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THHS Biology

Shirley Lin 5/29/2012

ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION TEST Ecology study of the interactions of organisms with their physical environment and with each other.
Species- able to produce offspring in nature Ex: Lions and Tigers are different species even though they can produce offspring (in a zoo). Population- a group of individuals of one species in one area who can interbreed and interact with each other. Community- all organisms living in one area; includes different species Ecosystem- all organisms living in one area as well as the Abiotic factors in the environment Abioticnonliving; temperature, water, sunlight, wind, etc Bioticliving organisms which interact Biome- a community inhabiting a particular terrestrial and climatic region Biosphere- an ecosystem comprising of an entire earth. Habitat- where an organism lives Niche: an organisms role in the environment

Property of Populations:
1) Size is affected by **Number of births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations 2) Density- # of organisms per unit area 3) Dispersion- pattern of spacing of individuals in an area (Uniform, Clumped, Random)

Population Growth Biotic potential(max rate a population could increase under ideal conditions)Factors include: 1) Age at which reproduction begin 2) Life span during which organism CAN reproduce 3) # of reproductive periods per lifetime 4) # of offspring at one time

Carrying Capacity the maximum an environment can support. **Changes as environment changes Factors that causes population to crash: 1) Predation 2) Parasitism 3) Severe competition 4) End to resources 5) Too much waste Exponential Growthmodel for population that is unrestrained (no predation, parasitism, competition, immigration, emigrations, and with unlimited resources) Ecological Succession: what follows destruction (volcanic eruptions, deforestation, etc)different for every biome - Primary Ecological Succession if rebuilding begins in lifeless area where even soil has been removed. Example in Temperate Deciduous Forest: bare rockLichenpoor/thin soilmossthin soilgrasses/weedThin soil with little more nutrientsdarker soil (more nutrients)herbssoil thickens and darkens furthershurbsthicker/darker soilpioneer trees(Aspen/White Pine)Soil ThickensMature Trees Note that consumers come in if there are producers to eat c: - Secondary Succession some disturbance but soil is intact Usually happens after farmers abandon nutrients poor soil Starts with Grasses and Weeds. - Pioneer Organism: first organisms that re-inhabit the destroyed area. (Lichen, Moss, Grass/Weeds) - Climax Community: ecosystems at its best. Ex: Well-established forests

Different ways to Feed:

Carnivore- feed on meat Herbivores- feed on plants Detritivores- feed on detritus (organic matter from dead plants/animals) Omnivores- feeds on both meat and plants Decomposer- feeds on dead plants and animals and also break down waste of other organisms Scavengers- find dead animals or plants and eat them.

Symbiosis the close and often loing-term interaction between different species 1) Mutualism (+/+) - both organisms benefit Ex: Bacteria that live in human intestine and produces vitamins for the host 2) Commensalism (+/o) - one organism benefits, and one is neutral. Ex: Barnacles use whale as transportation, wale doesnt benefit 3) Parasitism (+/-) one organism (the parasite) benefits while the host is harmed. Ex: Tapeworm in human intestines 4) The Food Chainthe pathway which energy is transferred from one tropic level to another (feeding level).

Tertiary Consumer (Hawk) .1% of Total Energy Secondary Consumer (Frog) 1% of Total Energy Primary Consumer (Grasshopper) 10% of Total Energy
Producer (Green Plant) 100% Energy

Trophic Levels: Positions in a food chain.

Tertiary Consumers: get 10% of energy transfer from Secondary Consumer. (.1% of the original energy from the Producer. Secondary Consumer: gets 10% energy transfer from Primary Consumer. (1% of the energy the Producer had. Primary Consumer: Gets 10% of the energy from the Producer. 10% of total energy.

Producer: gets energy from sunlight. Most are autotrophs. Chemotrophs use chemicals.

Food Webs: multiple food chains interwoven.

