Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

6.1

What you should learn

GOAL 1
GOAL 1

Identify, name, and

describe polygons such as the building shapes in Example 2.

Use the sum of thepolygons such as the building shapes in Example 2 . measures of the interior angles of

measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral.

Why you should learn it

interior angles of a quadrilateral. Why you should learn it To describe real-life objects, such as

To describe real-life

objects, such as the parachute

in Exs. 21–23.

L L I I L L F F A A E E E E R
L
L
I
I
L
L
F
F
A
A
E
E
E
E
R
R

Polygons

GOAL 1 1

DESCRIBING POLYGONS

A E E E E R R Polygons GOAL 1 D ESCRIBING P OLYGONS A foll

A

following conditions.

is a p l ane figure that meets the plane figure that meets the

1. It is formed by three or more segments

called

common endpoint are collinear.

sides,
sides,

such that no two sides with a

P

q R vertex side vertex S T
q
R
vertex
side
vertex
S
T
that no two sides with a P q R vertex side vertex S T 2. Eac

2. Each side intersects exactly two other sides, one at each endpoint.

Each endpoint of a side is a

vertices. You can name a polygon by listing its vertices consecutively. For instance, PQRST and QPTSR are two correct names for the polygon above.

vertex
vertex

of the polygon. The plural of vertex is

EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE
1

Identifying Polygons

State whether the figure is a polygon. If it is not, explain why.

A SOLUTION
A
SOLUTION
B
B
C
C

Figures A, B, and C are polygons.

D
D
F E
F
E
 

Figure D is not a polygon because it has a side that is not a segment.

Figure E is not a polygon because two of the sides intersect only one other side.

.

.

.

Figure F is not a polygon because some of its sides intersect more than two other sides. .

.

.

.

.

Polygons are named by the number of sides they have.

STUDENT HELP Study Tip To name a polygon not listed in the table, use the
STUDENT HELP
Study Tip
To name a polygon not
listed in the table, use
the number of sides. For
example, a polygon with
14 sides is a 14-gon.
Number of sides Type of polygon 3 Triangle 4 Quadrilateral 5 Pentagon 6 Hexagon 7
Number of sides
Type of polygon
3 Triangle
4 Quadrilateral
5 Pentagon
6 Hexagon
7 Heptagon

322 Chapter 6 Quadrilaterals

Number of sides Type of polygon 8 Octagon 9 Nonagon 10 Decagon 12 Dodecagon n
Number of sides
Type of polygon
8
Octagon
9
Nonagon
10
Decagon
12
Dodecagon
n
n-gon
A polygon is convex if no line that contains a side of the polygon contains
A polygon is
convex
if no line that
contains a side of the polygon contains
a point in the interior of the polygon.
interior
A polygon that is not convex is called
nonconvex
or
concave.
convex polygon
EXAMPLE
2
Identifying Convex and Concave Polygons
interior concave polygon
interior
concave polygon

Identify the polygon and state whether it is convex or concave.

the polygon and state whether it is convex or concave. This tile pattern in Iran contains

This tile pattern in Iran contains both convex and concave polygons.

a. SOLUTION
a.
SOLUTION

b.

a. The polygon has 8 sides, so it is an octagon. When extended, some of the sides intersect the interior, so the polygon is concave.

b. The polygon has 5 sides, so it is a pentagon. When extended, none of the sides intersect the interior, so the polygon is convex.

.

.

.

.

.

.

the interior, so the polygon is convex. . . . . . . A polygon is
the interior, so the polygon is convex. . . . . . . A polygon is
the interior, so the polygon is convex. . . . . . . A polygon is
A polygon is equilateral equiangular
A polygon is
equilateral
equiangular

if all of its sides are congruent. A polygon is

if all of its interior angles are congruent. A polygon is

regular
regular

is equilateral and equiangular.

if it

EXAMPLE 3
EXAMPLE
3

Identifying Regular Polygons

Decide whether the polygon is regular.

a. SOLUTION
a.
SOLUTION
b. c.
b.
c.
Decide whether the polygon is regular. a. SOLUTION b. c. a. The polygon is an equilateral

a. The polygon is an equilateral quadrilateral, but not equiangular. So, it is not a regular polygon.

b. This pentagon is equilateral and equiangular. So, it is a regular polygon.

c. This heptagon is equilateral, but not equiangular. So, it is not regular.

