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CS110 Computational Engineering

An Introduction to Problem Solving using Computers


V. Kamakoti

Course Material P.Sreenivasa Kumar, N.S.Narayanaswamy, Deepak Khemani, V. Kamakoti CS&E, IIT M 1

Common uses of a Computer


As a tool for storing and retrieving information
Extracting and storing information regarding students entering IIT

As a tool for providing services to customers


Billing, banking, reservation

As a calculator capable of user-defined operations


Designing circuits layouts Designing structures Non-destructive testing and simulation
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Course Outline Introduction to Computing Programming (in C) Exercises and examples are from the mathematical area of Numerical Methods. Problem solving using computers. Simulators
Theory (different ways of simulation) Practice (Programs that simulate, say queues)

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Evaluation
Two Quizzes 25
Quiz 1, programming in C with some numerical methods Quiz 2, Numerical Methods and programming

Programming Assignment 25 End of Semester Exam 50


Quiz 1 + Quiz2 + Simulation

Attendance taken in the class + Lab.


Sit according to the roll numbers Report tampering of the stickers to the TAs

Timing slots
Monday, Tuesday (Theory) and Thursday (Programming for next week)
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Lab work Instruction on Thursdays in regular class hours Programming - Two hours per week
6.00 to 8.00 PM Monday to Friday 50 students per batch Individual work - no groups Venue - Department Computing Facility of CSE Dept.

Attendance compulsory for lab too!!


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Every Lecture - Before and After Sit in the place marked for you else you will be marked absent. Attendance will be taken by the TAs 10 minutes after the commencement of the class. Please switch off your mobile phones Collect the feedback form from the TA at the start of every lecture and return the same at the end of every lecture

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Lab work Please be available at the DCF of CSE Department at least 10 minutes before the start of the lab on the day allotted day. Purchase a 100 page (minimum) bound notebook which will be your record notebook. Bring the record notebook to every lab class.

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What is this CS110 about? Computer and its components Computing personal, distributed, parallel Programming Languages Problem Solving and Limitations of a Computer

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What IS a computer? A computer is a machine Something that operates mechanically But it is a flexible machine Its behaviour is controlled by a program A program is like a spell cast on a machine Programmers are like wizards Programs reside in the memory of the machine
Charles Babbage (1791-1871) The stored program concept
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Early Computing Hardware

The Slide rule The Chinese Abacus

The gear replaced the beads in early mechanical calculators


History of computing hardware From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Jaquard looms

Used punched cards to weave different patterns


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The Difference Engine


Part of Babbage's difference engine, assembled after his death by Babbage's son, using parts found in his laboratory.

The London Science Museum's replica Difference Engine, built from Babbage's design.

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The First Programmer

Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine.

The programming language ADA is named after her.


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ENIAC the first electronic computer


Physically, ENIAC was massive compared to modern PC standards. It contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and around 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed 30 short tons (27 t), was roughly 8 feet (2.4 m) by 3 feet (0.9 m) by 100 feet (30 m), took up 1800 square feet (167 m), and consumed 150 kW of power.
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2000: Intel Pentium 4 Processor Clock speed: 1.5 GHz # Transistors: 42 million Technology: 0.18m CMOS

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The computing machine


PROCESSOR

MEMORY
01234. (say) 256 MEGABYTES

The computer is made up of a processor and a memory. The memory can be thought of as a series of locations to store information.

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The computing machine


PROCESSOR

MEMORY
01234. 256 MEGABYTES

program

data

The processor treats part of the information in memory as instructions, and a part of it as data. A program is a sequence of instructions assembled for some given task. Most instructions operate on data. Some instructions control the flow of the operations. It is even possible to treat programs as data. By doing so a program could even modify itself.
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Random numbers Q: If the computer is a machine how can it generate random numbers? A: It cannot generate truly random numbers but what we call as pseudo random numbers. The sequence generated will have periodicity, but the period can be made arbitrarily large.
Mersenne Twister algorithm (1997) has a period of (219937 -1) iterations. Question: How big is 2100 ?
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The middle-square method


John von Neumann devised the method in 1946. Take any number, square it, remove the middle digits of the resulting number as your "random number", then use that number as the seed for the next iteration. For example, squaring the number "1111" yields "1234321", which can be written as "01234321", an 8-digit number being the square of a 4-digit number. This gives "2343" as the "random" number. Repeating this procedure gives "4896" as the next result, and so on. Von Neumann used 10 digit numbers, but the process was the same. Considered by many to be the greatest scientist of the 20th century!
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Variables Each memory location is given a name. The name is the variable that refers to the data stored in that location. Variables have types that define the interpretation data.
e.g. integers (1, 14, 25649), or characters (a, f, G, H)

All data is represented as binary strings. That is, it is a sequence of 0s and 1s, of a predetermined size word. A byte is made of 8 bits.
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Instructions Instructions take data stored in variables as arguments. Some instructions do some operation on the data and store it back in some variable. The instruction XX+1 on integer type says that Take the integer stored in X, add 1 to it, and store it back in (location) X.. Other instructions tell the processor to do something. For example, jump to a particular instruction next, or to exit
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Programs A program is a sequence of instructions. Normally the processor works as follows,


Step A: pick next instruction in the sequence Step B: get data for the instruction to operate upon Step C: execute instruction on data (or jump) Step D: store results in designated location (variable) Step E: go to Step A

Such programs are known as imperative programs.


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Programming paradigms
Imperative programs are sequences of instructions. They are abstractions of how the von Neumann machine operates.
Pascal, C, Fortran

Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) model the domain into objects and interactions between them.
Simula, CLOS, C++, Java

Logic programs use logical inference as the basis of computation.


Prolog

Functional programs take a mathematical approach of functions.


LISP, ML, Haskell
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A Limitation Computer Arithmetic Number of digits that can be stored is limited Causes serious problem. Consider a computer that can store Sign, 3 digits and a decimal point. Sign and decimal point are optional example : 212., -212., -21.2, -2.12, -.212
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More Examples 113. + -111. = 2.00 2.00 + 7.51 = 9.51 -111. + 7.51 = -103.49 (exact arithmetic) But the computer can store only 3 digits. So it rounds 103.49 to 103. (as a rule) This is a very important thing to know as a System designer. Why?
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Why? Consider 113. + -111. + 7.51 To us addition is associative (a+b)+c = a+(b+c) (113. + -111.) + 7.51 = 2.00 + 7.51 = 9.51 113. + (-111. + 7.51) = 113. 103. = 10.0

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Conclusion Computer is fast but restricted So we must learn to use its speed And manage its restrictions

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Books C How to Program, Deitel and Deitel C The programming Language, Kernighan and Ritchie Unix The Programming Environment, Kernighan and Pike Numerical Recipes in C - Surf the website www.library.cornell.edu/nr/bookcpdf.html Make sure your machine has Adobe Acrobat Reader
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Review Computers: - almost everywhere these days - banks, shops, railway reservations, internet/web - engineering applications
VLSI chip design, machine design (CAD/CAM), structural analysis, process control etc etc - doing without computers - unimaginable

