of

control

Additional heating in

the incoming air

(additional heater)

Room space temperature 0.82 0.87

Room space temperature

(cascade control of incoming

air temperature)

0.88 0.90

Exhaust air temperature 0.81 0.85

Recirculation air

heating (induction

equipment, ventilator

convectors)

Room space temperature 0.89 0.93

Table 16. Efficiencies for Room Spaces

with heights 4 m (large indoor space buildings)

Influence Parameters

Part Efficiencies

L C B

4 m 6 m 8 m 10 m

Room

Space

Unregulated

0.80

temp.

regulation

Two-step controller

0.93

P-controller (2 K)

0.93

P-controller (1 K)

0.95

PI-controller

0.97

PI-controller with optimization

0.99

Heating

Systems

Warm air heating

Air distribution with normal

induction ratio, radiators

Air outlet at

the side

0.98 0.94 0.88 0.83 1

Air outlet

above

0.99 0.96 0.91 0.87 1

Warm air heating

Air distribution additionally with

regulated vertical recirculation

Air outlet at

the side

0.99 0.97 0.94 0.91 1

Air outlet

above

0.99 0.98 0.96 0.93 1

Hot water ceiling-mounted

radiant panels

1 0.99 0.97 0.96 1

Dark radiators (radiator tubes)

1 0.99 0.97 0.96 1

Bright radiators

1 0.99 0.97 0.96 1

Floor heating (high heat

protection level)

Floor heating

component

integrated

1 0.99 0.97 0.96

0.95

Floor heating 1

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thermally

decoupled

Table 17. Efficiencies for Electrical Heating

(room heights 4 m)

Influence Parameters Total Efficiency

h,ce

E

x

t

e

r

n

a

l

w

a

l

l

r

e

g

i

o

n

E- direct heating P-controller (1 K) 0.91

E- direct heating PI-controller (with optimization) 0.94

Storage heating unregulated without external temperature

dependent charging and static/dynamic discharging

0.78

Storage heating P-controller (1 K) with external temperature

dependent charging and static/dynamic discharging

0.88

Storage heating PID-controller with optimization with external

temperature dependent charging and static and continuous

dynamic discharging

0.91

I

n

t

e

r

n

a

l

w

a

l

l

r

e

g

i

o

n

E- direct heating P-controller (1 K) 0.88

E- direct heating PI-controller (with optimization) 0.91

Storage heating unregulated without external temperature

dependent charging and static/dynamic discharging

0.75

Storage heating P-controller (1 K) with external temperature

dependent charging and static/dynamic discharging

0.85

Storage heating PID-controller with optimization with external

temperature dependent charging and static and continuous

dynamic discharging

0.88

Table 18. Efficiencies for Component Integrated Heating Surfaces

(panel heaters, room heights 4 m)

Influence Parameters Part Efficiencies

L C B

Room space

temperature

regulation

Heat carrier medium water

Unregulated 0.75

unregulated, with central supply temperature

regulation

0.78

unregulated with average value formation (V R) 0.83

Master room space 0.88

two-step controller/P-controller 0.93

PI-controller 0.95

Electrical heating

two-step controller 0.91

PI-controller 0.93

System Floor heating B1 B2

wet system 1 0.93

dry system 1 0.96

dry system with low cover 1 0.98

Wall heating 0.96 0.93

Ceiling heating 0.93 0.93

Specific heat

losses via

laying

surfaces

Panel heating without minimum insulation in accordance

with DIN EN 1264

0.86

Panel heating with minimum insulation in accordance with

DIN EN 1264

0.95

Panel heating with 100% better insulation than required by

DIN EN 1264

0.99

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Table 19. Efficiencies for Free Heating Surfaces (Radiators)

room heights 4 m

Influence Parameters Part Efficiencies

L C B

Room space

temperature

regulation

unregulated, with central supply temperature

regulation

0.80

Master room space 0.88

P-controller (2 K) 0.93

P-controller (1 K) 0.95

PI-controller 0.97

PI-controller (with optimization function, e.g.

presence management, adaptive controller)

0.99

Over-temperature

(reference i = 20 C)

L1 L2

60 K (e.g. 90/70) 0.88

42.5 K (e.g. 70/55) 0.93

30 K (e.g. 55/45) 0.95

specific heat losses

via external

components

GF = glass surface

area)

radiator location internal wall

0.87 1

radiator location external wall

GF without radiation protection 0.83 1

GF with radiation protection 0.88 1

normal external wall

0.95 1

a

The radiation protection must prevent 80% of the radiation losses from the heating body to the glass

surface area by means of insulation and/or reflection.