6.1 Polygons

323

STUDENT HELP Study Tip Two vertices that are endpoints of the same side are called
STUDENT HELP
Study Tip
Two vertices that are
endpoints of the same
side are called
consecutive vertices. For
example, P and Q are
consecutive vertices.
x x y y Using Algebra
x x
y
y
Using
Algebra
GOAL 2 A diagonal
GOAL
2
A
diagonal

INTERIOR ANGLES OF QUADRILATERALS

GOAL 2 A diagonal I NTERIOR A NGLES OF Q UADRILATERALS of a p olygon is

of a polygon is a segment

P

q R S diagonals T
q
R
S
diagonals
T

that joins two nonconsecutive vertices. Polygon PQRST has 2 diagonals from

point Q, QT and Æ QS .

Æ

has 2 diagonals from point Q , QT an d Æ QS . Æ Like triangles

Like triangles, quadrilaterals have both interior and exterior angles. If you draw a diagonal in a quadrilateral, you divide it into two triangles, each of which has interior angles with measures that add up to 180°. So you can conclude that the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is 2(180°), or 360°.

B B C C C A D A A D THEOREM THEOREM THEOREM 6.1 Interior
B
B
C
C
C
A
D
A A
D
THEOREM
THEOREM
THEOREM 6.1
Interior Angles of a Quadrilateral
2
The sum
of the measures of the interior angles of a
1 3
quadrilateral is 360°.
4
m™1
+ m™2 + m
™3 + m™4 = 360°
EXAMPLE
4
Interior Angles of a Quadrilateral

Find mQ and mR.

SOLUTION

Find the value of x. Use the sum of the measures of the interior angles to write an equation involving x. Then, solve the equation.

q

P 80 70 2x x R
P
80
70
2x
x
R

S

+ 2+ 70° + 80° = 360°

Sum of measures of int. of a quad. is 360°.

3x + 150 = 360

Combine like terms.

3x = 210

Subtract 150 from each side.

x = 70

Find mQ and mR.

mQ = x° = 70°

mR = 2x° = 140°

Divide each side by 3.

So, mQ = 70° and mR = 140°.

324 Chapter 6 Quadrilaterals

GUIDED PRACTICE

G UIDED P RACTICE
G UIDED P RACTICE

Vocabulary Check

Concept Check

Skill Check

1. What is the plural of vertex?

2. What do you call a polygon with 8 sides? a polygon with 15 sides?

3. Suppose you could tie a string tightly around a convex polygon. Would the length of the string be equal to the perimeter of the polygon? What if the polygon were concave? Explain.

Decide whether the figure is a polygon. If it is not, explain why.

4. 5.
4.
5.

6. the figure is a polygon. If it is not, explain why. 4. 5. Tell whether the

figure is a polygon. If it is not, explain why. 4. 5. 6. Tell whether the

Tell whether the polygon is best described as equiangular, equilateral, regular, or none of these.

7. 8.
7.
8.

9. , equilateral , regular , or none of these . 7. 8. Use the information in

, equilateral , regular , or none of these . 7. 8. 9. Use the information

Use the information in the diagram to find mA.

10.

A B 125 70 60 D C
A B
125
70
60
D
C

11.

A

B 105 C 113 75
B
105
C
113
75

D

PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONS

C 11. A B 105 C 113 75 D P RACTICE AND A PPLICATIONS STUDENT HELP
STUDENT HELP Extra Practice to help you master skills is on p. 813.
STUDENT HELP
Extra Practice
to help you master
skills is on p. 813.

RECOGNIZING POLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon.

12.

13. is on p. 813. R ECOGNIZING P OLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon. 12.

is on p. 813. R ECOGNIZING P OLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon. 12.

14.

is on p. 813. R ECOGNIZING P OLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon. 12.
is on p. 813. R ECOGNIZING P OLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon. 12.

15.

is on p. 813. R ECOGNIZING P OLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon. 12.

