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Alloy steel

Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low-alloy steels and high-alloy steels. The difference between the two is somewhat arbitrary: Smith and Hashemite define the difference at 4.0%, while Degarmo, et al., define it at 8.0 %. Most commonly, the phrase "alloy steel" refers to low-alloy steels. Every steel is truly an alloy, but not all steels are called "alloy steels". Even the simplest steels are iron (Fe) (about 99%) alloyed with carbon (C) (about 0.1% to 1%, depending on type). However, the term "alloy steel" is the standard term referring to steels with other alloying elements in addition to the carbon. Common alloyants include manganese (the most common one), nickel,chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less common alloyants include aluminum,cobalt, copper, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, tin,zinc,lead, and zirconium. The following is a range of improved properties in alloy steels (as compared tocarbon steels): strength, hardness, toughness, wear resistance, hardenability, andhot hardness. To achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat treating. Some of these find uses in exotic and highly-demanding applications, such as in the turbine blades of jet engines, in spacecraft, and in nuclear reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic properties of iron, some steel alloys find important applications where their responses to magnetism are very important, including inelectric motors and in transformers.

Low-alloy steel
Low-alloy steels are usually used to achieve better hardenability, which in turn improves its other mechanical properties. They are also used to increase corrosion resistance in certain environmental conditions. With medium to high carbon levels, low-alloy steel is difficult to weld. Lowering the carbon content to the range of 0.10% to 0.30%, along with some reduction in alloying

elements, increases the weld ability and formability of the steel while maintaining its strength. Such a metal is classed as high-strength low-alloy steel. Some common low alloy steels are:

D6AC 300M 256A Principal low-alloy steels

SAE Composition designation 13xx Mn 1.75% 40xx Mo 0.20% or 0.25% or 0.25% Mo & 0.042% S Cr 0.50% or 0.80% or 0.95%, Mo 0.12% or 0.20% or 0.25% or 41xx 0.30% 43xx Ni 1.82%, Cr 0.50% to 0.80%, Mo 0.25% 44xx Mo 0.40% or 0.52% 46xx Ni 0.85% or 1.82%, Mo 0.20% or 0.25% 47xx Ni 1.05%, Cr 0.45%, Mo 0.20% or 0.35% 48xx Ni 3.50%, Mo 0.25% 50xx Cr 0.27% or 0.40% or 0.50% or 0.65% 50xxx Cr 0.50%, C 1.00% min 50Bxx Cr 0.28% or 0.50% 51xx Cr 0.80% or 0.87% or 0.92% or 1.00% or 1.05% 51xxx Cr 1.02%, C 1.00% min 51Bxx Cr 0.80% 52xxx Cr 1.45%, C 1.00% min 61xx Cr 0.60% or 0.80% or 0.95%, V 0.10% or 0.15% min 86xx Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.20% 87xx Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.25% 88xx Ni 0.55%, Cr 0.50%, Mo 0.35% Si 1.40% or 2.00%, Mn 0.65% or 0.82% or 0.85%, Cr 0.00% or 92xx 0.65% 94Bxx Ni 0.45%, Cr 0.40%, Mo 0.12% Ni 5%, Cr 2%, Si 1.25%, W 1%, Mn 0.85%, Mo 0.55%, Cu 0.5%, ES-1 Cr 0.40%, C 0.2%, V 0.1%

Material science
Alloying elements are added to achieve certain properties in the material. As a guideline, alloying elements are added in lower percentages (less than 5%) to increase strength or harden ability, or in larger percentages (over 5%) to achieve special properties, such as corrosion resistance or extreme temperature stability. Manganese, silicon, or aluminum are added during the steel making process to remove dissolved o2, sulfur and phosphorus from the melt. Manganese, silicon, nickel, and copper are added to increase strength by forming solid solutions in ferrite. Chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, and tungsten increase strength by forming second-phase carbides. Nickel and copper improve corrosion resistance in small quantities. Molybdenum helps to resist embrittlement. Zirconium, cerium, and calcium increase toughness by controlling the shape of inclusions. Manganese sulfide, lead, bismuth, selenium, and tellurium increase mach inability. The alloying elements tend to form either compounds or carbides. Nickel is very soluble in ferrite; therefore, it forms compounds, usually Ni3Al. Aluminium dissolves in the ferrite and forms the compounds Al2O3 and AlN. Silicon is also very soluble and usually forms the compound SiO2MxOy. Manganese mostly dissolves in ferrite forming the compounds MnS, MnOSiO2, but will also form carbides in the form of (Fe,Mn)3C. Chromium forms partitions between the ferrite and carbide phases in steel, forming (Fe,Cr3)C, Cr7C3, and Cr23C6. The type of carbide that chromium forms depends on the amount of carbon and other types of alloying elements present. Tungsten and molybdenum form carbides if there is enough carbon and an absence of stronger carbide forming elements (i.e., titanium & niobium), they form the carbides Mo2C and W2C, respectively. Vanadium, titanium, and niobium are strong carbide forming elements, forming vanadium carbides, titanium carbides, and niobium carbide, respectively. Alloying elements also have an effect on the eutectoid temperature of the steel. Manganese and nickel lower the eutectoid temperature and are known as austenite stabilizing elements. With enough of these elements the austenitic structure may be temperature; these elements are known as ferrite stabilizing elements