Computer Software: - collection of instructions to the computer


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Software Very critical component in a computer application Considerable complexity


large collection of programs subdivided into modules with specific purposes developed by a team of individuals involves - system design, choice of algorithms, choice of data structures, language of implementation, testing, maintenance
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Building Blocks
Central Processing Unit

Computer Architecture

)
Arithmetic & Logic Unit

Control Unit

Input

Memory

ALU

Output

System Bus

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The Blocks, Their Functions


Input unit Takes inputs from the external world via variety of input devices- keyboard, mouse, temperature sensors, odometers, wireless Devices etc. Output Unit Sends information (after retrieving, processing) to output devices monitors/displays, projectors, audio devices, switches, relays, gearbox etc.
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More (try more filename on your unix/linux machine)


Memory Place where information is stored. Primary memory Electronic devices, used primarily by other such devices, for temporary storage. Characterized by their speedy response. Secondary Memory Devices for Long term storage. Contained well tuned mechanical components, magnetic storage media floppies, hard disks. Compact Disks use optical technology. Used to store user data (programs, inputs, results etc.), also used extensively during computation.
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Some More (Commands are in /bin, /usr/bin. Use ls) System Bus Essentially a set of wires, used by the other units to communicate with each other. transfer data at a very high rate

ALU Arithmetic and Logic Unit


Processes data- add, subtract Decides after comparing with another value, for example
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Finally (check man cp, man mv, man ls, man k search string) Control Unit Controls the interaction among other units. Knows each unit by its name, responds to requests fairly, reacts quickly on certain critical events. Gives up control periodically in the interest of the system. Together with the ALU is called the CPU.
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THE CPU (editors vi, emacs used to create text)


Can fetch an instruction from memory Execute the instruction Store the result in memory A program a set of instructions An instruction has the following structure Operation, operands, destination A simple operation creating variables
Create a /* labels a memory location using the letter a*/ Very important abstraction use of alphanumeric strings To represent data. Simplifies the usage of a computer.
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Compilers
Human friendly languages source code Source code in a Higher Level Language Compiler Assembly language code Assembler, linker, loader Source code in a Higher Level Language Compiler

machine language code Machine understandable language


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Assembly language an x86/IA-32 processor can execute the following binary instruction as expressed in machine language: Binary: 10110000 01100001 mov al, 061h
Move the hexadecimal value 61 (97 decimal) into the processor register named "al". assembly language representation is easier to remember (more mnemonic)
From Wikipedia
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Higher Level Languages

Higher level instructions = many assembly instructions For example X = Y + Z could require the following sequence
Fetch into R1 contents of Y Fetch into R2 contents of Z Add contents of R1 and R2 and store it in R1 Move contents of R1 into location named X

HLLs can be at many levels


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The C programming language C Language is an imperative general-purpose language used extensively in the development of UNIX extremely effective and expressive not a very high level nor a big language has compact syntax, modern control flow and data structures and a rich a set of operators extensive collections of library functions
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Origins of C Developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs


first implemented on DEC PDP-11 in 1972

Based on two existing languages


BCPL and B languages BCPL: Martin Richards, 1967 - systems programming B: Ken Thomson, 1970 - early versions of UNIX
The C Programming Language- Kernighan, Ritchie, 1978

ANSI C: a standard adopted in 1990


unambiguous, machine-independent definition of C
The C Programming Language (2nd edition)- Kernighan, Ritchie, 1988
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Developing and using a C program

A C program typically goes through six phases 1. Editor: the program is created and stored on disk
vi and emacs are popular editors on UNIX usually part of IDE on windows platforms

2. Preprocessor: handles preprocessor directives


include other files, macro expansions etc

3. Compiler: translates the program


into machine language code or object code stores on disk
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Other phases 4. Linker: combines


the object code of the program object code of library functions and other functions

creates an executable image with no holes 5. Loader:


transfers the executable image to the memory

6. Execute:
computer carries out the instructions of the program

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Programs = solutions A program is a sequence of instructions


This is from the perspective of the machine or the compiler!

A program is a (frozen) solution


From the perspective of a human a program is a representation of a solution devised by the human. Once frozen (or written and compiled) it can be executed by the computer much faster, and as many times as you want.
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Programming = Problem Solving

Software development involves the following


A study of the problem (requirements analysis) A description of the solution (specification) Devising the solution (design) Writing the program (coding) Testing

The critical part is the solution design. One must work out the steps of solving the problem, analyse the steps, and then code them into a programming language.
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A tiny program /* A first program in C */ #include <stdio.h> Library of standard input output functions main( ) Every C program starts { execution with this printf(Hello, World! \n); function. } Statement & terminator
Body of the function - enclosed in braces Escape sequence - newline A comment

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printf - a function from C Standard library stdio.h - prints a char string on the standard output46

Programming Basics

(vi, emacs for programs)

A variable changes value during the execution of a program. A variable has a name, e.g. name, value, speed, revspersec etc. Always referred to by its name The computation/computer uses its value or the address of the location corresponding to the variable name. &name denotes the address of name, &value, &speed etc. Note: physical address changes from one run of the program to another.
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Variables and constants

Names
- made up of letters and digits
underscore ( _ ) : recommended for long names case sensitive : LaTeX and LateX are different maximum size: 31 chars ( 6 chars for external names)

- first character must be a letter


avoid underscore as the first letter ( some library fns use it)

- choose meaningful and self-documenting names


for constants as well as variables

- keywords - if, for, else, float etc - reserved


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Assignments and variables(what is a debugger) The value of a variable is modified due to an assignment. The modified value could be result of an evaluation, or could be a constant, or the value of another variable. The LHS is variable to be modified and the RHS is the value to be assigned. So RHS is evaluated first and then assignment performed. a = b+1, a=c, a=5, a=a+1, a = a*a
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Variable Declaration

(declaring variables, actually)

Need to declare variables. A declaration: type variablename; Types : int, float, char int x; contents of the location corresponding to x is treated as an integer. Number of bytes assigned to a variable depends on its type. Assigning types helps write more correct programs. Automatic type checking can catch errors like integer = char +char;
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Variables need Declaration


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Another simple C program #include<stdio.h> A function main() from stdio.h {int int_size; int chr_size; int flt_size; int_size = sizeof(int); chr_size =sizeof(char); flt_size = sizeof(float); printf(int, char, and float use %d %d and %d bytes\n, int_size, chr_size; flt_size); }
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Exercise Type the above program using the vi editor. Compile it using cc Run the a.out file Write a program that outputs the coefficients of a quadratic and prints out its roots

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Modifying Variables

(rm with i option)

Each C program is a sequence of modification of variable values A modification can happen due to operations like +, -, /, *, etc. Also due to some functions provided by the system like sizeof, sin etc. Also due to some functions (another part of your program) created by the programmer.