2.3 Heat Distribution Subsystem

Overall recoverable heat loss from the heat distribution system represents loses from heat

distribution subsystems that are emitted in the heated space of the building. The majority of

these losses can be recovered for heating, which is expressed by the Heat recovery factor

from distribution subsystems.

The calculation of total heat loss from heating distribution subsystem is based on the known

temperature conditions and types of pipe and insulation materials of the pipelines.

For water heating, the nominal temperature is assumed to be the average temperature of

heat carrier (water).

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The heat loss coefficient can be calculated by:

)) . /( (

.

1

ln .

. 2

1

. 2

ln

2

1

K m W

D d

D

s d

d

e iz t p

+ +

R

U

(50)

where:

iz heat conductivity of the thermal insulation (W/(m.K));

t heat conductivity of the pipe (W/(m.K));

D external diameter of insulated pipe (including insulation) D = d + 2siz (m);

d pipe diameter (m);

st thickness of the pipe;

he heat transfer coefficient (W/(m

.

K)), value for insulated pipes = (10 - 15 W/(m.K)).

Heat recovery factor from distribution subsystems value can float from 0,00 to 1,00

depending on the amount of heat emitted from the system. The higher the number of Heat

recovery factor the more of heat losses are recovered.

NON-recoverable losses from the distribution system outside building if applicable for

building assessment, all thermal losses outside the considered building need to be assessed

and filled.

NON-recoverable losses from the distribution system outside heated space if applicable for

building assessment, all thermal losses from heating distribution system outside the heated

space need to be assessed and filled.

Total NON-recoverable heat loss from the heat distribution system is calculated, based on

the filled inputs.

2.4 Heat Storage Subsystem

Overall recoverable heat loss from the heat storage subsystem value is the annual sum of

recoverable heat losses from the heat storage subsystem in the building (if installed). Values

from storage vessel data sheets (manufacturers data) may be used for determination of the

annual loss of the device and thus the recoverable heat loss. (daily loss x number of heating

days).

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Heat recovery factor from storage subsystems value can float from 0,00 to 1,00 depending

on the amount of heat emitted from the system. The higher the number of Heat recovery

factor is the more of heat losses are recovered from the storage subsystem for heating

purposes.

Overall NON-recoverable heat loss from the heat storage subsystem value is the annual

sum of NON-recoverable heat losses from the heat storage subsystem, either in the building

(outside heated space or related to the heating system, although outside the building).

Values of storage vessel manufacturers may be used for determination of the annual loss of

the device, which depending on device location represent NON-recoverable heat loss.

2.5 Auxiliary Energy of Heating System

Total electrical input of heat generators enter the sum of all electrical inputs of heat

generators.

Total electrical input of auxiliary devices (pumps, ventilators) enter the sum of all electrical

inputs of other auxiliary devices (pumps, ventilators, operation systems, etc.) related to

heating system.

Heating system annual operation time value is dependent on the heating period duration,

which is related to geographical position of calculated building.

Operation factor default value is set to 0,75. Based on the type of system and operation,

value can vary from 0,5 0,9.

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III. Calculation Methodology for Energy Use for Hot Water

Preparation

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3. Energy Use for Hot Water Preparation

3.1 Terms and Definitions

Technical Building Systems

technical building subsystem - part of a technical building system that performs a specific

function (e.g. heat generation, heat distribution, heat emission);

system thermal loss - thermal loss from a technical building system for heating, cooling,

domestic hot water, humidification, dehumidification or ventilation that does not contribute to

the useful output of the system;

Note 1: A system loss can become an internal heat gain for the building if it is recoverable.

Note 2: Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system

thermal loss but as heat recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.

