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INTERVIEW WITH HOLLYWOOD STORY CONSULTANT CHRISTOPHER VOGLER

MARVIN:Firstofall,goodmorning.ThisisMarvinAcunafromtheBusinessofShowInstitutewithour monthlyteleseminarmembershipseriesentitledShortcutstoSuccess:MeetingwiththeMasters.This morningsguestisChristopherVogler,whichwearesopleasedtohaveherewithus. Afewhousekeepingissuestobeginwith:First,theteleseminarwillbe60minutes,nomorethanthat. ThefirstpartofthecallwillbemyselfandChrishavingjustafewquickexchanges,somequestionsI have.Andthen,wellmovereallyquicklytotheQ&AbecauseIwanttoaddressasmanyquestionson wecanonthecall.Whateverquestionswerenotabletoaddress,ChrisandIwillfindawaytogetthose addressedandouttoeachofyouindependently. Next,thereplayoftheteleseminarwillbeavailablenolaterthanMonday,soeachofyouwillhave accesstothat.Finally,attheendofthephonecall,Iwillhaveacoupleofquickannouncementsto make;soholdoutthere. So,Chris,firstofall,thankyouverymuchfortakingtimeonFridaymorningforus.Letsbeginbyjust whydontyougiveusabriefhistory.Everybodyshadtheopportunitytoseeyourbio,butmaybe,you know,someofthedetailsthatthebiosnevercapture.Ifyoucansharesomeofthatwithus,wed appreciateit. CHRISTOPHER:Yes,Idliketodothat.Goodmorning,everyone.WhatIllbelookingforasIgivethis quickreviewismaybesomeprinciples,becauseImallaboutthataboutfindingunifyingprinciples, guidelines,rulesofthumbandIhadsomeofthoseinmycareerpath. Basically,ImfromtheMidwest,sametheSt.Louisarea.IstudiedjournalismattheUniversityof Missouri.Ineverreallypracticedasajournalistbutitwasagreatbackgroundinwritingandeven storytellingintellingshortstories. Then,IwassentouttoLosAngelesintheU.S.Force;IwasanAirForceofficerthroughtheROTC programandtheyflewmeouttoL.A.IdontknowifIwouldhaveevermadethejumpmyselffromthe Midwest,buttheAirForcetookcareofthatforme.Imadesomedocumentaryfilmsforthemonthe spaceprogramtheearlydevelopmentofthespaceshuttle,theGPSsystemsoIwas,inaway,onthe groundfloorofthosethings. Then,IwentontheG.I.BilltotheUniversityofSouthernCaliforniatotheUSCFilmSchoolthere.Two bigthingsthatshapedmycareerthere:OnewasaclasscalledStoryAnalysisforFilmandTV.Thistaught meajobareaformesomethingthatIknewIcoulddowhichisreadscriptsandwriteevaluationsof them.Youknow,Ihadagoodsenseofcriticalwritingandjustagoodinstinctfortroubleshootingstories figuringoutwhatwaswrongwiththem,diagnosingtheminanarticulatewayandwritinggood memos.Sothatwasonething. TheotherthingwasmycollisionwiththeideasofJosephCampbell,andIvebeenlookingforsomething tolikeaunifiedfieldtheoryofstorysoIwantedthat,andCampbellsuppliedthatbystudyingthe MythsoftheAncientWorld.Hescomeupwithsortofamasterplotthathesaid,allstoriesarereally thesame.Theyrealldescribingthehumanjourneyandherearethemajorstages.SoItookthatball

andIranwithit;Ifounditveryexciting.IstartedapplyingthatasIgotmyfirstjobsintheindustryasa readerorstoryanalystatfirst,UnitedArtist,andthenmanyothercompanies.Eventually,Igotintothe Unionbecausethereisaunionforthis,theStoryAnalystGuild,nowpartoftheEditorsGuild. Alltheway,IwasapplyingtheseJosephCampbellideas,andIthoughtitwasreallyuseful.Iwassortof infectedwithit;itwaslikeavirusthathadgottenintomysystem.Iwasreallyexcitedaboutit.Iwantto talktopeopleaboutitandgetsomedialoggoing. So,atacertainpointwhileIwasworkingforDisney,IsteppedbackandIsaid,letsmakethisintoa system.Letsreallythinkaboutthisandwriteitdownandmakeitusefulforpeople.Becausethatsone ofmyprinciplestobeusefulandalwaysfollowedthatinthestudiosystem;Itriedtomakemyself useful.IwentoffandIwrotethissevenpagememo,whichdescribedCampbellsideasandjustreplaced