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3 Transformer

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lecture, student should to: Understand the principle and the nature of 3 phase transformer. transformer. Perform an analysis on 3 phase transformers which their principles are basic to the understanding of electrical machines. machines

Introduction
A 3 transformer is essentially 3 single phase transformer wound on a common core. core. The geometry of the core is such that the fluxes of the phases share common paths as a result, the volume of iron in 3 transformer is less than the volume of iron of 3 single phase transformer of the same rating. rating. reduced Hence, the cost is reduced. any phase of a 3 transformer behaves exactly like a single phase transformer. In 3 transformer, the primary and secondary windings can be connected either in Y or . The possible connection are: Primary Secondary Y Y Y Y

Transformer Construction
3 Single Phase Transformer
R Y B Np1 Ns1

Transformer Bank Np2 Ns2

Used a lot in older transformer adv:- each unit in the bank can be replaced individually
Np3 Ns3

Transformer Construction
3 Transformer wound a single three legged iron core
Np1 Np2 Np3

more preferred in practice adv:- lighter, smaller, cheaper, slightly more efficient iron core must be laminated : to reduce eddy current loss iron must be made of soft iron : to reduce hysteresis loss cooling the transformer :- use fan or heat sink

Ns1

Ns2

Ns2

soft iron must be add with 3-5% silicon :- to increase the saturation flux in the iron * The amount of silicon must not too high otherwise the iron will be brittle clamp the lamination :- to reduce the humming noise

Delta () Delta () Connection ( (


This connection is economical for large low-voltage large, lowtransformers in which insulation problem is not so urgent.
A IL1
I1

IL2 V1 V2

A'

VL1 B
C

I2

B' C'

Delta () Delta () Connection ( ( (Schematic Diagram)


A A N B N B

N C

N C

N A A

Delta () Delta () Connection ( ( (Schematic Diagram)


Refer to primary,

I1 =

IL1 3
R01 X01

V1 = VL1

aV 2 = aVL2

Star (Y) Star (Y) Connection


This connection is the most economical for small, high voltage transformers transformers.
A IL1 C V1 I1 I2 V2 IL2 C' A'

VL1

VL2

B'

Star (Y) Star (Y) Connection (Schematic Diagram)

A'

B'

C'

Star (Y) Star (Y) Connection (Schematic Diagram)


Refer to primary,

I1 = I L1
R01 X01

VL1 V1 = 3

VL2 aYYV 2 = a 3

3rd harmonic phenomenon and unbalanced loading


The Y-Y connection has two very serious problems:
If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced, then the voltages on the phases of the transformer can become severely unbalanced There is a serious problem with third harmonic voltages Solution to the problem: problem: Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformer Introduced a third winding connected in
Assignment 1 (Due in 2 weeks)

Star (Y) Delta () (


This type of connection is mainly used for the system where we need to step-down the voltage.
A IL1 C V1 V2 VL1
I2

IL2

A'

I1 VL2

B'

C'

Star (Y) Delta () Connection ( (Schematic Diagram)


A A N B N B

N C

N C

N A

Star (Y) Delta () Connection ( (Schematic Diagram)


Refer to primary,

I1 = IL1
R01 X01

VL1 V1 = 3

aYV2 = 3aVL2

Delta () Star (Y) (


This type of connection is mainly used for the system where we need to step-up the voltage.
A IL1
I1

A' IL2 I2 C' V2

VL1

V1

VL2 B

B'

Delta () Star (Y) (Schematic ( Diagram)


A A N B B N

N C

N C

N A

Delta () Star (Y) (Schematic ( Diagram)


Refer to primary primary,

I1

I L1 = 3
R01 X01

V1 = VL1

a VL2 aYV 2 = 3 3

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer ***


Quantities are measured based on 3 power, VL and IL Impedance must be calculated on per phase basis Power is measured using 2 wattmeter method

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Open Circuit Test)


To determine core loss Measurement are made on the low voltage side. side. Therefore, need to know the low voltage windings are in Y or . Supply rated low voltage at rated frequency
Poc Voc
Pi 3

Voc Im Xm

Ic

Rc

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Open Circuit Test)


Low Voltage Winding in
Poc Pi i ) Poc = = 3 3 ii ) Voc = Voc iii ) Ioc I oc = 3
2

Pi (Voc ) = 3 Rc

Poc Voc

Ic

Pi 3

Voc Im Xm

Rc

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Open Circuit Test)


Low Voltage Winding in

(V )
oc

Xm Xm =

= Voc Ioc sin oc Voc Ioc sin oc

(Voc )
Xm

3Voc I oc

(Voc )2
Rc

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Open Circuit Test)


Low Voltage Winding in Y
Poc Pi = 3 3 V ii ) Voc = oc 3 iii ) Ioc = I oc i ) Poc = Pi (Voc ) = 3 Rc 3(Voc ) Pi
2 2

Poc
2

Rc =

V 3 oc 3 = Pi

Ic Voc

Pi 3

Voc Im Xm

Rc

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Open Circuit Test)


Low Voltage Winding in Y

(V )
oc

Xm Xm =

= Voc Ioc sin oc Voc Ioc sin oc

(Voc )
Xm

3Voc I oc

(Voc )2
Rc

Z magnetism = 3Z magnetismY

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Short Circuit Test)