Note 3: Heat dissipated by the lighting system or by other services (e.g. appliances of computer

equipment) is not part of the system thermal losses, but part of the internal heat gains.

auxiliary energy - electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling,

ventilation and/or domestic water to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs;

Note 1: This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics, etc. Electrical energy input to the

ventilation system for air transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but

as energy use for ventilation.

system thermal loss - thermal loss from a technical building system for heating, cooling,

domestic hot water, humidification, dehumidification or ventilation that does not contribute to

the useful output of the system;

Note 1: A system loss can become an internal heat gain for the building if it is recoverable.

Note 2: Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system

thermal loss but as heat recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.

Note 3: Heat dissipated by the lighting system or by other services (e.g. appliances of computer

equipment) is not part of the system thermal losses, but part of the internal heat gains.

recoverable system thermal loss - part of a system thermal loss which can be recovered to

lower either the energy need for heating or cooling or the energy use of the heating or

cooling system;

Note: This depends on the calculation approach chosen to calculate the recovered gains and

losses (holistic or simplified approach).

recovered system thermal loss - part of the recoverable system thermal loss which has

been recovered to lower either the energy need for heating or cooling or the energy use of

the heating or cooling system.

Note: This depends on the calculation approach chosen to calculate the recovered gains and

losses (holistic or simplified approach).

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Table 20. Symbols and Units

Symbol Quantity Unit

A

Area

m

C, c specific heat capacity J/(kg.K)

D Diameter m

E system performance coefficient (expenditure factor) -

E energy generally (energy

use, primary energy)

kWh

F conversion factor

Factor m

L Length m

M Mass kg

M Mass kg

N number of operating times

O Occupancy persons

P electrical power W

Q Quantity of heat, energy kWh

T time, period of time s

T thermodynamic temperature K

V Volume m

W electrical auxiliary energy kWh

Z running time h/d

heat conductivity W/(m.K)

Efficiency

Celsius temperature C

thermal power W

density of water kg/m

Table 21.Subscripts

a Air F Final out output from system

an Annual Gen Generation p primary

aux auxiliary Gl generation losses pr produced, generation

c Control Gs Gains ren renewable energy

CO2 related to CO2

emissions

H,h Heating energy rbl recoverable

d distribution I Internal rvd recovered

dh district heating In Input system r recovered

del delivered L Loss sys system

e external nd Need s storage

em emission ngen without generation t total

exp exported nrvd Non recovered V ventilation

nren Non renewable w domestic hot water

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3.2 Domestic Hot Water Volume of DHW Prepared

For three types of buildings tabulated values per area are (informative values, calculation is

automatic, according to the type of building, while the heat demand reflects the chosen type

of building as shown in the table below).

Table 22

Type of building

Qw,A,day

kWh/(m.a)

Apartment building 20

Office building 6

School building 10

b day A W W

A Q Q

, , (51)

where:

Qw, A, day specific heat demand for heated water based on 60 C of heated water

and 10 C of cold water at the inlet of the boiler.

Calculation of DHW heated volume for Family Houses (informative values, calculation is

performed using the formula below, in case when the type of building Family house is

chosen).

The volume of prepared hot water is calculated according to the heated floor area:

365 * 1000 / *

2 , 90 ) ( . 5 , 39

, b

b

b

f w

A

A

A Ln

V

( m/a) (52)

For calculation of heat needs:

QW = 1,16 . VW,f . (W, t W, o)

QW energy supplied to hot water per year (kWh/a);

VW,f the volume of prepared hot water [dm/day];

W, t temperature of water leaving the boiler (C);

W, o temperature of water entering the boiler (C).

3.3 Domestic Hot Water DHW Distribution Subsystem and Storage

Subsystem

The DHW distribution subsystem losses are calculated by dividing the total heat loss from

DHW distribution subsystem

, , W dis ls

Q

in two components

col ls dis W

ind

ind ls dis W ls dis W

Q Q Q

, , , , , , , ,

+

(kWh/a) (53)

ind

ind ls dis W

Q

, , ,

Sum of losses from different parts of distribution network (kWh/a).

Total heat loss from various tapping conditions (in heated space)

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Total heat loss from various tapping conditions (in heated space) is calculated by excel:

( ) 365 . . . .

1000

, , ,

.