hismythologicalexampleswithfilmexamplesfromclassicfilmsandcontemporaryfilmsatthattime. Thatlittlememohadmagicpowers.Itwaslikeamagiccarpet.Itwentoffallonitsown.ItgotXeroxed; itgotspreadallovertown.Itwasthehotthingofthemoment.Everyjuniorexecutivehadtohavethis thing.Thatwaslikethemasterkeytostoryplot;thatswhatpeoplethought.Apparently,Iwassaying somethingnobodyhadreallyarticulateduntilthen.ThatledeventuallytoteachingatUCLAwhileI continuedmyreadercareer.Itactuallygrewintomybook,TheWritersJourney,whichmostofyou probablyhaveheardoforhavehadaccessto. Soalongtheway,oneofmyprincipleswastojustbeexcitedaboutthings,tobeenthusiasticabout things;thethingsIliked,whichwasmycategorysciencefiction,history,childrensliterature,fantasy thingslikethat.Iwouldclaimthoseprojects;Iwouldgetexcitedaboutitandsay,oh,Iwanttoworkon that.Thatwassomethingthatspreadaround.Thewordgotaround,heresthisguy. Also,Iwasquickatanalyzingalotofmaterials.Icouldascriptquicklyandtellyouwhatwaswrongwith itorwhatwasgoodaboutit.Icouldlookatabodyofresearch,awholearea,andtellyouwhatwas importantandwherethemovieswouldbeinthat.Thoseskillsreallyhelpedmealongtheway. TheotherthingIjustsaidwhenIwindupthiscareerdescriptionisthatIjustsortofanointedmyselfasa consultant.Atacertainpoint,Isaid,Immorethanareader.Ihaveotherskills.So,Imnowaconsultant. AndthatwasajumpinperceptionformeitsallaboutperceptionandIsortofcreatedmyownself perception.

Sonow,Imworking,sometimeswithParamount;thatssortofmyhomebase.Butalso,Idoalotof freelancingforwritersanddirectors;IworkedwithDarrenAronofskyontheWrestler.Hereadmybook incollegeandcametome.Thatswhatshappeningnow.Rolandcametomeon10,000B.C.WillSmith hascometomeonacoupleofhisprojects.Sothatwordeventuallyhaspercolatedaroundandalotof peopleknowwhoIamandwhatIcando.Soitskindofagoldenageformerightnow.Thatwould bringyouuptospeedonthecareerthingsofar. MARVIN:Well,Illtellyouthis.OneofthethingsthatIlovethatyoujustsaidImahugebelieveron thispersonallyandIbelievethatitssomethingthatissoimportantandsocriticaltoanyonewhohasa

dreamorapursuitorapassionthatyoudeclaredwhatyouwere.Youmadethedecisionandsaid, thatswhatIam.Period.Endofthestory.Therestkindoffollowed. Ibelieve,personally,thatifyoueverdream,theonlywayyouregoingtostepintothepictureofthat dreamistojustdeclarethatyourealreadyinit. CHRISTOPHER:Yeah. MARVIN:That,Ithink,isoneofthemostpowerfulthingsthatsbeensaidonanyofourteleseminars. Itsjustasidethatfits,hey,youknow,Ibelievescreenwriters,Ibelieveproducers,actors,directors theonesthataresuccessfuljustmadethedecision.Period. CHRISTOPHER:Yeah.Illbackyouuponthatahundredpercent.Ithinkthattheypayattentiontowhat yousayaboutyourself.ArealadjustmentorabigstepforwritersandIwentthroughthismyselfis goingfrom,ImtryingtobeawriterorIwanttobeawriterorImgoingtobeawriter,andjustsay,Im awriter!Thatsabigstepforpeoplesometimes. Iwouldalsopointoutthatdreamsaretrickyanddangerous,becausetheyreveryseductive.WhatIve seeninmyselfandotherpeopleis,sometimes,theyprefertocherishthedreamratherthanhavingthe realitythatthedreamrepresents.Becausetherealityisdangerousyoucanfail,youcanbe embarrassedandhumiliated,andallofthat.Soratherthanactuallystepupandmakeitreal,people choosetoremaininthedreamworldwhere,oneday,Imgoingtodothis.Oneday,Imgoingtobe famous.Oneday,Imgoingtomakemymark.Then,theyrecontentwiththat.Thatsokay,butnotif youreallywantthething,ratherthanjustthedream. MARVIN:Absofreakinglutely.Absolutely.Icouldntagreemorewithyouonthat.Soletmeaskyoua questionbecauseoneofthethingsIthinkmostaspiringwritersneedtoreallywraparoundtheirminds