Principal effects of major alloying elements for steel Element Percentage Primary function Aluminum 0.951.30 Alloying element in nit riding steels Bismuth Improves mach inability Boron 0.0010.003 A powerful harden ability agent 0.52 Increases harden ability Chromium 418 Increases corrosion resistance Copper 0.10.4 Corrosion resistance Lead Improved mach inability Combines with sulfur and with phosphorus to reduce the 0.250.40 brittleness. Also helps to remove excess oxygen from molten steel. Manganese Increases harden ability by lowering transformation points and >1 causing transformations to be sluggish Stable carbides; inhibits grain growth. Increases the toughness of steel, thus making molybdenum a very valuable alloy metal for Molybdenum 0.25 making the cutting parts of machine tools and also the turbine blades of turbojet engines. Also used in rocket motors. 25 Toughened Nickel 1220 Increases corrosion resistance 0.20.7 Increases strength 2.0 Spring steels Silicon Higher Improves magnetic properties percentages Sulfur 0.080.15 Free-machining properties Fixes carbon in inert particles; reduces martens tic hardness in Titanium chromium steels Tungsten Also increases the melting point. Stable carbides; increases strength while retaining ductility; Vanadium 0.15 promotes fine grain structure. Increases the toughness at high temperatures

WELDING OF LOW ALLOY STEEL GENERAL:-"Low Alloy" steels are defined as steels whose properties are attributed to the presence of one or more elements in addition to those commonly present in carbon steel or to more than usual amounts of elements such as manganese and silicon. Examples of low alloy steels are: Nickel alloy, nickel-copper alloy, manganese -molybdenum, carbon-molybdenum, chromium molybdenum, nickel-chromium-molybdenum, chromium alloy steel, manganese alloy steel and chromium-vanadium steels. The primary effect of the alloying elements in regard to welding of steel is on the physical properties. The additional element/elements may form invisible oxide firm a interfere with fusion or cause cracking and porosity, in addition to the principal effect of increasing hardening tendencies. The affects of the added elements occur primarily because of metallurgical response upon the transformation (austenite) of metal during cooling from the welding temperature. Due to the effect of the alloy elements, the welder meat is familiar with required control factors associated with each grade/type. GAS WELDING (OXYACETYLENE) OF LOW ALLOY STEELS:- Basically there is no difference in procedure for oxyacetylene welding of the alloy steels than those used for welding straight carbon steel. Although the trend is to replace oxyacetylene with the metal arc process using covered electrodes, there are applications where the oxyacetylene method is used to an advantage. The advantage is associated with the fact that heat' before, during and after welding can be controlled to some extent (depending on the operators ability). Using the gas process, heat is applied gradually and the metal is not subject to extreme temperature changes (gradients) in area adjacent to weld as occurs in arc welding. The controlled temperature that can be obtained using gas process can be important in welding the air hardening alloy steels. Oxyacetylene Welding of (his low alloy steels is normally accomplished with a neutral or slightly reducing flame. In moat applications filler metal is selected to maintain weld strength, resistance to creep at elevated temperature (characteristics of molybdenum), embrittlement at low temperature (characteristics of nickel steels) and corrosion resistance. Special grades of filler metal, although dually provided in standard types, are selected to maintain weld strength, rather than using rods of the same composition as the base metal. For corrosion resistance, the filler metal is selected to obtain a weld with similar analysis as the parent metal. For a general reference on selection of filler metal to alloy. This table is only to be used as a guide and it is not intended to replace requirements specified by

blueprints, technical orders or other engineering data. Additional requirements for engineering design are cited in MIL-HDBKPost heat-treatment after gas welding the heat-treatment alloy steels is necessary to stress relieve and to reline grain structure, unless otherwise specified. SHIELDED METAL-ARC WELDING OF THE LOW ALLOY STEELS. The structural grades of these steels (tensile 70,000 yields to 50,000) such as nickel copper alloy are welded in approximately the same manner as used for the structural grades of carbon steel. Low hydrogen carbon steel electrodes (such as flat-work and E6010-7016 for all positions) of equal or slightly higher strength than the base metal are generally used for the applicable grades. Low Carbon Alloy (AISI/SAE) Grades:- The low carbon grades of the low alloy steels (see paragraph 2-126 are also normally welded with low hydrogen type electrode such as E8X15 (DC electrode positive) or EXX16 (AC or DC electrode positive). This series normally will require preheat if carbon content exceeds 18%, or when total alloy contents high . Preheat is recommended as follows:1.Preheat of 200F if alloy carbon content does not exceed 0.18% and nickel does not exceed 2.25%.2.200300F for alloys containing 3.0-3.5% nickel and less than 0.12% carbon.3.300 500F generally and 600F in some cases for the higher alloyed types. For additional information on preheat by alloys, Edge preparation for this series will depend upon the thickness of plate and intended use of the finished part. Typical butt weld joints of material above 3/16 and up to 1/2 inch thick are prepared with about a 14-16 degree level to form a single U joint with an included angle of about 30-34 degrees. Material spacing at the root range from 1/32" 1/16"for 3/16" material to approximately 1/4" for 1/2" material. A backing plate is usually used and for completion of the weld the place is removed and a final pass (after chipping) is made to seal the root. Joints for welding heavier sections are usually prepared with a double "U"