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An addition program
#include <stdio.h> main( ) Declarations, must precede use { int operand1, operand2, sum; %d - conversion specifier printf(Enter first operand\n); scanf(%d, &operand1); d - decimal printf(Enter second operand\n); & - address of operand1 scanf(%d, &operand2); sum = operand1 + operand2; assignment printf(The sum is %d\n, sum); return 0; Returning a 0 is used to }
signify normal termination
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Arithmetic operators in C Four basic operators


+, , , / addition, subtraction, multiplication and division applicable to integers and floating point numbers integer division - fractional part of result truncated
12/ 5 2, 5/9 0

modulus operator : %
x % y : gives the remainder after x is divided by y applicable only for integers, not to float/double
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Order of evaluation (operator precedence) first parenthesized subexpessions - innermost first second , / and % - left to right third + and

- left to right

a+b cd%e f/g 4 1 2 3 6 5 a + ((( b c ) d ) % e ) (f / g ) good practice -- use parentheses rather than rely on precedence rules -- better readability
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Precedence another example Value = a * (b+c) % 5 + x / (3 + p) r - j Evaluation order 1. (b+c) and (3+p) : due to brackets 2. * and % and / have same precedence: a(b+c) is evaluated first, then mod 5. Also, x/(3+p). 3. Finally, the additions and subtractions are done from the left to right. 4. Finally, the assignment of the RHS to LHS is done. = is the operator that violates the left to right rule
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Relational and logical operators

A logical variable can have two values {true, false} or {t,f} or {1,0}
! < , <= , > , >= = = , != && || unary logical negation operator comparison operators equality and inequality logical AND operator

logical OR operator logical operators return true/false order of evaluation - as given above note: assignment ( = ) equality ( = = )
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Increment and decrement operators

unusual operators - prefix or postfix only to variables + + adds 1 to its operand subtracts 1 from its operand N++ increments N after its use ++N increments N before its use N = 4 ; X = N++; Y = ++N; X = 4 , Y = 6 and N = 6 after the execution
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Assignment statement/expression

Form:variable-name = expression
total = test1_marks + test2_marks + end_sem_marks; int i; float x; i = x; fractional part of x is dropped x = i; i is converted into a float

Multiple assignment:
x=y=z=a+b x = ( y = ( z = a + b) )

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Assignment operators expression n = n + 10; abbreviated form: n += 10; assignment operator most binary operators: corr. assignment operator X op= expr X = X op (expr) op : +, , , / , %
conciseness

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Output Statement
printf(format-string, var1, var2, , varn); format-string indicates: how many variables to expect type of the variables how many columns to use for printing them any character string to be printed
sometimes this would be the only output

enclosed in double quotes


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Examples - output int x; float y; x = 20; y = 16.7889; printf(Value x = %d and value y = %9.3f\n, x, y); %d, %9.3f : conversion specifiers d, f:conversion characters The output: Value x = 20 and value y = 16.789  - blank space (9 spaces)
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General form General conversion specifier: %w.p c w : total width of the field, p : precision (digits after decimal point) c : conversion character Conversion Characters: d - signed decimal integer u - unsigned decimal integer o - unsigned octal value x - unsigned hexadecimal value f - real decimal in fractional notation e - real decimal in exponent form
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optional

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Input Statement scanf(format-string, &var1, &var2, , &varn); Format String: types of the data items to be stored in var1 etc enclosed in double quotes Example: scanf(%d%f , &marks, &aveMarks ); data line : 16 14.75 scanf skips spaces and scans more than one line to read the specified number of values
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Conversion Specifiers for scanf

d u o x f e c s

read a signed decimal integer read an unsigned decimal integer read an unsigned octal value read an unsigned hexadecimal value read a real decimal in fractional notation read a real decimal in exponent form read a single character read a string of characters
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Solving a quadratic equation (rm i is safe)

#include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> main() { float coeff_1, coeff_2, coeff_3; float discrim; float root_1, root_2; float denom; printf(first coefficient- \a); /* prompt */ scanf(%f,&coeff_1); /* read and stored */
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Quadratic (continued)

(use vi to create files)

printf(2nd coefficient \a ); scanf(%f, &coeff_2); printf(3rd coefficient \a ); scanf(%f, &coeff_3); /* printf and scanf are input-output functions*/ discrim = pow(coeff_2,2) 4* coeff_1 * coeff_3; /* pow and sqrt are math functions */ denom = 2*coeff_1; root_1 = (-b + sqrt(discrim))/denom; root_2 = (-b sqrt(discrim))/denom;
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b2 4ac

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Finally

(see http://www.gnu.org)

printf(the roots were %f %f \n, root_1, root_2); }


Exercise:

Modify the program so that the quadratic is also output. Summary: Variables are modified as the program runs.
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Problem Solving withVariables Write a program that will take two degree 5 polynomials as input and print out their product. ISSUES - How does one specify the inputs the program? Indeed, what are the inputs? coefficients from each polynomial. Six from each. We need 12 Input variables. Similarly we need 12 Output variables

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Another exercise (www.howstuffworks.com) Write a program that takes as input 5 digit numbers and prints them out in English. Example: 512 Five Hundred and Twelve Solve the problem first, identify input variables, Output variables, intermediate variables. What values are taken by the intermediate variables, how they are calculated from input values, and output variables.
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Decisions with Variables If b^2 4ac negative, then we should report that the quadratic has no real roots. This displays the need for taking logical decisions during problem solving. The if-else programming construct provides the facility to make logical decisions. Rules for usage otherwise called syntax are if (condition is true){ evaluate this part } else {evaluate this part}
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Conditions They are specified using relational and equality operators Relational - >, <, >=, <= Equality ==, != Usage : for a,b values or variables a > b, a < b, a >= b, a <= b, a == b, a != b. A condition is satisfied or met, if the relational operator, or equality is satisfied. For a = 3, and b = 5, a < b, a <= b, and a != b are met.
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Completing the program if (discrim < 0) { printf(no real roots, only complex\n); exit(1); Terminates execution and returns argument (1) } else {root_1 = (-coeff_1 + sqrt(discrim))/denom; root_2 = (-coeff_2 - sqrt(discrim))/denom; }
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Statements Statement: a logical unit of instruction/command Program : declarations and one or more statements assignment statement selection statement repetitive statements function calls etc. All statements are terminated by semicolon ( ; )
Note: In C, semi-colon is a statement terminator rather than a separator!
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Assignment statement General Form: variable = expression | constant ; The declared type of the variable : should match the type of the result of expression/constant Multiple Assignment: var1 = var2 = var3 = expression; var1 = (var2 = (var3 = expression)); Assignment operator associates right-to-left.
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Compound Statements A group of declarations and statements collected into a single logical unit surrounded by braces
a block or a compound statement

scope of the variable declarations - part of the program where they are applicable - the compound statement
variables come into existence just after decl., continue to exist till end of the block. unrelated to variables of the same name outside the block block-structured fashion
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An Example { int i, j, k; i = 1; j =2; k =3; if ( expr ) { int i, k; } }