isbeingatastudio,workingatthestudiosystem,being,thattheyrepursuingtheagent,manager, produceroneofthethingsthatobviouslymostofthemdoisthatfirstphase,theysendoutthese queryletters. Imahugebelieverthatmostquerylettersshouldjustliterallygofromyourownemailtoyourown deleteboxbecausetheyrenotverywellcrafted.Ithinkthereareanumberofthingsthatpeoplecando inaqueryletter,butoneofthethingsthatIthinkisabsolutelycriticaltoaqueryletteristhelogline becausethatbegins,thattellssomeone,hey,IcansellthisorIcannotsellthis. Iwonder,doyouhaveanyspecifics?Becauseobviously,Iknowthatincraftingtheanalysis,apartof that,whenyousubmitittowhomeveryoureworkingon,obviously,theresgottobesomelogline yourecraftingbasedonthatstory,ismyassumption.EvenfromlookingatcoveragesthatIvereceived orhaveprobablyslippedincirculatingaroundtown.Aretherespecificthingsorkeyingredientsthatyou feelaloglineshouldhaveinordertoexcitepeople? CHRISTOPHER:Yes.Weretalkingmaybetwodifferentthings:Theloglineis,insomeways,atechnical thingthatthestudiousesliterallytologintotheirbooks,sothatinthefuture,theycanlookbackand quicklyfindout,whatsthegistofthatstory?Sothattakesacertainformulaicshape,whichisX

characterwithXqualitieszany,crazydetectiveorcowboy,orwhateveritis,meetssomebodywho alsohasanadjectiveasexyguy,dangerousally,mysteriouswomanorsomethingmeetssomebody andthen,theyhavetofightXandovercomeit. Buttheloglineyouretalkingaboutismoreasellingtool.WhatIfound,thisisjustatip:ausefulthingis tothinkintermsofacertainrhetoricaldevice,whichIcallnotonlybutalso.Thisisagreatformfor pitching,agreatmechanismforpitching,whichistosaytothelistener,youalreadyknowthis,butdid youknowthataboutit?Likeeverybodyknowsthatairportsareahassle,butdidyouknowthatbehind thescenesatairports,theresthisincredibleunderworld. Soyouregivingthemabasethattheyalreadyknow,butthentellingthem,aha,Igotyouhookednow; youknowaboutthatbutIknowsomethingelse,andImgoingtotellyouaboutit.Sothatlittle techniqueisveryuseful. MARVIN:Thatishuge! CHRISTOPHER:Yeah,itsbig.ItswhatIcallarhetoricaldeviceoralittletrickthatyoudo,butitsagreat waytogetintoapitch,tosay,youknow,didyoueverhavethatthingwhereyouwakeupfromadream andyoudontquiteknow,wasIdreamingornot?Well,whatifandthen,youlaunchinto,onceyou gottheplatform,thenewinformationorthetwistthatyouregoingtodeliverinyourpitchoryourlog line. MARVIN:Listen,Ithinkthatssopowerful,becausetherealityofitisandIwanttoechowhatyousaid itsasellingtool.Itsapieceofthepuzzle.Now,ifyougetthatright,usingscriptbrokersthatare online,orsubmittingyourownqueryletterstopeople.Ifyoucanmakethateffective,youwillfinda response. Ofcourse,atthatpoint,yourmaterialneedstobefullyevolvedandexecutedaroundthatloglineand theme.ButonceyouvedonethatitsaboutgettingpeoplesattentionandIthinkthatcanbevery helpful. CHRISTOPHER:OnemorethingIdaddtothatisthatitsgreatifthatistransferrable,sothatsomebody youjustpitchedittocanturnaround,pickupthephone,orrundownthehallandpitchitjustthatway, inthatlogline,tosomebodyelse.Soithastobetotafiedinanicememorableform. Illjustgiveyouaquickexample.WhenIwasatFox,Ipitchedanoldshortstory,sciencefictionshort story,tomybossthere.Isaiditsaboutadyinghomelesswomaninapatheticcondition,terrible medicalproblems.Theygiveherashotofaserumthatallowsyoutoadapttoanythingalmostinstantly, andovernight,sheturnsintothemostbeautiful,powerfulanddangerouswomanontheplanet.The executiveIpitcheditto,literally,pickedupthephoneandcalledNicoleKidmanandtoldherexactly whatIhadjustsaid,andhookedheronbeinginvolvedinthatproject. Sothisishowthingsgetignitedwhenyougetsomethingputdowntothatkindofacapsule,itcan spreadthen,itbecomesthisviralformthatcanmoveon.