, , , tap nom dis W dis W

c w

ind ls dis W

n V

q

Q

w

amb

(kWh/a) (54)

where:

w

specific mass of water in kg/m;

w

c specific heat of water in kJ/(kg.K);

, W dis

V

water volume behind the circulation loop in m;

amb

average ambient temperature, average internal temperature around pipe in C;

, , W dis nom

tap

n

number of DHW deliveries during the day.

col ls dis W

Q

, , ,

Heat losses from different parts of circulation loop network (kWh/a),

value is calculated knowing the heat losses from the pipes of the

circulation loop. These loses need to be calculated and filled in the

table see below

Total heat loss from DHW distribution subsystem: calculation is based on knowing the

temperature conditions and types of pipe and insulation materials of the pipelines. For DHW

the nominal temperature is assumed to be 60 C.

The heat loss coefficient can be calculated by:

)) . /( (

.

1

ln .

. 2

1

. 2

ln

2

1

K m W

D d

D

s d

d

e iz t p

+ +

R

U

(55)

where:

iz heat conductivity of the insulation (W/(m.K));

t heat conductivity of the pipe (W/(m.K));

D external diameter of insulated pipe (including insulation) D = d + 2siz (m)

d pipe diameter (m);

st thickness of the pipe

he heat transfer coefficient (W/(mK)), value for insulated pipes = (10 W/(m.K)).

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Heat recovery factor from DHW distribution value can float from 0,00 to 1,00 depending on

the amount of heat emitted from the system, which can be recovered for heating. The value

depends on the location of the DHW distribution system in or outside the heated space of the

building. The higher the number of Heat recovery factor the more of heat losses are

recovered for heating.

3.4 Domestic Hot Water DHW System Auxiliary Energy

Use the characteristic data for electrical power inputs of DHW auxiliary devices, including the

generator power input.

The values of Auxiliary energy of DHW subsystems are being calculated according to the all

year operation of the DHW preparation system (8760 hrs/a).

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IV. Calculation of Global Indicators

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4. Calculation of Global Indicator

4.1 Terms and Definitions

primary energy - energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation

process;

Note 1: Primary energy includes non-renewable energy and renewable energy. If both are taken

into account it can be called total primary energy.

Note 2: For a building, it is the energy used to produce the energy delivered to the building. It is

calculated from the delivered and exported amounts of energy carriers, using conversion

factors.

energy carrier - substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or

heat or to operate chemical or physical processes;

Note: The energy content of fuels is given by their gross calorific value.

total primary energy factor - for a given energy carrier, non-renewable and renewable

primary energy divided by delivered energy, where the primary energy is that required to

supply one unit of delivered energy, taking account of the energy required for extraction,

processing, storage, transport, generation, transformation, transmission, distribution, and any

other operations necessary for delivery to the building in which the delivered energy will be

used;

Note: The total primary energy factor always exceeds unity.

CO

2

emission coefficient - for a given energy carrier, quantity of CO2 emitted to the

atmosphere per unit of delivered energy.

Note: The CO2 emission coefficient can also include the equivalent emissions of other

greenhouse gases (e.g. methane).

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SYMBOLS

Table 23. Symbols and Units

Symbol Quantity Unit

E energy generally (energy

use, primary energy)

kWh

Factor -

K Coefficient -

M Mass kg

Table 24. Subscripts

CO2 Related to CO2 emissions exp exported

Del Delivered p primary

4.2 Delivered Energy

Delivered energy Edel,i is energy, expressed per energy carrier, supplied to the technical

building systems inside building through the system boundary, to satisfy the uses taken into

account (space heating, domestic hot water preparation) or to produce electricity.

In delivered energy Edel,i are included emission, distribution and storage heating system

losses including also auxiliary energy for pumps and fans of distribution system in building.

Solar thermal energy produced on site is extracted from the delivered energy Edel,i .

Total delivered energy as a global indicator for energy class in energy certificate is a sum of

delivered energy Edel,i for all energy carriers.

i de del t

E E

l, ,

(56)

Example of calculation of delivered energy per energy carrier is in Table 25.