16.

is on p. 813. R ECOGNIZING P OLYGONS Decide whether the figure is a polygon. 12.
17. 6.1 Polygons
17.
6.1 Polygons

325

STUDENT HELP HOMEWORK HELP Example 1: Exs. 12–17, 48–51 Example 2: Exs. 18–20, 48–51 Example
STUDENT HELP
HOMEWORK HELP
Example 1: Exs. 12–17,
48–51
Example 2: Exs. 18–20,
48–51
Example 3: Exs. 24–30,
48–51
Example 4: Exs. 36–46
FOCUS ON A PPLICATIONS
FOCUS ON
A PPLICATIONS
48–51 Example 4: Exs. 36–46 FOCUS ON A PPLICATIONS L L I I L L F
L L I I L L F F A A E E E E R
L
L
I
I
L
L
F
F
A
A
E
E
E
E
R
R

ROAD SIGNS

The shape of a sign tells what it is for. For example, triangular signs like the one above are used internationally as warning signs.

CONVEX OR CONCAVE Use the number of sides to tell what kind of polygon the shape is. Then state whether the polygon is convex or concave.

18.

Then state whether the polygon is convex or concave. 18. 19. 20. P ARACHUTES Some gym

19.

state whether the polygon is convex or concave. 18. 19. 20. P ARACHUTES Some gym classes

20.

PARACHUTES Some gym classes use parachutes that look like the polygon at the right. ARACHUTES Some gym classes use parachutes that look like the polygon at the right.

21. Is the polygon a heptagon, octagon, or nonagon?

22. Polygon LMNPQRST is one name for the polygon. State two other names.

23. Name all of the diagonals that have vertex M as an endpoint. Not all of the diagonals are shown.

M as an endpoint. Not all of the diagonals are shown. L M T S R
L M T S
L M
T
S

R q

N

P

RECOGNIZING PROPERTIES State whether the polygon is best described as equilateral, equiangular, regular, or none of these.

24. 25. equilateral , equiangular , regular , or none of these . T RAFFIC S IGNS Use

TRAFFIC S IGNS Use the number of sides of the traffic sign to tell what RAFFIC SIGNS Use the number of sides of the traffic sign to tell what kind of polygon it is. Is it equilateral, equiangular, regular, or none of these?

equilateral , equiangular , regular , or none of these ? 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

26.

, equiangular , regular , or none of these ? 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D

27.

, equiangular , regular , or none of these ? 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D

28.

, equiangular , regular , or none of these ? 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D

29.

equiangular , regular , or none of these ? 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D RAWING

30.

, regular , or none of these ? 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. D RAWING Draw

DRAWING Draw a figure that fits the description.

31.

A convex heptagon

32. A concave nonagon

33.

An equilateral hexagon that is not equiangular

34.

An equiangular polygon that is not equilateral

35.

L OGICAL R EASONING Is every triangle convex? Explain your reasoning.

LOGICAL REASONING Is every triangle convex? Explain your reasoning.

36.

L OGICAL R EASONING Quadrilateral ABCD is regular. What is the measure of ™ ABC

LOGICAL REASONING Quadrilateral ABCD is regular. What is the measure of ™ABC? How do you know?

326 Chapter 6 Quadrilaterals

ANGLE MEASURES Use the information in the diagram to find mA.

STUDENT HELP N E T R E T N I
STUDENT HELP
N
E
T
R
E
T
N
I

SOFTWARE HELP

Visit our Web site www.mcdougallittell.com to see instructions for several software applications.

37. 38. 39. D A A B A 85 D 124 100 C 55 95
37.
38.
39.
D
A
A
B
A
85
D
124
100
C
55
95
87
110
B
D
63
B
C
C
40.
TECHNOLOGY Use geometry software to draw a quadrilateral. Measure
each interior angle and calculate the sum. What happens to the sum as you

drag the vertices of the quadrilateral?

USING A LGEBRA Use the information in the diagram to solve for x . SING ALGEBRA Use the information in the diagram to solve for x.

41.

100 x 87 106
100
x
87
106

42.

150 3x
150
3x

60

43.

84 100 2x 2x
84
100
2x
2x

44.

47.

108 (4x 10) 67 3x LANGUAGE CONNECTION
108
(4x 10)
67
3x
LANGUAGE
CONNECTION

45.

82 (25x 2) (20x 1) (25x 1)
82
(25x 2)
(20x 1)
(25x 1)

46.

99 (x 2 )
99
(x 2 )

A decagon has ten sides and a decade has ten

years. The prefix deca- comes from Greek. It means ten. What does the prefix tri- mean? List four words that use tri- and explain what they mean.