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This i and k and the previously declared i and k are different. Not a good programming style.
Note: No semicolon after } A compound statement can appear wherever a single statement may appear
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Selection Statements Three forms single selection:


if ( att < 75 ) grade = W; Note: There is no then reserved word

double selection:
if (marks < 40 ) passed = 0; else passed = 1; /* false = 0 */ /* true = 1 */

multiple selection:
switch statement - to be discussed later

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If Statement if (<expression>) <stmt1> [ else <stmt2>] Semantics: optional Expression evaluates to true
stmt1 will be executed

Expression evaluates to false


stmt2 will be executed

Else part is optional Expression is true -- stmt1 is executed Otherwise the if statement has no effect
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Grading Example Below 50: D; 50 to 59: C ; 60 to 75: B; 75 above: A int marks; char grade; Note the semicolon if (marks <= 50) grade = D; before else ! else if (marks <= 59) grade = C; else if (marks <=75) grade = B; else grade = A; Unless braces are used, an else part
goes with the nearest else-less if stmt
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Caution in use of else if ( marks > 40) /* WRONG */ if ( marks > 75 ) printf(you got distinction); else printf(Sorry you must repeat the course);
/*RIGHT*/ if ( marks > 40) { if ( marks > 75 ) printf(you got distinction); } else printf(Sorry you must repeat the course);

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82

Switch Statement A multi-way decision statement Syntax: switch ( expression ) { case const-expr : statements case const-expr : statements [ default: statements ] }
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Counting Evens and Odds


int num, eCount = 0, oCount = 0; Counts the number of scanf (%d, &num); even and odd integers in the input. while (num >= 0) { Terminated by giving a switch (num%2) { negative number case 0 : eCount++; break; case 1 : oCount++; break; } Defensive programming ! scanf (%d, &num); } printf( Even: %d ,Odd: %d\n, eCount, oCount);
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Fall Throughs Switch Statement: Execution starts at the matching case And falls through the following case statements
Unless prevented explicitly by break statement

Useful for specifying one action for several cases Break Statement:
control passes to the first statement after switch

A feature requiring exercise of caution


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Repetitive Statements A very important type of statement iterating or repeating a set of operations - a very common requirement in algorithms C offers three iterative constructs the for construct the while construct the do while construct

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86

Programming problems Write a program to check if a given number is prime. (can this be done without using a logical decision?) Write a program to count the number of digits in a given number. Your answer should contain two parts, number of digits before and after the decimal. (can you do this only with assignments to variables, and decisions?)

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87

Exercise in using printf

(try banner word)

Write a program that takes a keystroke as input, and displays the corresponding character in large using *. Use this program to display words and sentences. This is an assignment to be Graded by the TAs. Will be evaluated before quiz2. Tips: Find out the options with printf: how to move the cursor to a predefined point. How do you distinguish one keystroke from the other? Find out about ASCII codes. Explore procedures/subroutines/functions (more will be taught about this later)
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The while construct General form: while ( <expr> ) <statement> Semantics: repeat: Evaluate the expr. If the expr is true execute the statement else exit the loop. Obviously the expr must be modified in the loop!
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Repetition Structure - While


Syntax while (condition is true){ evaluate this piece of code} Print powers of 2 till 2N #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> main() { int n, counter, value; printf( value for n ); scanf(%d, &n); counter = 0; value = 1; contd..
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Program using while


counter = 0; /*repeated*/ value = 1; /*repeated*/ printf(current value is %d \n, value); while (counter <= n) {value = 2 * value; printf(current value is %d \n, value); counter = counter + 1; } } Exercise: try this program and identify problems
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More on Loops Two kinds sentinel-controlled and counter controlled. Counter loop runs till counter reaches its limit. Use it when the number of repetitions is known. Sentinel loop runs till a certain condition is encountered. Example a \n is encountered in the input. Use it when the number of repetitions is a property of the input and not of the problem being solved.
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For loops
Counter controlled repetitions needs - Initial value, - modification of counter: +i, -i, any another at arithmetic based modification which is based on the problem, and - Final value. For repetition structure provides for the programmer to specify all these. Ofcourse, everything that is provided by the for can be achieved by using while. Use of for makes the program error free
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The for construct General form: for ( expr1; expr2; expr3) statement Semantics: evaluate expr1 - initialization operation(s) repeat - evaluate expression expr2 and if expr2 is true execute statement and expr3 else stop and exit the loop
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Example Replace our previous program by the following For(counter = 0; counter <=n; counter=counter+1) {if (counter == 0) printf(value is %d \n,1); else {value = 2 * value; printf(value is %d \n, value); } } Observe: a mistake in the earlier program is gone.
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Simple example of for statement

Compute the sum of the first 20 odd numbers int i, j, sum; Set j to the first odd number sum = 0; i : Loop control variable j = 1; Termination condition for ( i = 1; i <= 20; i++) { sum += j; Increment sum by the ith odd number j += 2; Set j to the next odd number } The for construct expr1, expr2, expr3
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-- involving the loop control variable only


96

Calculating the compound interest Principal:1000/-; rate of interest: 5% (p.a); period: 10 yrs #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> Character string main( ) { int year; double amount, principal = 1000.0, rate = .05; printf(%4s%21s\n, year, Amount in the deposit); for (year = 1; year < = 10; year++) { amount = principal * pow(1.0 + rate, year); printf(%4d%21.2f\n, year, amount); } }
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Example for while construct Print the reverse of a given integer: 234 432 Method: Till the number becomes a zero, extract the last digit - number modulo 10 make it the next digit of the result - multiply the current result by 10 and add the new digit
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An Example
x is the given number y is the number being computed y=0 y = 0*10 + 2 = 2 y = 2*10 + 4 = 24 y = 24*10 + 3 = 243 y = 243*10 + 6 = 2436 y = 2436*10 + 5 = 24365
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x = 56342 x = 5634 x = 563 x = 56 x=5 x=0


Termnation condition: Stop when x becomes zero
99

Reversing a number main( ){ int x = 0; int y = 0; printf("input an integer :\n"); scanf("%d", &x); while(x > 0){ y = 10*y + ( x % 10 ); Remember integer division x = (x / 10); truncates the quotient } printf("The reversed number is %d \n", y); }
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Perfect number detection


Perfect : sum of proper divisors add up to the number.

main ( ){ d<n will also do, but would int d = 2, n, sum = 1; do unnecessary work scanf(%d, &n); while ( d < = (n/2) ) { if ( n % d = = 0 ) sum += d; d++; } if (sum = = n) printf (Given number %d is perfect, n); else printf(Given number %d is not perfect, n); }
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The do while construct for and while check termination condition before each evaluation of the loop body Sometimes - execute the statement and check for condition general form: do < statement> while <expr> Semantics: execute the statement and check expr if expr is true, re-execute the stmt else exit
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Square root of a number main( ) {