To determine copper loss The three low voltage terminals are shorted together Supply rated current to the high voltage side at low voltage and rated frequency. At low voltage magnetism (Rc and Xm) can be ignored. Measurement are made on the high voltage side. Therefore, need side. to know the high voltage windings are in Y or .
HV side Low voltage, high current Irated Req Xeq

Psc 3

Vsmall

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Short Circuit Test)


High Voltage Winding in
Psc Pcu i ) Psc = = 3 3 ii ) Vsc = Vsc iii ) Isc I sc = 3
2

Irated Vsmall

Req

Xeq

Pcu ( I sc ) Req = 3 Pcu Pcu Req = = 3( Isc ) 2 3( I sc ) 2 3

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Short Circuit Test)


High Voltage Winding in

(I )
sc

X eq = Vsc Isc sin sc Isc Vsc sin sc = I sc 3

X eq =

Vsc sin sc

(I )
sc

3Vsc I sc
2

X eq

Pcu

Z eq = 3Z eq Y

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Short Circuit Test)


High Voltage Winding in Y

Psc Pcu i ) Psc = = 3 3 Vsc ii ) Vsc = 3 iii ) Isc = I sc Pcu ( Isc ) Req = 3 Pcu Req = 3( Isc ) 2
2

Irated Vsmall

Req

Xeq

Measurement on Three-Phase ThreeTransformer (Short Circuit Test)


High Voltage Winding in Y

(I )
sc

X eq = Vsc Isc sin sc

(I )
sc

3Vsc I sc
2

X eq

X eq

Vsc sin sc Vsc sin sc 3 = = Isc I sc

Pcu

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer


1.

The following are the test result for a 500kVA 6600/415V Y- 3 Transformer. Vsc = 100V Voc = 415V Ioc = 10A Isc = 75.76A Poc = 2000W Psc = 4000W
Calculate the Rc, Xm, Req and Xeq of the transformer referred to high voltage side. Voltage Regulation and Efficiency if power factor is 0.8 lagging. [65.3k, 18.91k, 0.23, 0.73, 1.24%, 98.52%] 65. 18.91k 23 73 24% 98.52%

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)


Solution

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)

Example on Measurement on ThreeThreePhase Transformer (Cont)

AutoAuto-Transformer
Auto-Transformer is a transformer with only one winding. winding. That means, the primary and secondary windings are not electrically isolated form each other In other words, other. the primary and the secondary of autotransformer are physically connected. connected. The theory is almost the same as two winding transformer. transformer.

AutoAuto-Transformer (Equivalent Circuits)

StepStep-down Autotransformer

StepStep-up Autotransformer

Multiple Tap Autotransformer

Multiple Tap Autotransformer with load

AutoAuto-Transformer (Analysis for StepStepup Autotrans)


a IH V2 V1 N1 IL N1 V1 VL c Two winding Transformer Connection as an Auto-Transformer Autob I2 I1 V1 VH

AutoAuto-Transformer (Analysis for StepStepup Autotrans)


1. Voltage Rating a

VL = V1 VH = V1 + V2
2. Current Rating IL

IH V2

b I2 I1 V1 c

VH

VATW I1 = V1 VATW I2 = V2 I Rated autotrans ; I Rated at high voltage side , I H = I 2 I Rated at low voltage side , I L = I H + I1

VL

3. Autotrans Turns-Ratio Turns-

VH a= VL

AutoAuto-Transformer (Analysis for StepStepup Autotrans)


4. kVA Rating 5. Efficiency

VH I H VAH = kVA 1000 V I VAL = L L kVA 1000

Given, Plosses and power factor, Pout = p. f kVAautotrans Know that, Pin = Plosses + Pout Pin Plosses Pout 100% = 100% = Pin Pin Plosses 100% = 1 Pin

AutoAuto-Transformer (Example)
1.

A single phase, 100kVA, 2000/200V two-winding transformer is connected as an autotransformer as shown in Figure 1 such that 2000V is obtained at secondary. The portion ab is the 200V winding, and the portion bc is the 2000V winding. Compute the kVA rating as an autotransformer. Also calculate the efficiency for a given losses of 2800W at 0.866 lagging power factor.

IH V2

IL

b I2 I1 V1 c Figure 1

VH

VL

AutoAuto-Transformer (Example)

Advantages and Drawback of AutoAutoTransformer


Advantages
i.

ii.

The secondary winding is as part of primary winding. Hence, autotransformer eliminates the need for a separate secondary winding winding. As a results, autotransformers are always smaller, lighter, and cheaper cheaper. Absence of electrically isolation is a serious drawbacks in some applications

Drawback
i.

Other Types of Transformer


Voltage Transformer (Potential Transformer)
Is used to measure or monitor the voltage on transmission lines and to isolate the metering equipment from the lines.

Other Types of Transformer


Current Transformer
Is used to measure or monitor the current in transmission lines and to isolate the metering equipment and relay connected to secondary side.

Other Types of Transformer


High Frequency Transformer

In electronic power supplies, there is always a need to isolate the output from the input and to reduce the weight and cost of unit. The objective are best achieved by using a relatively high frequency compared to normal frequency of 50Hz / 60Hz.

Questions ???
TEST 1 SOON.
TEST 1 3 Question Exam Paper (11/2 Hours) Q1. a) Magnetic Circuit and induction b) 3 Phase Circuits Q2. 1 Transformer Q3. 3 Transformer