MARVIN:Youknow,whatIloveaboutitis,andIthinkmostaspiringwritersorwritersunawareofthat, whoeverissittingatthatdesk,thatyouneedtothengoinandhavethisdiscussionwith,hastheir phoneringing.Itsaboutahundredphonecallsadaytheyrereceiving,peopleseekinganswers.They havereadorhavehadreadseveralscreenplaysthatevening.Theynowhavecoverageorother executivescomingintotheirpost,tellingthemaboutwhattheyreexcitedabout. So,youhavetohavesomethingsocontainedandyetsopowerful,thattheycandothat.Theycanpick upthephone.Becauseiftheycan,itmakestheirlifeeasierandifyoucanmakelifeeasyforthesefolks, youwillrewardyourselfbydoingso. CHRISTOPHER:Yeah,absolutely.Asaworkerwithinthesystem,Ialwaysthoughtmyjobwastomake mybosslookgood,andtogivethemgoodammunitionforexactlythosekindofphonecalls.Andasa salespersonofmyownmaterial,itsthesamething.Youwanttomakeiteasyforthem.Thatsexactly right. MARVIN:LetmebeginwithBrettMore.HesfromSpring,Texas.ThisisBrettfromSpring,Texas,andhis firstquestionisIvespentthelastmonthreadinghundredsofrecentlysoldorfilmedspecscreenplays. Imamazedatthelackofconsistency,nonstandardformatting,anddownrightbandwriting.Whyare thesescriptsselling?AmItheonewhoneedstochange?IreadWanted,orhessaying,readWanted andyoullknowwhatImean.Sohisquestionis:Whyarethesescriptsselling? CHRISTOPHER:Itsagoodquestion.Itsoneofthethingsthatdrivesuscrazy,becausefollowingallthe rulesorworshippingatthealtarofthescreengoddess,orwhateveritis,doesntguaranteeyou anything.Themachineryissoflukey,thatifyoulookatthat,youwillgoinsane.Itsjustmaddening becauseyouthinkImdoingeverythingright,sowhyamInotgettingthereward?Andmineiseven better!Obviouslybetterthanwhatjustgotbought.Sowhatsgoingonhere? TheanswerisoneoftheanswersisIthinktherearetwokindsofpeopleinthesystem:peoplewho knowwhatsgoodandpeoplewhodonthaveanyideawhetheritsanygoodornot.Thosepeopleare sometimesinpositionsofdecisionmakingandbuying,andtheyrebuyingforallkindsofreasonsmost ofthem,politicalthatdonthaveanythingtodowiththequalityofthescriptorisitgoingtomakeany money. Itsmoreabout,well,yourefatherhelpedmykidgetintoHarvardandImgoingtohelpyou.OrIowe youfortheotherthing,whereyouagreedtodothepicture,sonowweregoingtoletyoudothispicture. Somanyoftheavailableslotsaretakenupwiththesesortsofthings,whereyoufeellikeitsfixedand thedealwasriggedsomehowanditis. Butyoucantletthatstuffdiscourageyou.Iwouldsay,onceyouvedonethatprocess,whereyouve readabunchofscriptsandhadallyourillusionsshattered,thenabsolutelyforgetaboutitandjustdo thebestonscriptyoucando.Behappywiththatandletalltherestofthatflukey,crazymakingstuff getoutofyourhead,becauseitwilldriveyouinsane.