Terrestrial Biomes 1) Tundra- frozen desert (permafrost- the condition where ground is always frozen) Location: northern areas of America, Europe and Asia Many insects, birds, lichen, moss, polar bears, artic animals, 2) Taiga- less rainfall than normal forests, long cold winters Location: Northern parts of Canada and Russia Dominated by evergreens (spruce, fir) Largest terrestrial biome Birds, bears, moose, insects, porcupines! C:

3) Desert- less than 10 inches of rainfall per year Location: Sahara Desert, Gobi Desert Animals: usually nocturnal to avoid heat; animals that can maintain constant body temperatures Plants that conserve water (cactus, sagebrush, mesquite) 4) Temperate Deciduous Forest- moderate rainfall, cold winters, warm summers (where we live) Treesshed leaves! Soil is filled with worms and fungi Animals- deer, fox, squirrels, worms Location: North and Central East U.S., Central Urope 5) Savanna/Grassland- low rainfall (10-30 in.) Very few trees less protection for prey Animals here run fast (from predators, and predators run fast to catch prey) Lions, prairie dogs who live underground Location- parries east of Rocky Mountains, Steppes, Pampas 6) Tropical Rainforests- high temperature and high levels of rainfall Dense Vegetation; trees dont shed leaves Ex: vines, epiphytes (plants growing on other plants Animals- monkeys, snakes, lizards Forest floor- decomposing matter and saprophytes who live off of those dead organisms Location: Central Africa, America, and the Amazon

Aquatic Biomes
1) Marine: all of the oceans which connect to form one continuous flowing body of water. Largest biome, covering of the Earths surface Most stable biome: temperatures are stable because water can absorb lots of heat. Subdivided into regions classified by amount of sunlight they receive, distance from shore, water depth and open water vs. water bottom Large concentration of salt 2) Freshwater: the links between the oceans and land (rivers, lakes, ponds, marshes Lower concentration of salt than marine biomediffusion gradient (water goes into cell in protozoa) Are more affected by variations in climate and weather. (Can freeze)

Cycling of Materials
1) Water Cycle 1. Water evaporates from Earth Transpiration: Autotrophs conduct photosynthesis and water vapor is a product. (Stomates) 2. Condensation turns water vapor into a liquid (so it can rain) 3. Precipitation from clouds is absorbed into the ground or taken up by plants 4. Repetition 2) Carbon Cycle 1. Cell Respiration uses carbohydrates and oxygen and produces Carbon Dioxide, water, and energy. 2. Bacterial Decomposers and burning fossil fuels also add carbon dioxide to the air. 3. Deforestation decreases production of Oxygen and increases Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 4. Photosynthesis uses the Carbon Dioxide made from cell respiration and creates Oxygen. (However, autotrophs also produce CO2 via respiration. ** The inputs of Cell Respiration are the outputs of Photosynthesis and vice versa.
5. More CO2 than O2 in the troposphere Greenhouse effect(traps heat but lets light pass through)Global Warming.

3) Nitrogen Cycle 1. N2(Atmospheric nitrogen) cannot be used by organisms Nitrogen-fixing bacteria which live in roots of legumes convert N2 into ammonium ion (NH4+) 2. Nitrifying bacteria convert NH4+ into nitrites (NO2-) and then into nitrates (NO3-) 3. Some nitrates are absorbed by plants (nutrients and Amino Acid) and some are converted back to Atmospheric Nitrogen (N2) by denitrifying bacteria. 4. Animals eat plant as Nitrates are passed on to them, and when they die, the nitrogen is released by decay and converts the proteins back into ammonia (NH3). a. Ammonia is nitrified into nitrites by chemosynthetic bacteria and then nitrified into usable nitrates by nitrifying bacteria b. The rest of the ammonia is denitrified (ammonia is broken down and releases N2 which goes back to beginning of cycle.