FOCUS ON A PPLICATIONS
FOCUS ON
A PPLICATIONS
tri - and explain what they mean. FOCUS ON A PPLICATIONS I I L L F
I I L L F F E E L L A A E E R
I
I
L
L
F
F
E
E
L
L
A
A
E
E
R
R

CARAMBOLA,

or star fruit, has a cross section shaped like a 5 pointed star. The fruit comes from an evergreen tree whose leaflets may fold at night or when the tree is shaken.

PLANT S HAPES In Exercises 48–51, use the following information. LANT SHAPES In Exercises 48–51, use the following information.

Cross sections of seeds and fruits often resemble polygons. Next to each cross section is the polygon it resembles. Describe each polygon. Tell what kind of polygon it is, whether it is concave or convex, and whether it appears to be equilateral, equiangular, regular, or none of these. Source: The History and Folklore of

N. American Wildflowers

48.

Virginia Snakeroot

48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel
48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel

50.

Fennel

f N. American Wildflowers 48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel 49. Caraway 51. Poison Hemlock 6.1 Polygons
f N. American Wildflowers 48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel 49. Caraway 51. Poison Hemlock 6.1 Polygons

49. Caraway

f N. American Wildflowers 48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel 49. Caraway 51. Poison Hemlock 6.1 Polygons
f N. American Wildflowers 48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel 49. Caraway 51. Poison Hemlock 6.1 Polygons

51. Poison Hemlock

f N. American Wildflowers 48. Virginia Snakeroot 50. Fennel 49. Caraway 51. Poison Hemlock 6.1 Polygons
6.1 Polygons 327
6.1 Polygons
327
Page 7 of 7 Test Preparation 52. M ULTI -S TEP P ROBLEM Envelope manufacturers fold

Test

Preparation

52. MULTI-STEP PROBLEM Envelope manufacturers fold a specially-shaped piece of paper to make an envelope, as shown below.

1 2 3 4
1
2
3
4

a. What type of polygon is formed by the outside edges of the paper before it is folded? Is the polygon convex?

b. Tell what type of polygon is formed at each step. Which of the polygons are convex?

c. Writing Explain the reason for the V-shaped notches that are at the ends of the folds.

Challenge

EXTRA CHALLENGE www.mcdougallittell.com
EXTRA CHALLENGE
www.mcdougallittell.com

53. FINDING VARIABLES Find the values

of x and y in the diagram at the right. Check your answer. Then copy the shape and write the measure of each angle on your diagram.

3y 3y 3x (4x 5) 3x (4x 5) (3y 20) (3y 20)
3y
3y
3x
(4x 5)
3x
(4x 5)
(3y 20)
(3y 20)

MIXED REVIEW

(4x 5) 3x (4x 5) (3y 20) (3y 20) M IXED R EVIEW P ARALLEL L

PARALLEL LINES In the diagram, j k. Find the value of x. (Review 3.3 for 6.2)

54.

x 120
x
120
k . Find the value of x . (Review 3.3 for 6.2) 54. x 120 (9

(9x 4)

55.

j x k 63 j x k x
j
x
k
63
j
x
k
x

56.

j 2x x k
j
2x
x
k
j 25x k 11x
j
25x
k
11x

j

j x k 63 j x k x 56. j 2x x k j 25x k

k

x k 63 j x k x 56. j 2x x k j 25x k 11x

57.

58.

59.

j

x k x 56. j 2x x k j 25x k 11x j k 57. 58.

k

k x 56. j 2x x k j 25x k 11x j k 57. 58. 59.

(20x 2)

2x x k j 25x k 11x j k 57. 58. 59. j k (20 x

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

You are given the midpoints of the sides of a

G EOMETRY You are given the midpoints of the sides of a triangle. Find the coordinates

triangle. Find the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle. (Review 5.4)

60.

L(º3, 7), M(º5, 1), N(º8, 8)

61. L(º4, º1), M(3, 6), N(º2, º8)

62.

L(2, 4), M(º1, 2), N(0, 7)

63. L(º1, 3), M(6, 7), N(3, º5)

64.

x y x y
x y
x y

USING ALGEBRA Use the Distance Formula to find the lengths of the

diagonals of a polygon with vertices A(0, 3), B(3, 3), C(4, 1), D(0, º1), and

E(º2, 1).

(Review 1.3)

328 Chapter 6 Quadrilaterals