How do you solve the equation x = n2 ?

int n; float prevGuess, currGuess, error, sqRoot; scanf(%d, &n); currGuess = (float) n / 2 ; error = 0.0001; do { prevGuess = currGuess; currGuess = ( prevGuess + n / prevGuess) / 2; } while (fabs (prevGuess currGuess) > error); sqRoot = currGuess; printf(%f, sqRoot); }
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NewtonRaphson method

Here, f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. Then by simple algebra we can derive

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_method
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Sequence and Selection Structures

t f

If Structure Single Entry Single Exit

Sequence Structure
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If/Else Structure
105

Repetition Structures

t f While Structure f t Do/While Structure

t Single Entry Single Exit


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For Structure
106

Structured Programming To produce program that are


easier to develop, understand, test, modify easier to get correctness proof

Rules
1 Begin with the simplest flowchart. 2 Any action box can be replaced by two action boxes in sequence. 3 Any action box can be replaced by any elementary structures (sequence, if, if/else, switch, while, do/while or for ). 4 Rules 2 and 3 can be applied as many times as required and in any order.
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Spaghetti programming
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. First line IF (condition1) Goto 13 Third line If (condition 2) go to 7 Fourth line Fifth line Go to 3 Sixth line If (condition 3) go to 12 Go to 8 Line number 11 Line 12 If (condition 4) go to 1 Print (Im done finally !) End
108

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exercises Write a program that reads in the entries of a 3 by 3 matrix, and prints it out in the form of a matrix. The entries could be floating point entries too. Write a program that reads in orders of two matrices and decides whether two such matrices can be multiplied. Print out the decision. Write a program that reads in two matrices, and multiplies them. Your output should be the two matrices and the resulting product matrix.
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Switch Selection Structure In place of the else if for a multiway selection Syntax if (condition_1){execute these} else if (condition_2) {execute these} else if (condition_3) {execute these} and so on.. Switch replaces else if for a very special case Syntax switch(expression){ case const-expr: statements case const-expr: statements
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Example(kernighan & ritchie, p.59)


#include<stdio.h> An array of ten integers main() { int c, i, nwhite, nother, ndigit[10]; nwhite = nother = 0; for(i=0;i<10;i++) ndigit[i]=0; while((c = getchar()) ! = EOF){ switch(c){ case0:case1:case2:case3:case4:case5: case6:case7:case8:case9: ndigit[c-0]++; break;
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Example continued
case : case\n:case\t:nwhite++;break; default: nother++; break; } } printf(digits = ) for(i=0;i<10;i++) printf(%d occurred %d times \n,i,ndigit[i]); printf(white spaces = %d, other = %d\n,nwhite, nother); }
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Break and Continue break breaks out of the innermost loop or switch statement in which it occurs continue starts the next iteration of the loop in which it occurs. More on this later.

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113

More Exercises Sort an array of numbers into ascending order. Assuming that arrays are expensive, your program should use only one array: read in the values into an array, sort in place, and print out the array. Matrix Sorting The input is a matrix. Identify a sequence of column interchanges such that in the resulting matrix the rows are all sorted in ascending order. Can every matrix be sorted?
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Exercise week starting Feb 5


Read a text file and report the following, 1. The total number of non-white characters 2. The total number of words 3. The average length of a word 4. The mode length of a word 5. The total number of lines 6. The average length of a line 7. The length of the longest line Any assumptions your program makes must be stated in the comments. What if lines are logical ending with appropriate punctuation?
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An Array A data structure containing items of same data type Declaration: array name, storage reservation
int marks[7] = {22,15,75,56,10,33,45}; - a contiguous group of memory locations named marks for holding 7 integer items - elements/components - variables
marks[0], marks[1], , marks[6] marks[i] i - position / subscript (0 i 6)

22 15 75 56 10 33 45
116

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

- the value of marks[2] is 75 - new values can be assigned to elements


marks[3] = 36;
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Example using arrays


Read five numbers into an array and compute their average numbers[] is initialized #include <stdio.h> during declaration int main( ){ int numbers[5] = {1,3,2,6,-5}; int sum = 0, i; float average; for ( i = 0; i < 5; i++) sum = sum + numbers[i]; average = (float) sum/5; printf(The average of numbers is: %f, average); return 0; /* should be there in all programs */ }
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Example using arrays (Read values from keyboard)


Read ten numbers into an array and compute their average #include <stdio.h> int main( ){ int numbers[10], sum = 0, i; float average; for ( i = 0; i < 10; i++) scanf(%d, &numbers[i]); for ( i = 0; i < 10; i++) sum = sum + numbers[i]; average = (float) sum/10; printf(The average of numbers is: %f, average); return 0; /* should be there in all programs */ }
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Polynomial Evaluation
Evaluate p(x) = anxn + an-1xn-1 + an-2xn-2 + a1x + a0 at a given x value. Computing each term and summing up
n + (n-1) + (n-2) + + 1 + 0 = n(n+1)/2 multiplications and n additions

Improved Method Horners Method:


p(x) = a0 + x(a1 + x(a2 + x(a3 + + x(an-1 + xan)))) for instance, p(x) = 10x3 + 4x2 + 5x + 2 = 2 + x(5 + x(4 + 10x)) n multiplications and n additions will run faster!
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Program for Polynomial Evaluation


#include <stdio.h> main( ){ int coeff[20], n, x, value, i; /*max. no. of coeff s is 20 : a0 to a19 */ scanf(%d%d, &n, &x); /*read degree and evaluation point*/ for(i = 0; i <= n; i++) scanf(%d, &coeff[i]); /* read in the coefficients */ value = coeff[n]; /* an */ for(i = (n-1); i >= 0; i--) /* evaluate p(x) */ value = x*value + coeff[i]; printf(The value of p(x) at x = %d is %d\n, x, value); }
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Multi-dimensional Arrays Arrays with two or more dimensions can be defined


A[4][3] 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 0 1 2 3 0
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B[2][4][3] 2 0

1
121

Two Dimensional Arrays


Declaration: int A[4][3] : 4 rows and 3 columns, 4 3 array Elements: A[i][j] - element in row i and column j of array A
A[4][3] 0 1 0 1 2 3 2

Note: rows/columns numbered from 0 Storage: row-major ordering elements of row 0, elements of row 1, etc Initialization: int A[4][3]={{4,5,6},{0,3,5},{1,7,8},{ 2,0,1}};

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122

int A[4][3]={{4,5,6},{0,3,5},{1,7,8},{ 2,0,1}};