Evolution- gradual development of organisms

Evidence of Evolution: 1. Fossil Records reveals existence of organisms that have become extinct. Tar Pit Fossils- formed with Asphalt or Tar. La Brea Tar Pit in Los Angeles Ice- Ice-man, and wooly mammoth. Amber- insects; made when insect gets stuck in sticky sap a tree makes Petrifaction- when organic matter is turned into rock Imprints **Radioactive Dating uses Carbon 14 to determine approx.. how old the remains of fossils are. 2. Comparative Anatomy- examining external and internal anatomy Homologous structures- evolved from same organism, same features, but perform different functions ** formed by Divergent Evolution Analogous Structures- similar structures and functions, but from different evolutionary origins **Ex: wings of birds and some insects. **Formed by Convergent Evolution Vestigial structures- inherited from ancestors but have lost original function 3. Comparative Embryology- comparison of embryonic structures and routes of embryo development. **While comparing embryology, the faster the organism embryos begin to differ, the more dissimilar the mature organisms are. 4. Molecular Evolution- The closer the genetic sequences of organisms, the more closely they are related and the more recently they diverged from a common ancestor 5. Biogeography- location of fossils. **Pangaea Population - Gene Pool- sum total of all alleles in a population - Allele frequency- frequency of one specific allel in the gene pool **Since humans have two alleles of a gene, multiply by 2 - Hardy-Weinberg Thinks: Allele frequency in population remains constant and evolution doesnt occur if: Random mating No immigration/emigration No mutations Large population No Natural selection (certain organisms make better adjustments to environment tend to survive better) Mathematical Demonstration P= frequency of dominant allele Q= frequency of recessive allele 2pq=Heterozygous

Reproductive Barriers
1) Time of mating season 2) Location (Ex. Ligers= tiger + lion however tigers live in jungles, lions live in Africa) 3) Anatomy- shape of reproductive organs (insects) 4) No viable offspring- offspring able to grow and create offspring (Mule=evolutionary dead-end) 5) Different mating behaviors Theories of Evolution 1. Lamark Vs. Darwin Lamark (1809) inheritance of acquired characteristics in organisms is based on use and disuse. ~ giraffe developed long neck because it ate leaves of tall tree and had to stretch passed on this trait. ~ Weismann (1870)- breeded mice and cuts off tail to see if it shortens within generations. **Proves Lamark wrong. Darwin- journeyed on the Beagle to visit the Galapagos Islands and developed the Theory of Natural Selection: Population always overpopulate and exceeds resources Overpopulation results in competition and struggle for survival (getting food, getting a mate) Nature Variation- Mutations create variations within species Transmission of favorable traitsif mutations give a competitive advantage. Survival of the fittest- who has more offspring. *Viable Offspring- the offspring can reproduce as well. Ex: Mule is not a viable offspring Speciation- when evolution creates a new species! FINCHES WITH DIFFERENT BEAKS

Patterns of Evolution
1) Convergent- unrelated species subjected to similar pressures show similar adaptations 2) Parallel evolution- two related species making similar evolutionary adaptations after their divergence from a common ancestor 3) Coevolution- mutual evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species 4) Adaptive Radiation- emptying of a habitatsingle organismevolution

Theories about Evolution

1) Gradualism (Darwin)- organisms descend from common ancestor eventually branch GRADUALLY 2) Punctuated Equilibrium (Gould and Eldridge)- New species suddenly appear after long periods of no change.

Big-Bang Theory formed the planets; Earth's outer surface began to solidify into a crust

Primitive Earth's Atmosphere -Methane (CH4) - Ammonia (NH3) - Vapor (H2O) - Nitrogen (N2) **Lacked Oxygen

Intense heat, lightning, and U.X. radiation provided energy for a multitude of chemical reactions

The primitive earth environment compounds are reformed and become Nitrogen, Carbondioxide, Oxygen, and Water Vapor

Nex Billion years, Protein begin to form-Eventually first cell forms. (Larger cell enguls smaller cells (organelles)

Heterotroph Hypothesis (Oparins idea 1930)states the first cell was an anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryote
absorbed organic molecules from surrounding primordial soup to use as a nutrient source. Process of formation of Autotrophs: Heterotroph CO2 (waste)Autotrophs(uses CO2)performs photosynthesisO2Aerobic Respiration and Aerobic Heterotrophic Cells.

Evidence: Dr. Miller creates pink stuff (environment like primitive earth) with NH3, etc and zaps it with electricity formed pink stuff with structure like amino acids. Panumpeuma same as Miller but also added radioactivity formed pink stuff with ADENINE!!