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The project described hereiD uses flam-

mable liquids and may present a fire
hazard .. Reasonable care has been exer-
cised in designing the flow bench. None"'
when you USe ga$olil)e as the
ouklooTsor With high
ventilation. A fire extinguisher
a l w ~ y s be kept on hand. We highly
recommend you employ a fan set up to
blow away vapors as they are emitted.
If you choose to build this device, you
accept all risks involved. Neither Perfor-
mance Engineerin Magazine nor its
staff accepts any liability if you hurt
yourself or others while using this de-
Photo 1 - The fuel
injecti on fl ow bench,
front & back vi ews.
By John De Armond
This article is the first of a series on building and using a fuel
injector testing and cleaning machine. The machine is easily built,
is based on an IBM-PC and can cost as little as $200 to build. This
first article will show you how to build the machine and will
present some basics of testing. Subsequent articles will go into
considerable detail about using the machine in a high perfor-
mance environment.
The purpose of this machine is fairl y simple c To allow you to
measure and record all important parameters of an electronic fuel
injector. The design and construction of this machine is also fairly
simple. Some of the underlying concepts may not be. Of course,
that is why this magazine exists, to de-mystify this stuff.
Some Basics
What is the purpose of ' any fuel metering system? Keep it
simple now. That' s right, to create the optimum fuel/air mi xture
under all conditions. See, that was easy. This holds true
whether the device metering the fuel is fuel injection,
carburetion or someone pouring gas down the intake. As
with many things in life, while the theory is simple,
implementalion is quite complex.
Let's presume for a moment that the best mi xture under
all conditions is the chemically correct one, 14.7: 1 for
gasoline. That is, for everyone part by weight of gasoline,
there must 14.7 parts by weight of air to completely burn
the fuel. This is known as the stoichi ometri c mixture. I
tend to abbrevi ate this as "stach" , pronounced just like it
Achi eving this, particularly with fuel injection, should be
easy. Just measure the air flow, calculate a proportional
amount of fuel and shoot it in. Problem is, physics rears
its ugly head. Both air and fuel have the inconvenient
tendency to change properties with temperature and
pressure. Air is even worse because it changes density
with pressure. If we didn't have all these considerati ons,
a simple, all mechanical system such as the Hilborn would
work perfectly under all conditions. Reality dictates all the
fancy electronics we have today.
In order to confi gure any kind of fuel injection control
system, one must know the characteristics of the final
actuator, the fuel injector. That is, the tuner must know
how much fuel per unit time the injector will deliver, how
much delay after he commands the injector open before
the actual delive ry starts and how long after he commands
it shut it actually stops fl ow. See the sidebar for more
detail s on injector parameters.
Pressure Regulator
Pressure Gauge
FuOl Injector
:f Undel Test
Catch Bowl
Figure 1 - Piping Di agram
Injector, Parameters
You might be asking yourself. "SO I've built the
tester. Now what do I testT Fortunately the
important parameters of the fuel injector are well
defined. The first thing you need to acquire is a
copy of the SAE sfandard on fuel injectors. This
is SAEJ1832, "Gasoline Fuel Injector Highway
Vehicle Recommended Practice." This docu-
ment can be ordered directly from the SAE and
can even be paid for on your credit card. See the
Resources Box for details. This standard is al-
most 50 pages long and covers injection mea-
surements in vastly greater detail than could any
magazine article so you should order this stan-
dard and have it available when reading this
The most basic parameter is the fuel deUvery.
That is, how many units of fuel per time interval
the injector delivers. If the fuel pressure is held
constant, the amount of fuel injected is directly
proportional to the amount of time the injector
is open. The actual parameter is the mass per
second, typically grams per second. The reason
mass is needed is mixture is specified in terms of
the ratio of the masses of the air and fuel. The
rate of delivery is dependent on the fuel pressure,
the viscosity of the fluid and the dimensions of
the internal orifice. We'll standardize the test
pressure and the fluid so all injectors can be
compared against each other. You can either
measure the volume of the fuel delivered and,
using the density of the fuel, compute the mass,
or you can actuaUy measure the mass directly
with a lab balance. We'll be looking at both
As with many things, this simple concept gets
complicated in practice. What we referred to
above is the static flow rate or Qs (all variables will
be the ones used in J1832.) That is, if we apply
fuel and yank the injector open. how much will
it flow? Easy to measure. That is only peripher-
ally relatecl to actual operating conditions. In the
engine, the fuel flow is started and stopped once
or twice each power cycle. When the injector
opens, the fuel, having inertia like any other
matter, tal,es a bit of time to start moving.