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Table 25. Delivered Energy Calculation

4.2.1 Generation Losses

Generation losses are calculated from the delivered energy to the system Edel,i considering

the efficiency of heat production suggested in Table 26:

( )

i gen i de gl

E E

, l,

/ (57)

where:

Edel,i delivered energy after extraction of solar thermal energy produced on site for

energy carrier i;

Egl,i energy loss of the generation system;

gen,i generators efficiency of heat production for carrier i.

4.2.1.1 Systems for Space Heating

Generation Losses for Space Heating System are calculated from the delivered energy to

the system, considering the efficiency of heating generator suggested in Table 26:

( )

i gen h h,del,i gl h

E E

, , ,

/ (58)

where:

Eh,del,I is the delivered energy to the heating system after extraction of solar thermal

energy produced on site for energy carrier i;

Eh,gl is the energy loss of the space heating generation system;

h,gI is the generators efficiency of heat production for carrier i. h,gen,I < 0, listed in

Table 26.

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4.2.1.2 Systems for Hot Water Preparation

Generation losses for DHW system are calculated from the delivered energy to the DHW

system, considering the efficiency of DHW generator suggested in Table 26:

( )

i gen W W,del,i gl W

E E

, , ,

/ (59)

where:

E W,del.i delivered energy to the heating system after extraction of solar thermal energy

produced on site for energy carrier i;

EW,gl energy loss of the DHW generation system;

W,gen,i DHW generators efficiency of heat production for carrier i. W,gen,I < 0, listed in

Table 26.

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4.3 Primary Energy and Emissions of CO

2

Primary energy is calculated from the delivered energy Edel,p,i including generation losses

and the losses outside building in case of district heating for each energy carrier i.

In case of district heating the heating distribution losses Edh,d,l,outside and heat exchange losses

outside building Edh,em,l,outside are taken into account by default values:

4% from delivered energy Edel,i for distribution losses;

2% from delivered energy Edel,i for heat exchange losses.

Note: Other values can be used if are known or in case the national method for calculation of

distribution and emission losses outside the building for district heating are available at national

level.

Delivered energy for primary energy calculation for space heating is calculated using

equation:

outside l em dh h outside l d dh h gl h i del h i ,p

E E E E E

, , , , , , , , , , , , del h,

+ + +

(60)

where:

E h,del.i delivered energy to the heating system for space heating after extraction

of solar thermal energy produced on site for energy carrier i without

generation losses;

Eh,gl energy loss of the space heating generation system;

Eh,dh,d,l,outside space heating distribution losses outside building in case of district

heating;

Eh,dh,em,l,outside space heating emission losses outside building in case of district heating.

Delivered energy for primary energy calculation for DHW is calculated using equation:

outside l em dh W outside l d dh W gl W i del W i p

E E E E E

, , , , , , , , , , , , del, W,

+ + +

(61)

where:

E W,del.i delivered energy to the heating system for hot water preparation after

extraction of solar thermal energy produced on site for energy carrier i

without generation losses;

EW,gl energy loss of the DHW generation system;

EW,dh,d,l,outside DHW heating distribution losses outside building in case of district

heating;

EW,dh,em,l,outside DHW heating emission losses outside building in case of district heating;

For each energy carrier i the delivered energy for primary energy calculation is a sum of

energy use for space heating and delivered energy for primary energy calculation for hot

water preparation:

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i p i p i p ,

E E E

, , del h, , , del W, , , del

+

(62)

where:

E W,del.p,i delivered energy to the heating system for primary energy calculation after

extraction of solar thermal energy produced on site for energy carrier i and

including generation losses for hot water preparation;

E h,del.p,i delivered energy to the heating system for primary energy calculation after

extraction of solar thermal energy produced on site for energy carrier i and

including generation losses for space heating.

Primary energy is calculated from the delivered energy Edel,p,i and exported energy Eexp,i for

each energy carrier:

( ) ( )

i i i i p

f E f E E

exp, P, exp, del, P, , del, P

(63)

where:

Edel,p,i delivered energy including generation losses and after extraction of solar

thermal energy produced on site for energy carrier i;

Eexp,i exported energy for energy carrier i;

fP,del,i primary energy factor for the delivered energy carrier i;

fP,exp,i primary energy factor for the exported energy carrier i.