Row 0

{ {

4 5 6 0 3 5 1 7 8 2 0

} }

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3
123

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Matrix Operations An m-by-n matrix: M: m rows and n columns Rows : 1, 2, , m and Columns : 1, 2, , n
M(i,j) : element in ith row, jth column, 1 i m, 1 j n Array indexes in C start with 0. We use (m+1) (n+1) array and ignore cells (0,i),(j,0) Programs can use natural convention - easier to understand

Should perform : Read; Write; Initiliazation; Multiplication;

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124

Matrix Multiplication : Outline


main(){ 1. declare all variables required 2. read in Matrix A 3. read in Matrix B 4. check if A and B are compatible to be multiplied 5. initialize Matrix C to have zeroes to begin with 6. multiply A and B to give C 7. print Matrix C }
Of course, all the steps above have to follow C languages syntax rules
125

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Using Matrix Operations : Read a Matrix


main(){ int a[11][11], b[11][11], c[11][11]; / *max size 10 by 10 */ int i,j,k; int aRows, aCols, bRows, bCols, cRows, cCols; scanf("%d%d", &aRows, &aCols); for(int i = 1; i <= aRows; i++) for(int j = 1; j <= aCols; j++) scanf("%d", &a[i][j]); /*continued on next slide */
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Read the other Matrix; Initialize the product

scanf("%d%d", &bRows, &bCols); for(i = 1; i <= bRows; i++) for(j = 1; j <= bCols; j++) Remember scanf("%d", &b[i][j]); bRows must /* initialize entries in Matrix c to 0 */ for(i = 1; i <= aRows; i++) for(j = 1; j <= bCols; j++) c[i][j] = 0; /*continued on next slide */
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equal aCols c is a aRows x bCols matrix

127

Matrix multiplication

bRows Multiply two numbers

aRows

aCols Sum of N products


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Multiply Matrices and Print the Result


/* multiply both the matrices and store in matrix c */ for(i =1; i <= aRows; i++) for(j = 1; j <= bCols; j++) for(k = 1; k <= aCols; k++) c[i][j] += a[i][k]*b[k][j]; /* print matrix c */ for(i = 1; i <= aRows; i++){ for(j = 1; j <= bCols; j++) /* print a row */ printf("%d ", c[i][j]); /* notice missing \n */ printf("\n"); /* print a newline at the end a row */ } } /* End of main program */
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Points to Ponder Some repetition in the program


Reading in matrix A seems to be similar to reading in matrix B
Except for changes in the number of rows and columns

You will learn how to write functions in C later


Functions are written to avoid repeated actions Example C program would look like
readMat(A, aRows, aCols); readMat(B, bRows, bCols);

Function readMat( ) must perform the operations desired


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Data, Types, Sizes,Values int, char, float, double char single byte, capable of holding one character Integer Qualifiers short and long short int 16 bits, long int 32 bits Compiler dependent, based on the underlying hardware int is atleast 16 bits, short is atleast 16 bits, long is atleast 32 bits, and int is no larger than long, and atleast as long as short
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char, signed and unsigned Qualifier signed or unsigned can be applied to int or char Unsigned numbers are non-negative Signed char holds numbers between 128 and 127. Whether char is signed or unsigned depends on the system. Find out on your system. Print integers between 0 to 255 as characters, and integers between 128 to 127 on your system.
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Number Systems
Decimal (base 10 uses 10 symbols {0..9})
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Unary (base 1)
1, 11, 111, 1111, 11111

Binary (base 2) uses 2 symbols {0,1})


0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001, 1010

Octal (base 8 start with a 0 in C)


0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06 C treats them as octal

Hexadecimal (base 16 start with 0x)


0, 1, , 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, 10, 11, 19, 1A, 1B,
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Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal

The internal representation of binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbers is similar Octal - 2 7 3 2 5 6 0 6

Binary - 010111011010101110000110 Hexadecimal 5 5 13 D 10 11 8 A B 8 6 6


134

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A funny infinite loop - arithmetic


This program of mine, ran into an infinite loop. I only wanted to find which numbers corresponded to which characters, the significance of signed and unsigned characters, basically relationship between which integers can be printed as characters we recognize. Why did the infinite loop happen, how to avoid it? #include<stdio.h> Print it as a Print it as a main() character decimal number {char c; for(c=-128; c <= 127; c++) printf(%d -- %c \n, c, c); }
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Try omitting one parameter

135

Float and Double Two types, one for single-precision arithmetic, and the other for double precision arithmetic Long double is used for extended-precision arithmetic. The size of floating pointing objects are implementation defined.

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136

Variable Initialization Variables may be initialized either at the time of declaration, for example, #define MAXLINE 200 char esc = \\; int i =0; int limit = MAXLINE + 1; float eps = 1.0e-5 Or they may be assigned value by assignment statements in the program Otherwise they contain some random garbage values
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Constants At run time, each variable holds a constant, which changes from time to time!!!!! 1234 is of type int 123456789L is a long constant 123456789ul is an unsigned long constant 123.4 is a floating point constant, so is 1e-2 which denotes .01. Their type is double. If suffixed by an f, or by l, the type is float or long double, respectively
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Overflow in integers
#include <stdio.h> int main() { int i = 2147483647; unsigned int j = 4294967295; printf("%d %d %d\n", i, i+1, i+2); printf("%u %u %u\n", j, j+1, j+2); return 0; } Here is the result for some system: 2147483647 -2147483648 -2147483647 4294967295 0 1
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32 bit numbers The unsigned 32 bit integers vary from -2147483648 to 2147483647 The signed 32 bit integers vary from 0 to 4294967295 Internally they are the 4294967296 (or 232) different permutations that 32 bits can represent. Beyond this number it starts all over again.
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Printing directives #include <stdio.h> int main() { unsigned int un = 3000000000; /* system with 32-bit int */ printf("un = %u and not %d\n", un, un); return 0; } un = 3000000000 and not -1294967296
Both have the same internal representation
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Printing directives #include <stdio.h> int main() { short end = 200; /* and 16-bit short */ printf("end = %hd and %d\n", end, end); return 0; }
short decimal

end = 200 and 200

Printing a short decimal as a normal is okay


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Printing directives #include <stdio.h> int main() { long big = 65537; printf("big = %ld and not %hd\n", big, big); return 0; } big = 65537 and not 1
When the value 65537 is written in binary format as a 32-bit number, it looks like 00000000000000010000000000000001. Using the %hd specifier persuaded printf() to look at just the last 16 bits; therefore, it displayed the value as 1.
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Printing directives #include <stdio.h> int main() { long long verybig = 12345678908642; printf("verybig= %lld and not %ld\n", verybig, verybig); 64 bits Truncated 32 bits return 0; } verybig= 12345678908642 and not 1942899938