Because of this delay. if the injector is open 50%
of the time, the flow will not quite be 50%. The
actuaL flow is known as the dynamic flow rdte or
Pe rformance Engineering Magazine 5
What must an injector tester do? Not that much really.
It must supply the injector with a stable supply of fuel (or
other working fluid) at a known pressure. It must supply
the proper voltage for the injector. It must provide the
means to precisely and repeatedly actuate the injector.
Finally it must provide the facilities to measure the
injector's operating parameters. Thanks to the ubiqui-
tous IBM-style PC and a touch of hardware we will
fabricate or inexpensively buy, these requirements are
simply achieved.
In addition to a PC and the hardware we are going to
fabricate, you will need a couple of other pieces of
equipment. The most expensive is an oscilloscope. Since
we are dealing with relatively slow events, most any old
scope wi ll work. The cadillac of scopes for automotive
work is the digital storage scope. This instrument is really
a special purpose computer that digitizes the signal in
question and displays it on a screen. Because the signal
is stored in the scope's memory, it is visible until either
replaced with a new trace or erased. That means very
slow events such ignition or fuel injection cycles can be
viewed at will. It also means that with the right equip-
ment, hardcopy of the trace can be generated.
In the automotive context, the cadillac of digital storage
scopes (DSO) is the Fluke 97 Scope Meter. This hand-
held unit combines the functionality of a dual trace, 50
MHz oscilloscope and a digital voltmeter. See Photo 2.
All the scope traces and data presented in this series of
articles are generated from PE's Fluke 97. At $1795
retail, this scope is within the reach of the professional
Performance Engineer and even for many hobbyists.
Note that this scope is not necessary in order to build and
use the fuel injection tester. Nice but not necessary.
One of the tests you will perform on a fuel injector is
to measure the opening and closing time. This is done by
mounting an accelerometer on the injector and record-
ing the vibrations generated by the injector opening. See
Photo 3. An accelerometer is a device that converts
acceleration to an electrical signal. Typically the output
is specified in terms of signal magnitude per G of
acceleration. The accelerometer we use here at PE is a
fairly expensive commercial piezoelectric accelerometer
made by Endevco. These units typically cost $200 or
more. However, a very satisfactory accelerometer can be
constructed from an ordinary knock sensor.
Tester Description
The tester is pretty simple. A miniature fuel supply
loop, almost identical to that found on the car, is set up
under controlled conditions. The loop consists of a
standard FI fuel pump, filter, bypass regulator and pres-
sure gauge. See Fig. 1. The regulator pictured is a fixed
pressure unit from a Datsun 280Z. For a more general
purpose tester, use an adjustable regulator available from
Injector Parameters
Q. Since the inertial delay is fixed, the shorter
JUld faster the opening pulse, the larger
proportion of the total flow interval is con-
sumed by the intertial interval.
The only way to determine the slope of this
dynamic flow curve is to actually pulse the
Injector under the same conditions and deter-
mine the flow rate vs pulse width.
Spray Pattern
The spray pattern is important because it
dictates where in the intake the injector is
placed and how well itwiU work. The ideal
configuration is for the injected fuel to spray
directly onto the head of the intake valve.
This gets the fuel as closlf as possible to the
combustion chamber and none is sprayed on
the intake walls. The .tester allows you to
observe and even measure the spray pattern.
J1832 details pattern testing in great detail.
Photo 2 - The Fluke 97 Scopemeter
Performance Engineering Magazine
Photo 3 - Accelerometer and in-
jector clamping detail.
a variety of sources. See the Re-
source list.
The pump is supplied with 12
volts through a switch and a rheo-
stat. The rheostat is provided to
adjust the speed of the fuel pump
until the bypass regulator just starts
to bypass. The purpose is to intro-
duce as little heat to the fuel as
possible. Fuel is supplied to the
injector through a flex hose and is
secured via a homemade quick
action clamp. The injector is held
in the fi xture by a common wood-
working toggle-clamp. The accel-
erometer is attached to this clamp.
Photo 4 illustrates this assembly.
You will observe that there is a
small flowmeter in the line to the
injector. This meter is optional
and is not necessary to conduct
any test in this series. The meter
is convenient but very expensive
so the design was developed with-
out it.