The emitted mass of CO2 is calculated from the delivered energy Edel,p,i and exported energy

Eexp,i for each energy carrier:

( ) ( )

i i i

K E K E m

exp, exp, del, p,i del, CO2

(64)

where:

Edel,p,i delivered energy including generation losses and after extraction of solar

thermal energy produced on site for energy carrier i;

Eexp,i exported energy for energy carrier i;

Kdel,i CO2 emission coefficient for delivered energy carrier i;

Kexp,i CO2 emission coefficient for the exported energy carrier i.

Table 26.Transformation and Conversion Factors

(acording to the Regulation for Energy Performance of Buildings)

Energy Carrier Way of Conversion

Specific Unit

(s.u.)

Caloric Value

GJ/s.u. Efficiency of

Production

and

Distribution

in %

Emission

Coefficient

CO2 kg/kWh

Coefficient

of Primary

Pnergy

Fp

Natural gas

Standard boiler old)

a)

1000 m

34,28

83 89

0,277

1,36

Standard boiler

new

a)

1000 m

34,28

87 89

0,277

1,36

low temperature boiler 1000 m

34,28

90 93 0,277 1,36

Condensing boiler 1000 m

34,28

98 103c)

0,277

1,36

Coke

(blackcoaled)

Solid fuel boiler ton

28,03

70 72

0,467

1,53

Draft Methodology recommended as part of the Regulatory Framework for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

International Project, supported by the Fund of Shareholders of EBRD

51

Black coal Solid fuel boiler ton

25,17

69 82

0,394

1,19

Brown coal

graded

Solid fuel boiler ton

15,50

67 72

0,433

1,40

Light heating oil

Standard boiler old ton 42,00 80

0,330

1,35

Standard boiler new ton

42,00

85 0,330 1,35

Low temperature

boiler old

ton

42,00

86

0,330

1,35

Low temperature

boiler new

ton

42,00

91

0,330

1,35

Wood pellets

biomass boiler ton

17,00

85

0,020

1,06

Wood chips

biomass boiler ton

11,50

76

0,020

1,06

biomass boiler ton 11,50 68

0,020

1,09

Lump wood

biomass boiler with

gasification s

ton

11,50

83

0,020

1,09

Natural gas district heating

kWh

88

0,277

1,36

Black coal district heating

kWh

82

0,394

1,19

Brown coal district heating kWh 73 -78 0,433 1,40

Wood chips

district heating kWh 75 85

0,020

1,06

Heavy heating oil

district heating

kWh

85 0,330 1,35

Natural gas

district heating

combined heat and

power production

kWh

80 85

0,277 1,36

Brown coal

district heating

combined heat and

power production

kWh 70 80 0,433 1,40

Black coal

district heating

combined heat and

power production

kWh 70 80 0,394 1,19

Nuclear energy

district heating

combined heat and

power production

kWh 80,5

d)

0,016 1,00

Electricity

Electric heating,

cooling

kWh 99 0,275

g)

2,789

e)

electric water heater kWh 99 0,275

g

2,789

e)

heat pump - water, air,

soil(electric engine)

kWh 270 0,275

g

2,789

e)

Notices:

a) old boiler - boiler older than 10 years from the date of manufacture/date of entry into service;

new boiler boiler not older than 10 years (incl.) from the date of manufacture / date of entry

into service;

b) if the building is supplied with heat and hot water from the source in the building, then the

energy need, primary energy and CO2 emissions are defined for the known conditions of heat

and hot water preparation; if there is an information on evaluation of the performance of the

source, then the stated data need to be taken into consideration;

c) in the case of natural gas condensing boiler, the assessment of efficiency of source fuel value is

done taking into account the fuel value;

d) efficiency from the point of water vapor emission from the vapor generator until the heat entry

into the evaluated building ;

e) primary energy factor is defined while taking into account the energy mix in Moldova (98%

natural gas, 1% water power plants and 1% oil);

f) in the efficiency of heat production, no losses caused by secondary distribution and influence of

heat-transfer station efficiency are considered (98% natural gas, 2% water power plants);

g) CO2 emission coefficient is defined while considering the energy mix in the Republic of Moldova.

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