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144

Character Constants are integers, written as one character within single quotes. Example a, x, 1, 2 etc. The value of a character constant is the numeric value of the character in the machines character set. For example, 1 has the value 49 in the ASCII character set. That is, number 49, interpreted as a character code stands for 1 Character constants can participate in arithmetic. What does 1+2 hold? (not 3!) Understand this distinction. Character arithmetic is used mainly for comparisons.
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Characters escape sequences \a \b \f \n \r \t \v alert (bell) backspace formfeed newline carriage return horizontal tab vertical tab \\ \? \ \ \ooo \xhh backslash question mark single quote double quote octal number hexadecimal

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Non-printable characters

146

More Constants
Constant numbers, Constant characters, and now Constant Expressions Expressions all of whose operands are constants. Therefore, these can be evaluated at compile time. Examples: #define No_of_Rows 100 #define No_of_Colos 100 #define No_of_Melts No_of_Rows * No_of_Colos #define is preprocessor directive. Recall: #include

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147

Enumerated Constants

enum boolean {No, Yes}

By default enum type begin with 0

defines two constants No = 0, and Yes = 1.

enum months {jan = 1, feb, march, april, may, jun, jul, aug, sep, oct, nov, dec}
when a value is explicitly specified (jan=1) then it starts counting from there

enum escapes {BELL = \a, BACKSPACE = \b, TAB = \t, NEWLINE =\n}
more than one value can be specified
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Enum and #define Better than #define, the constant values are generated for us.
Values from 0 on wards unless specified Not all values need to be specified If some values are not specified, they are obtained by increments from the last specified value Variables of enum type may be declared, but the compilers need not check that what you store is a valid value for enumeration

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149

Strings A string is a array of characters terminated by the null character, \0. A string is written in double quotes. Example: This is a string. This is rejected by the C Compiler Anything within single quotes gets a number associated with it empty string Exercise : understand the difference between x and x.
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Declaring Constants The qualifier const applied to a declaration specifies that the value will not be changed. const int j = 25; /* j is a constant through out the program */ Response to modifying j depends on the system. Typically, a warning message is issued while compilation. const char mesg[] = how are you?; The character array mesg is declared as a constant which will store how are you?
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Assignment and Arithmetic Rules Basic data types, numbers and characters can be assigned to their corresponding variables. Example: char c = a; char no = 1; int j = 25; Arrays cannot participate in assignments and arithmetic Char mesg[] = hello; is a valid declaration Int numbers[5] = {0,1,2,3,4}; is a valid declaration But an assignment in the program is a syntax error.
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Functions to handle strings Strings being a non basic data type, in other words Constructed data type, require functions to handle. Typical functions are: a. Length of a string. b. Are two strings equal? c. Does a given pattern occur as a substring? d. Concatenate two strings and return the result These are exercises to gain programming knowledge. But use standard functions provided with string.h
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Recap Variables Assignments relational operators (comparisons) Selection and repetition constructs: control structures Data types and their limitations Arrays arrayname[n], single dimensional array
Arrayname[m][n] 2D array, arrayname[i][j] gives the element in the i-th row and j-th coloumn
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Logical Operators
Recall relational operators {<=, <, >, >=} to compare values && and ||
Called boolean and, boolean or Expressions involving these as operations take boolean values, and their operands also take boolean values. Called truth values also.

E1 && E2 is true if and only if both E1 and E2 are true E1 || E2 is true if and only if either E1 or E2 or both are Precedence of && is higher than ||, and both are lower than relational or equality operators
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How to use these in a program They are used when composite conditions are to be tested in decision statements.
For(I=0;I < lim 1 && (c = getchar()) != \n && c !=EOF; I++) s[I] = c;

The loop is executed as long as the test conditions is true


Which is while all the test conditions are true

The loop is exited when the test condition becomes false


Which is when one of the test conditions becomes false For example when an enter is read from keyboard
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Exercise Write a program which will exit when a certain number of occurences of any keystroke is read.
You need arrays Loops Loops with logical operations and so on.

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Operators Increment operator : effect is to increment value of a variable


x = j++ - x gets the value of j, and then j is incremented x = ++j - j is incremented first, then assigned to x

Decrement operators decrements values


x = j-- - x gets the value of j, then j is decremented by 1 x = --j j is first decremented, and then assigned to x

Assignment operator short cut


E1 op= E2 is equivalent to the assignment E1 = E1 op E2 Once you learn it, your code is concise Matter of taste
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Quiz - I Answer Papers returned today Solutions in the website by this evening First Mark
EE07B058 - B. Ananda Narayanan 23.75/25 Congratulations

Class Average - 12.5/25 Instructors comments


Large scope for improvement More attention in the class needed
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Seating Arrangement from Tomorrow (CRC 102)


EE

EP

ME 33 to 93 ME 33 to 93 Higher Semester Stage


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Seating Arrangement from Tomorrow (CRC 103)


AE

CSE

ME 1 to 32

Stage
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Lab for this week Complete the backlogs Marks for first four weeks shall be freezed this Friday That has a weightage of 10 marks TAs will be available during lab hours

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Enum Constants
enum colors {black, red, yellow,cyan, green} Variables
colors foreground = yellow, background = red;

enum colors {yellow = -1, red, blue} switch(background) {


case black: foreground = green; break; case yellow: foreground = red; break;

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\r Vs \n
\r does not feed new line \n feeds new line For example
printf(1234\r); printf(ab);

Shall output ab34 While


printf(1234\n); printf(ab);

Shall Output
1234 ab
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Functions main() {
char lower, upper; char lower_to_upper(char lower); scanf(%c,&lower); upper = lower_to_upper(lower); printf(%c,upper);

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Functions char lower_upper_case(char c1) {


char c2; c2 = (c1 >= a && c1 <= z) ? (A + c1 - a):c1; return(c2);

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Functions = outsourcing Break large computing tasks into small ones Helps you to build on what others have done
You and others write functions When you want to build a program, find out how to use the function and use it.

Use standard functions provided by the library.


You are hidden from the implementation Example you dont have to worry about how pow(m,n) is implemented

As engineers from different disciplines you will use and develop different set of functions
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Modular Programming Subprograms


functions in C, C++, procedures and functions in Pascal facilitate modular programming
Overall task is divided into modules Each module - a collection of subprograms

a subprogram may be invoked at several points


A commonly used computation

hiding the implementation incorporating changes


easier
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Example of function sets String manipulation Mathematical Finite Element Method


Used in structural analysis by Mechanical, Civil, Aero, etc. for stress calculations etc.

Most function libraries cost a lot


Business opportunity identify functions that are useful to you area of study, create libraries.

Functions for use in different software.


Say, functions for web services
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Basics
Function is a part of your program.
It cannot be a part of any other function Main() is a function: it is the main function. Execution starts there or the control flow starts there From there it can flow from one function to another, return after a computation with some values, probably, and then flow on.