WELDING OF LOW ALLOY STEEL GENERAL : - Low Alloy" steels are defined as steels whose properties are attributed to the presence of one or more elements in addition to those commonly present in carbon steel or to more than usual amounts of elements such as manganese and silicon. Examples of low alloy steels are: Nickel alloy, nickel-copper alloy, manganese -molybdenum, carbon-molybdenum, chromium molybdenum, nickel-chromium-molybdenum, chromium alloy steel, manganese alloy steel and chromium-vanadium steels. The primary effect of the alloying elements in regard to welding of steel is on the physical properties. The additional element/elements may form in visible oxide firm which interfere with fusion or cause cracking and porosity, in addition to the principal effect of increasing hardening tendencies. The affects of the added elements occur primarily because of metallurgical response upon the transformation (austenite) of metal during cooling from the welding temperature. Due to the effect of the alloy elements, the welder meat is familiar with required control factors associated with each grade/type. GAS WELDING (OXYACETYLENE) OF LOW ALLOY STEELS. Basically there is no difference in procedure for oxyacetylene welding of the alloy steels than those used for welding straight carbon steel. Although the trend is to replace oxyacetylene with the metal arc process using covered electrodes, there are applications where the oxyacetylene method is used to an advantage. The advantage is associated with the fact that heat' before, during and after welding can be controlled to some extent (depending on the operators ability). Using the gas process, heat is applied gradually and the metal is not subject to extreme temperature changes (gradients) in area adjacent to weld as occurs in arc welding. The controlled temperature that can be obtained using gas process can be important in welding the air hardening alloy steels. Oxyacetylene Welding of (he low alloy steels is normally accomplished with a neutral or slightly reducing flame. In moat applications filler metal is selected to maintain weld strength, resistance to creep at elevated temperature(characteristics of

molybdenum), embrittlement at low temperature (characteristics of nickel steels) and corrosion resistance. Special grades of filler metal, although dually provided in standard types, are selected to maintain weld strength, rather than using rods of the same composition as the base metal. For corrosion resistance, the filler metal is selected to obtain a weld with similar analysis as the parent metal. For a general reference on selection of filler metal to alloy. This table is only to be used as a guide and it is not intended to replace requirements specified by blueprints, technical orders or other engineering data. Additional requirements for engineering design are cited in MIL-HDBK Post heat-treatment after gas welding the heat-treatment alloy steels is necessary to stress relieve and to reline grain structure, unless otherwise SHIELDED METAL-ARC WELDING OF THE LOW ALLOY STEELS. The structural grades of these steels (tensile 70,000 yield to 50,000) such as nickel copper alloy are welded in approximately the same manner as used for the structural grades of carbon steel. Low hydrogen carbon steel electrodes (such as flat-work and E6010-7016 for all positions) of equal or slightly higher strength than the base metal are generally used for the applicable grades. Low Carbon Alloy (AISI/SAE) Grade:- The low carbon grades of the low alloy steels (are also normally welded with low hydrogen type electrode such as E8X15 (DC electrode positive) or EXX16 (AC or DC electrode positive). This series normally will require preheat if carbon content exceeds 18%, or when total alloy content is high. Preheat is recommended as follows:1.Preheat of 200F if alloy carbon content does not exceed 0.18% and nickel does not exceed 2.25%.2.200-300F for alloys containing 3.0-3.5% nickel and less than 0.12% carbon.3.300 500F generally and 600F in some cases for the higher alloyed types. For additional information on preheat by alloys. Edge preparation for this series will depend upon the thickness of plate and intended use of the finished part. Typical butt weld joints of material above 3/16 and up to 1/2 inch thick are prepared with about a 14-16 degree level to form a single U joint with an included angle of about 30-34 degrees. Material spacing at the root range from 1/32" 1/16"for 3/16" material to approximately 1/4" for 1/2" material. A

backing plate is usually used and for completion of the weld the place is removed and a final pass (after chipping) is made to seal the root. Joints for welding heavier sections are usually prepared with a double "U"