Below the injector mount is a
spray catch-cup used to catch the
spray from the injector when
observing the spray pattern. It is
fabricated from a 4" CPVC pipe
endcap. It is designed so it can be
quickly moved out of the way for
tests so requiring. See photo 1. In
Performance Engineering Magazine
this photo the cup is
white so it will show up
better. It should be paint-
ed flat black with appli-
ance epoxy paint so the
spray pattern can be
more easily observed.
The cup hanger is fabri-
cated from a piece of
gas line flattened in a
vice and drilled for at-
tachment to the panel.
The bends are accom-
plished with an ordinary
tubing bender available
at the car parts store.
The loops that hold the
cup to the hanger are
ordinary nylon wire clamps avail-
able from Radio Shack or other
electronic supply houses.
A quick peek at the schematic in
Fig. 2 reveals the simplicity of the
electrical circuit. The reason this
circuit is so simple is that the PC
does all the work. The printer port
adapter is nicely buffered. The soft-
ware does all the actual testing.
Ain't PCs grand!?! The circuit pro-
vides the ability to test both saturat-
ed mode and peak-hold mode
injectors. Which mode is in effect is
strictly the function of the software.
The potentiometers are adjusted to
provide the proper peak and hold
current in peak-hold mode or VR-
Photo 4 - Regulator,
flowmeter, pressure gauge
and piping detail. Note the
homemade T-handle clamp
at bottom-center.
1 alone is used to set the saturated
current for saturated-mode opera-
tion. We'll cover this aspect in great
detail in the next issue.
The chassis of the tester is con-
structed from plywood. All joints
are glued, braced and screwed with
sheetrock screws. This makes a
very sturdy but easily "machined"
base. A heavy coat of aerosol ep-
oxy appliance paint provides a non-
stain finish. Control legends were
created by laying out the pattern in
CorelDraw and laser printing them
on overhead transparency film. The
legend is glued to the panel using
ultraviolet curable epoxy. If you
don't have such esoteric glue (Mine
waS stolen from Doreen's stained
glass studio), superglue will do fine.
The piping is three-eighths inch
brake line: [ used metal piping be-
cause it is sturdy and fireproof, a
consideration that should not be
underestimated. The return piping
should extend to below the surface
of the liquid in the reservoir in order
to minimize foaming and evapora-
tion. Be sure to plug the opening to
the reservoir with some fiberglass
cloth as shown. This a vapor barri-
er and a fire stop.
The electrical construction is sim-
plicity personified. See photo 6 for
details. Basically, everything is sim-
ply screwed to the wooden chassis.
The heatsinks on the transistors
are not necessary and were includ-
ed in an early stage of develop-
ment. They remain completely cool
to the touch. None of the wiring or
layout is critical. [ recommend us-
ing shielded wire for the lead to the
Power for my tester is supplied
by a regulated power supply. This
is convenient and may be neces-
sary for some of the SAE
testing but is not required. A car
battery will work just fine. If you do
use a regulated power supply, be
sure to include an outboard filter
capacitor as illustrated on the sche-
matic and in Photo 60. This capac-
itor filters the switching transients
Performance Engineering Magazine
Opening and Closing De-
lay, Turndown Ratio
When the ECU applies a
pulse to the injector, not
oJ)?n immediately. The
tor coU inductance
Iy resists the flow of clll'i'ei1tiatl.d
the valve parts have inertia.
Both these faqj:ors
opening SJ)?ed of the injetbr.
It is important to mirlim12' this
delay. The reason is a parame-
tercaUed the "ilJmdown ratto".
That is, the ratio betweeti;t'he
maximum and minimWn open
time. Themaximumopent'lme
is .. set by how much a
pOwer cycletakes at maxirrrum
RPM. See F'Jgure 8. Forexam-
pie, if the engine's m
is lO,QOO RP
These injectors will be mafched
as to fuel delivery and opening
what ifene goes
the .replacement to the Un-
less you buUd this macl:ilne or
a cbmmerciaUy buUt fuel '
tester, you don't.
The last benefit might not be
so obvious. This.tester lets you
get "down to thll! bare meti:ll. ,-
You'll be able to measure and
get the feel for almost Wery
oJ)?rating parameter of a fuel
injec::ror and you can quickl!l corn--
pare one injector design to an-
other. This level of experience
and understanding makes it much
easier to grasp the rest of the
injection system design process.
+ 12 Vol ts
j '
+12 Volts
Fuel InJectOf
l OOQ 20watt
Clarostot or equi v.
