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# Engineering drawing

Orthographic projection

Symbols used to define whether a projection if First Angle (left) or Third Angle (Right). Orthographic projection is a means of representing a three-dimensional (3D) object in two dimensions (2D)"Orthographic" comes from the Greek word for "straight writing (or drawing)." This projection shows the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either first-angle or third-angle projection.

First angle projection is the ISO standard and is primarily used in Europe and Asia. The 3D object is projected into 2D "paper" space as if you were looking at an X-ray of the object: the top view is under the front view, the right view is at the left of the front view. Third angle projection is primarily used in the United States and Canada, places the left view on the left and the top view on the top.

Not all views are necessarily used, and determination of what surface constitutes the front, back, top and bottom varies depending on the projection used.

First-angle projection
In first-angle projection, the object is conceptually located in quadrant I, i.e. it floats above and before the viewing planes, the planes are opaque, and each view is pushed through the object onto the plane furthest from it. (Mnemonic: an "actor on a stage".) Extending to the 6-sided box, each view of the object is projected in the direction (sense) of sight of the object, onto the (opaque) interior walls of the box; that is, each view of the object is drawn on the opposite side of the box:

A two-dimensional representation of the object is then created by "unfolding" the box, to view all of the interior walls:

##  Third-angle projection

In third-angle projection, the object is conceptually located in quadrant III, i.e. it lurks below and behind the viewing planes, the planes are transparent, and each view is pulled onto the plane closest to it. (Mnemonic: a "shark in a tank", esp. that is sunken into the floor.) Using the 6-sided viewing box, each view of the object is projected opposite to the direction (sense) of sight, onto the (transparent) exterior walls of the box; that is, each view of the object is drawn on the same side of the box. The box is then unfolded to view all of its exterior walls.

First-angle projection is as if the object were sitting on the paper and, from the "face" (front) view, it is rolled to the right to show the left side or rolled up to show its bottom. It is standard throughout Europe and Asia. Third-angle is as if the object were a box to be unfolded. If we unfold the box so that the front view is in the center of the two arms, then the top view is above it, the bottom view is below it, the left view is to the left, and the right view is to the right. It is standard in USA and Canada. Both first-angle and third-angle projections result in the same 6 views; the difference between them is the arrangement of these views around the box. A great deal of confusion has ensued in drafting rooms and engineering departments when drawings are transferred from one convention to another. On engineering drawings, the projection angle is denoted by an international symbol consisting of a truncated cone, respectively for first-angle (FR) and third-angle (US):

The 3D interpretation of the symbol can be deduced by envisioning a solid truncated cone (Mnemonic: a "gift-wrapped megaphone"), standing upright with its large end on the floor and the small end upward. The top view is therefore two concentric circles ("donut"). In particular, the fact that the inner circle is drawn with a solid line instead of dashed disambiguates this view as the top view, not the bottom view.

In first-angle projection, the "top" view is pushed down to the floor, and the "front" view is pushed back to the rear wall; the intersection line between these two planes is therefore closest to the large end of the cone, hence the first-angle symbol shows the cone with its large end open toward the donut. In third-angle projection, the "top" view is pulled up to the ceiling, and the "front" view is pulled forward to the front wall; the intersection line between the two planes is thus closest to the small end of the cone, hence the third-angle symbol shows the cone with its large end away from the donut.

Isometric projection is a form of graphical projection more specifically, an axonometric projection. It is a method of visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions, in which the three coordinate axes appear equally foreshortened and the angles between any two of them are 120.

## FIRST ANGLE - ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

V. Ryan 2002

Orthographic Projection is a way of drawing an object from different directions. Usually a front, side and plan view are drawn so that a person looking at the drawing can see all the important sides. Orthographic drawings are useful especially when a design has been developed to a stage whereby it is almost ready to manufacture. IMPORTANT: There are two ways of drawing in orthographic - First Angle and Third Angle. They differ only in the position of the plan, front and side views. Below is an example of first angle projection.

Opposite is a simple L-shape, drawn in three dimensions. Below is the same shape drawn in orthographic projection.

This orthographic projection appears to have three separate drawings but they are the same L-shape. The first drawing is the front view (drawn looking straight at the front of the Lshape), the second is a drawing of the L-shape seen from the side and last of all a drawing from above known as a plan view. The red lines are faint guidelines and they are drawn to help keep each view in line, level and the same size. Please Note! This is an example of first
angle orthographic project (as used mainly in Europe). There is another type called third angle which is used by countries such as the USA. The front, side and plan views are in different positions

## THE FRONT VIEW

Imagine standing directly in front of the L-shape. You would only see the front edges, not the sides.

## THE SIDE VIEW

Now imagine standing directly at the side of the L-shape, the drawing opposite shows exactly what you wou

Draw an orthographic projection of a H-shape. Clearly show the front, side and plan views and use guidelines to keep them level.

Carefully study the symbols shown below. Normally when drawing in first or third angle projection a symbol is drawn underneath which clearly shows which angle of projection has been used.

Another example of first angle orthographic projection is shown below. Follow the blue, red and green guidelines as the front, side and plan view are constructed.

The final arrangement of the views are shown in the drawing below. Notice how the symbol for first angle orthographic projection has been added and the paper has a title block and borderline.

## THIRD ANGLE - ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

V. Ryan 2002

Orthographic Projection is a way of drawing an object from different directions. Usually a front, side and plan view are drawn so that a person looking at the drawing can see all the important sides. Orthographic drawings are useful especially when a design has been developed to a stage whereby it is almost ready to manufacture. IMPORTANT: There are two ways of drawing in orthographic - First Angle and Third Angle. They differ only in the position of the plan, front and side views. Below is an example of third angle projection.

Opposite is an L-shaped object. In the previous section it was drawn in first angle orthographic projection but below it is drawn using the more popular third angle projection.

The position of the three views differs compared to first angle orthographic projection. Look at the first angle projection - what are the main differences ? Study the animation below this may help in working out the differences.

Another example of third angle orthographic projection is shown below. Follow the blue, red and green guidelines as the front, side and plan view are constructed.

The final arrangement of the views are shown in the drawing below. Notice how the symbol for third angle orthographic projection has been added and the paper has a title block and borderline.

Carefully study the symbols shown below. Normally when drawing in first or third angle projection a symbol is drawn which clearly shows which angle of projection has been used.