Transfer of control is affected by calling a function


With a function call, we pass some parameters These parameters are used within the function A value is computed The value is returned to the function which initiated the call The calling function can ignore the value returned It could use it in some other computation A function could call itself, these are called recursive function calls
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Add function to your Program A program was a set of variables, and assignments to variables Now add function to it.
Set of variables Some functions including main() Communicating values to each other Computing and returning values for each other

Instead of one long program, we now write structured program composed of functions
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Features C program -- a collection of functions


function main ( ) - mandatory - program starts here.

C is not a block structured language


a function can not be defined inside another function only variables can be defined in functions / blocks

Variables can be defined outside of all functions


global variables - accessible to all functions a means of sharing data between functions - caution

Recursion is possible
a function can call itself - directly or indirectly
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Function template Return-type function-name(argument declarations) { declaration and statements return expression; }

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Function Definition in C return-type function-name (argument declarations) { variable/constant declarations and statements } No function declarations here! Arguments or parameters:
the means of giving input to the function type and name of arguments are declared
names are formal - local to the function

Return Value: for giving the output value


return ( expression ); -- optional

Matching the number and type of arguments

Invoking a function: funct-name(exp1,exp2,,expn)


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Function Prototype defines


the number of parameters, type of each parameter, type of the return value of a function

used by the compiler to check the usage


prevents execution-time errors

function prototype of power function


int power ( int, int ); no need for naming the parameters

function prototypes - given in the beginning


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Power Function #include <stdio.h> function prototype int power (int, int); -- Computes the nth power of base. main () { for ( int i = 0; i < 20; i ++ ) printf(%d %d %d\n, i, power(3,i), power(-4,i);} int power (int base, int n) { int i, p = 1; Invocation with arguments for ( i = 1; i <= n ; i ++) A block p = p base; return p; }
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Calling Power Function with i=3

printf(%d %d %d\n, i, power(3,i), power(-4,i);} -64 27


int power (int base, int n) { int i, p = 1; for ( i = 1; i <= n ; i ++) p = p base; return p; }
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int power (int base, int n) { int i, p = 1; for ( i = 1; i <= n ; i ++) p = p base; return p; }
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More on Functions To write a program


You could create one file with all the functions You could/are encouraged to identify the different modules and write the functions for each module in a different file Each module will have a separate associated header file with the variable declaration global to that module You could compile each module separately and a .o file will be created You can then cc the differnet .o files and get an a.out file This helps you to debug each module separately
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Running with less memory Functions


Provided to break up our problem into more basic units Control flow flows from function to function, saving the current context, changing contexts, then returning.. Helps the program to run with lesser memory, but slower than in the case of a long big program

The issue now with data associated with other functions. Typically functions communicate using the arguments and return values
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Call by Value In C, function arguments are passed by value


values of the arguments given to the called function in temporary variables rather than the originals the modifications to the parameter variables do not affect the variables in the calling function

Call by reference
variables are passed by reference
subject to modification by the function

achieved by passing the address of variables

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Call by Value - an example


main( ) { Function prototype int p = 1, q = 2, r = 3, s; int test(int, int, int); Function call ; s = test (p, q, r); /* s is assigned 9 */ } /* p,q,r dont change, only their copies do */ int test( int a, int b, int c){ a ++; b ++; c ++; return (a + b + c); }
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Function definition

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Call by Reference
#include <stdio.h> void quoRem(int, int, int*, int*); main(){ int x, y, quo, rem; scanf(%d%d, &x, &y); quoRem(x, y, &quo, &rem); printf(%d %d, quo , rem); } /*pointers*/ Passing addresses Does not return anything

void quoRem(int num, int den, int* quoAdr, int* remAdr){ *quoAdr = num / den; *remAdr = num % den; }
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Recursive Function Example


int power (int num, int exp) { int p; if (exp = = 1) return num; p = power(num, exp/2); if (exp % 2 = = 0) return p*p; else return p*p*num; }
The base case exp = 1 Guarantees termination

power (3, 13) 36*36*3 = 729*729*3 = 1594323 power (3, 6) 33*33 = 27*27 = 729 power(3,3) 31*31*3 = 27 power(3,1) = 3
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Factorial (n) n! = 1 * 2 * 3 * .... * (n-2) * (n-1) * n Iterative version int fact(int n) { int i; int result; result = 1; for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) result = result * i; return result; }
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In practice int may not be enough!

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Factorial (n) recursive program

fact(n) = n*fact(n-1) int fact(int n) { if (n == 1) return 1; return n * fact(n - 1); } Shorter, simpler to understand Uses fewer variables Machine has to do more work running this one!
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Pending computations In this recursive version the calling version still has pending work after it gets the return value.
(fact 4) 4 * (fact 3)
It needs to save some values for future use

int fact(int n) { if (n == 1) return 1; return n * fact(n - 1); }

3 * (fact 2) 2 * (fact 1) 1

2*1 =2 3*2 = 6 4*6 = 24


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Tail recursion int fact(n) { return fact_aux(n, 1); }


Auxiliary variable

int fact_aux(int n, int result) { if (n == 1) return result; return fact_aux(n - 1, n * result) }


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The recursive call is in the return statement. The function simply returns what it gets from the call it makes. The calling version does not have save any values!
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scanf and getchar getchar() reads and returns one character scanf formatted input, stores in variable
scanf returns an integer = number of inputs it managed to convert successfully
printf ("Input 2 numbers: "); if (scanf("%d%d", &i, &j) == 2) printf ("You entered %d and %d\n", i, j); else printf ("You failed to enter 2 numbers\n");

from <http://cprogramming.com>
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Input buffer Your input line is first stored in a buffer. If you are reading a number with scanf (%d) and enter 1235ZZZ, scanf will read 1235 into the variable and leave ZZZ in the buffer. The next read statement will get ZZZ and may ignore the actual input! One may need to write a statement to clear the buffer while (getchar() != '\n'); This reads and ignores input till the end of line.
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Code to insist on one number only

#include <stdio.h> int main(void) { exit if one number int temp; printf ("Input your number: "); while (scanf("%d", &temp) != 1) { while (getchar() != '\n'); clear buffer before reading again printf ("Try again: "); } printf ("You entered %d\n", temp); return(0); }
from <http://cprogramming.com>
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Experiments with numbers1 The Collatz problem asks if iterating

always returns to 1 for positive . The members of the sequence produced by the Collatz problem are sometimes known as hailstone numbers.
From Wolfram Mathworld
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CollatzProblem.html
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Hailstone numbers A Hailstone Sequence is generated by a simple algorithm. Start with an integer N. If N is even, the next number in the sequence is N / 2. If N is odd, the next number in the sequence is (3 * N) + 1. 7, 22, 11, 34, 17, 52, 26, 13, 40, 20, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, ... repeats 12, 6, 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1 . 909, 2726, 1364, 682, 341, 1024, 512, 256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1 10
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Mathematical Recreations
http://users.swing.be/TGMSoft/hailstone.htm

Exercise : Write a program to accept an input and count the number of iterations needed to get to 1, and the highest number reached. Generate a table of results
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