Clarosta! or equiv.
Fig. 2 - Schematic Diagram
created by firing the fuel injector. I
learned from experience that these
transients will burn out the power
supply unless trapped. Most any
value capacitor larger than about
30,000 uF will work fine.
The Software
The software is amazingly simple
considering what it allows us to do.
Its basic function is to turn the fuel
injector on and 6ff for precisely
timed intervals and to' total the
amount of time the injector is open.
The software uses the hardware
timer built into each Pc. The timer
is used in a high resolution mode
that gives us the ability to measure
time in microseconds. The actual
timer routines were taken from
some public domain code written
by David Kirschbaum. This soft-
ware is written to be as portable as
possible and has run on every type
of PC tested to date.
The operation is simple. Four
values must be specified. These
The time the peak current flows.
The total on time. T(on)

U Coil Current
--------j""-- ---
"'--If-_ ..... Motion
Fig. 3 - Idealized voltage
and current waveforms and
pintle motion for Peak/
Hold (solid lines) and
saturated driver (shaded
Performance Engineering Magazine
The total cycle time. T(cycle}
The lotal number of cycles.
See Fig. 3 for del ails. Once
these parameters are spf'cified.
t he go command can be issued
to fire the injector. During each
cycle, both transistors (bits 0
and J) are fired for T(peak).
Then the peak transistor is
turned off (bit 0) and the injector
is held on for the time interval
equal to T(on) - T(peak}. The
hold transistor (bit 1) is turned
off for T(cycle) - T(on} and then
the cycle repeats until the total
number of cycles are run or a
key is pressed. A keypress ter
minates Ihe test. The lotal on
time is accll1111 il ated during test-
ing and is displayed at the end of
each cycle. This time is vital for
computing the fuel delivery of the
injector. This time accLm1ulator can
be reset at any time.
A second mode is the current!
purge mode. This mode simply
fires the injector continuously so
that the peak and hold current can
be set. Some caution must be used
because excessive current can quick-
ly burn out injectors. Because the
peak current is often many times
the rating of the injector, the peak
on-time is limited to one second at
a time. A second use of this mode
is to turn the injector on continu-
ously so air may be purged after an
injector change and to release pres-
sure prior to changing the injector.
Perfonnance Engineering MagaziJl e
Photo 6 - Wiring Details
A !l1ird mode is the software
calibration mode. Because every
computer requires a finite amount
of time to execute a sequence of
instructions and because the time
intervals we are dealing with are
very short, a compensation factor
must be developed for each ma
chine. The software ships with a
compensation value appropriate for
my 25 MHz 386sx laptop. The
calibration mode allows you to al
lernately generate a 0.5 ms and a
5 111S pulse from bit 0 while chang
ing the compensation factor. You
would place the program in this
mode and then observe the pulse
output on an osci lloscope while
dithering the compensation factor
until the pulse widths are exac!.
500ms/DIV SINGI E Trig A 1
Off Time

Cyc le Storts
End of
Cyc le
Fnd Peak.
Begin Hold
-Fig. 4 - Lamp test waveform
Injector Parameters
maximum amount of time avail-
able to inject is that taken by two
10,000 /60 =, 166.66 revs
per second.
1 / 166.66 RPS = 0.006
seconds per rev.
Two revolutions is 12 millisec-
So we have 12 miUiseconds
maximum to supply the needed
fuel at full RPM. It is desirable to
size the Injector f10wrate such
that the injector is open almost
all the time. That
turndown ratio. It is
tant to note that the opening
delay must be accommodated In
thiS 12 ms interval. More accu-
rately, the opening delay minus
the closing delay must be ac-
commodated. The closing de-
lay. which is almost always
Performance Engineering Magazine
This compensati on factor onl y
matt ers when creating intervals
shorter t han about 2 ms. The value
vou develop may be polaced in an
va ri abl e ca ll ed
FITCOMP_ Sec the documenta-
tion thClt accompnni es the code for
detail s_ Pl ease refer to the Resollrce
I .i st for sohwi'lre Cl vail ahility .
I suggest you test the mechanicCl I
components first. Insli'lll i'ln injec-
tor. fill the tank with gasol ine and
fire off the pump at full speed.
Q'li ckly look for leaks and verify
the pressure wgulator is function-
ing. VClry I-he speed knob and veri fy
the pump chi'l nges speerL Tllm off
the pump and bl eed the pressure
by loosening the pipe , lamp on the
injector nnd all owing the gas to leak
into the cnl ch bowl.
Electrical tests are conducted with
a small 12 volt, approxi-
mately 2 amp (taillight)
BNC Connector
on t he front panel
of the flow bench
, "/1
Acceleromet er
Iightbulb installed in place
of the injector. Connect
the PC and start the pro-
gram. This is important
because the first thing the
program does is reset the
parallel port. In my expe-
rience, about half the time
a parallel port will power
up with the output bits
set; i.e ... the transistors
I ' Chan A I
Chan B
I _: ..
I - - - - -- - - I "{T
fired. This could, of
course, burn out the in-
jector. Apply power and
verify there is 12-14 volts
- available at the injector
power switch. If that is in
order, turn on the injec-
tor power switch. The
lamp should be off. If nO,t,
check your wiring. Enter the cur-
rent/purge mode. Fire the peak
transistor. The lamp should light.
Turn thepeakpot. Thelightinten-
sity should vary. Turn the peak
transistor off and fire the hold tran-
sistor. The lamp should again light.
Turn the hold pot. The lamp in-
tensity should vary. In each case,
with the lamp at full brilliance (min-
imum resistance), verify that the
collector of the applicable transis-
tor is switched within about a half
volt of ground. If it is not, either the
transistor has low gain or your
parallel port has insufficient drive.
If insufficient drive is the problem,
D ==C'J
see the Resource List for a known
good parallel port card. Turn the
hold transistor off. Return to oper-
ate mode. Set the following pa-
Total cycle interval 3000 ms
Peak interval 1000 ms
On interval 2000 ms
Repetitions 100
Peak potentiometer fully
counter-clockwise, maximum re-
Hold potentiometer fully clock-
wise, minimum resistance.
Run the test. You should see the
Fig. 5
lamp come on dimly for a second,
go full intensity for a second and
turn off for a second. If you have a
scope connected to the monitoring
point, you should see a waveform
similar to Fig. 4. Testing is com-
plete. Press any key to terminate
the test.
This is going to be brief because
the majority of the next issue's
article will cover operation. This is
just enough to get you going.
Install an injector. Connect the
scope as illustrated in Fig. 5. Set the
A 5V DC B 500mV DC
Fig. 6
A 5V DC B 200mV DC
l msj DIV SINGLE Trig' A l 1 msj DIV SINGLE Tri g' A l
IT "\
fI IT ...
tv "'-V'
A 1 It.


Fig. 7
Performance Engineering Magazine
scope as follows:
Chan A - monitoring point, 2
volts per division
Chan B - accelerometer, full
sensitivity, usually 5 mv/division
Trigger - Chan A, DC cou-
pled, negative slope
Sweep - 1 ms/division, Normal
Set the peakand hold pots fully
counter-clockwise {maximum resis-
Start the software and apply pow-
er to the injector. Leave the fuel
pump off at this stage. Set the
following parameters for peaklhold
Peak time 5 ms
Total cycle time 15 ms
On time 10 ms
Repetitions 10,000
Start the test. You should see
some activity on the scope. Adjust
the trigger level for a stable display
similar to Fig. 6. The injector may
be making some noise but probably
is not opening. Start turning the
peak pot clockwise. You should
hear the sound of the injector
change. At some point the change
will become marked: This will oc-
cur when the injector gets enough
)eak current to actually start open-
ing. You should see some activity
on channel B, the accelerometer.
You should see a vibration spike
shortly after the current is applied
and perhaps a second spike as the
injector closes when the peak cur-
rent turns off. If the injector closes
when the peak current turns off,
gradually tum the hold current pot
until the injector stays on for the
duration of the on time.
You have now determined the
approximate peak and hold cur-
rent requirements of that injector.
You can back the peak time off
until the injector fails to open. This
will determine the approximate
peak time required. This is normal-
Iyabout 1-2 ms Fig. 6 illustrates a
typical peak/hold waveform. You
may now go to current mode and
evaluate the currents you have set.
For Saturated Driver Injectors,
use the foll OWing parameters:
Peak time 0 ms
Total cycle time 15 ms
On time 10 ms
Repetitions 10,000
Start the test and observe the
scope. You should see a display
similar to Fig. 7. Start turning the
Hold pot clockwise. Atsome point
the injector should start opening.
The accelerometer should show
some activity and the sound should
change. Continue increasing the
current by further turning the hold
pot and observe the opening de-
lay. The delay should decrease
rapidly at first and then remain
fairly constant. Just a bit more
than what is necessary to tum the
delay "knee" is usually about right.
If the injector is a high impedance
{no ballast resistor} unit, the hold
pot should end up near zero ohms.
If a ballast resistor is used in an
existing install ation with low im-
pedance injectors, the pot should
end up near that value.
Since we don't have any fuel
flowing at this point , don't run
these tests for too long lest you
overheat the injector. Once you
get the approximate electrical pa-
rameters set, you may start the fuel
pump and actually inject some fuel!
Working Fluids
For most testing, you will want
to use the actual fuel you will be
burning in the engine. If you plan
on testing a lot of injectors, you
might want to consider using N-
Heptan e as outlined in SAE
J1832. It has a lower vapor pres-
sure than gasoline and is much
more stable over time. If you use
gasoli ne, you should use new gas-
oline each day. Pump the old gas
out and use it in your hotrod
lawnmower or something.
Performance Engineering Magazine
This tester is very effective in
cleaning dirty injectors. The work-
ing f1wi d I' ve found very effective is
a half-and-half mix of gasoline and
Chevron Techron fuel injector
cleaner. Simply clean the injector
on the outside and then connect it
to the tester. Run the injector at
about a 50')-(' duty cycle for 15
minutes. The vibration of firing the
injector appears to assist in the
cleaning operation. More on this
next issue.
In Closing
This just about wraps up the first
installment in this series. Use the
time to build your tester , acquire
the software, acquire a copy of
SAE J1832 and get everything
Ordering Files by
If you are on the Internet or any of
connected.networks, you can request
the Software that accompanies this
article via -electronic mail. There is no
charge. lfyouare ona network other
than the Internet, consult
master tor for malIingfo
an Internet address. The..
ipstructions 3SS\ltM you
lritemet. .
Address the mail to This is an aut.:mJ.<mc.
server. There need not be.any Sub-
ject". In the. body of the message.
irlclude the following:
address <your mail
get help
The file will be returned to your
address in uuencoded format. You
wiD need a uudecoder in order to
process the fUe. These are widely
available from Bulletin Board sys-
lems, including Courts of Chaos list-
ed opposite.
---------- - - ------- ----- _._--- - - - -
Resource Guide
The software may be obtained from the foll owing sources:
Courts of Chaos BBS
By e-Mail
By mail from PE Magazine_
Fuel Pressure Regulator
501 '3155-0059
Send request 10 Iistserv@dixie.lulTr
Send a LargeSASE and $S.OO
A stock regulator from your car of choice may be used or an adjustable regulator lTIay be
ordered from: Kenne Bell , 10743 Bell Courl. Rancho Cucarnonga. CA l) j 730. 7 14 941-
6646, 714941-0985 (tech sUPPOli)
Electronic Parts
Q1.Q2 TIP-120 Transistors
01 Diode, 6A, 50PIV
VR-1. 2 Rheostat, lOOn ,12. 5 IR l tt
VR-3 Rheostat, 20n ,25 walt
S1.S2 Toggle Switch, SPST. :3 amp
BNC- 1 BNC panelmount connector
TP-1 Dual Bananna Jack
Compatable Printer Pori Card
Toggle Clamp
Radio Shack P/N 276-2068
Radio Shack PIN 276-166 1
Newdrk PIN 871'3611-50 III
Newark PI N 87f6:390-20 12]
Radio Shack PI N 275-322
Radio Shack
Radio Shack
Magillonics PIN A-B10913]
This is a standard 1" woodworking toggle clamp available from most hardware
stores. An alternative supplier is Stone Mountain Power Tools in Stone Mowltain. GA_
The knock sensor mentioned is a standard automotive knock sensor. Mine is from
a Dodge Turbo Lazer. True accelerometers can be had horn:
30700 Rancho Viejo Rd.
San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675
PCB Piezotronics Inc
716 684-0001
J1832 may be ordered from the SAE, 400 Cornmorl weLIlth Dr.. Warrel!ciale, I-'A 15096.
412 776-4970, 412776-0790 (FAX)
Hard-to-Find Parts
The above marked items are available from Rapid Deployment Systems Inc. PO Box
670386, Marietta, GA30066. 404 578 9547. Add $4 to each order forS/H. Allow 6 weeks
for delivery.
VR-1,2 -
VR-3 -
Card -
$10.00 each.
$15.00 each.
$19.95 each.
Peljormance Engineering Magm:ille