MARVIN:Well,absolutely.Irememberonetime,Ireadinfact,thisisintheveryearlydaysofmy careerIrememberreadingapieceofmaterial,andIwasjustsodisturbedbywhatIhadread.Because Ithoughttomyself,thisisjust,Icantevenimagine,maybeImnottrainedtoread.Islippeditintoa producerfriendofmine,whoIdidrespect,gaveittothem,thinkingtheywouldcomebacktomewith somesortofresponseof,no,Marvin,youvemissedit.Theyturnedtomeandsaid,Iagreethisis terrible.ButthenIsaid,Imgoingtotellyouthis.Thisisaprojectthatissetupforthestudio,thathas JuliaRobertsattached.Andhesaid,well,listen,theressomethingaboutthescriptorsomethingabout therelationshiptothescript. CHRISTOPHER:Thatsright. MARVIN:thatcausedthepersonwhopurchasedittopurchaseit.Theyhavetheresourcestodoso.So thatstheonlyanswerthatwouldmakesenseinthiscase,becauseobviouslythematerialdoesnt(serve itself?). ButIagreewithyou,onceyouveembracedthat,youjustneedtocontinuemovingforwardand recognizethat,hey,okay,well,thatspartofthebusiness.Itdoesnthavetobemypartofthebusiness.I willfindthoserelationshipseventuallythatwillrespondtomywriting,orultimatelybeinapositionto serveme. HeresaquestionfromConstantinefromCalgary,Canada.Whatmadeyouwriteasystemforanalyzing storiesbasedontheworkofJosephCampbell,TheHerosJourney? CHRISTOPHER:Well,Iwasverymovedtherebythematerialitself.Ihadbeen,asIsay,onaquest, lookingforsomerules.Iknewtherehadtobesomekindofguidelines.ImnotfromHollywood.Idont havefamilyorconnectionsofanykind;ImasonofacementmasonfromSt.Louis,Missouri.Ineeded tofindtheguidebooksomeplace.Atthetime,Iwasgoingtoschool,therewasntanything;there werentanyscreenwritingbooks.Therewasntasinglebookthatyoucouldsay,hey,thatwillteachme howtowriteascreenplay. SoIhadtodoit.IwassoluckythatIfoundCampbellswork,anditwaspurelyoutoftheenthusiasm andtheexcitementandthedesiretorundownthehall,andsay,hey,didanybodyelseknowaboutthis? Didyoueverhearofit?Didyoueverreadthisbook?Itwaspurelyenthusiasm,justthatdesiretoget otherpeopleinvolvedinthisconversationwithmeaboutit.Soitreallycameoutofthatjoy. Ithinkalso,maybegenetically,IhaveamixoftheIrishsidefrommymothersside,sotheresavery poeticanglethere.ButalsoaGermanandFrenchandthissortoforderandthingsshouldbeneatand tidythatcameouthere.Thatletsmakeitasystem;Ijustlikesystematicthinking,andIfoundagood homeatDisneybecausetheyhadjustbeentakenoverwhenIgottherebynewmanagement,Eisner andKatzenberg.Katzenberg,particularly,isaverysystematicthinkerandjustdoesallhisbusiness operationsinaverylogicalway.Itwasagoodfitforthecompanytobringoutthatsystematthattime. MARVIN:Youstruckachord;Iloveit.Now,theresaquestionfromShannonofVancouver,Canada. Whatisthemosteffectivewaytobeefupasmallercharacterroleinordertoattractastarforthatpart?

CHRISTOPHER:Ah,thatsavery,verysmartquestion,becauseIlookateverythingIdoevery treatmentorscriptorloglineanythingIdoisbait.AwayIthinkofthescriptisitsanactorattractor andalsoadirectorattractor.Thesearethingsthat,youknow,theyresupposedtobemagnets,sothat whensomebodyreadsit,theylljustsay,Ivegottodothis;Ihavetoplaythatpart. Soyouwanttothinkaboutwhatarethegreatthingstogiveactorstodointhiscase.Amongthoseare, ofcourse,crying,actingcrazy,losingyourmind,havingsomekindofviolentoutburstthosearekindof theobviousthings. ButIthinkalso,eventheminorcharactersshouldbewhattheycallthreedimensional.Youknowitina scriptwhenthecharacterisflatandeitheronedimensionaloronlytwodimensional.Itmeanstheyonly havetwothingsthattheydo,twocharacteristics.Liketheyrealwayslateforeverythingandtheyare forgetful.Andthatisnotenoughtomakeitpuffintothreedimensions. Theremustbeathirdelement,sometimesmaybeabackstorything,likethereasonhesalwayslatefor everythingisthathehaslowselfesteembecauseofsomethingthathappenedalongtimeago.And maybethatsonthescreenandmaybeitsjustinyourheadasthewriter,butthatcanhelpgiveitthat fleshedoutthreedimensionalquality.Solookfortwo,orbetterthreeorfour,littlequirksorthingsthat theydocharacteristically,andletmeseethem.ThefirsttimeIseethemcomeonstagefullyblown doingthatcharacteristicstickandthatwillbecompellingforactors.Theyllsay,Igettodosomething coolorIhaveacharacterherethatIcanactuallyworkwith. MARVIN:Ilovethat,theactorattractor.Thatspowerful. HereisaquestionfromGalafromSouthAfrica.Herquestionis:Talentisneverenough.Whatexercises inskillwouldyourecommendifIwanttogetfitbeforestartinganewproject? CHRISTOPHER:Brilliant.Brilliantquestion.Iwouldsay,youhavedifferenttoolsyouareusing,different organsofthebodythatyouhavetotrain.Youdohavetodevelopthesethings.ThegreatAmerican basketballcoach,JohnWooden,talksaboutthis,thattheremustbepreparationandconditioning whateveryouredoing.Ifyouremakingkeysinahardwarestoreortraininghorses,itsdifferentkindof conditioning. Andforthewriter,oneofthemajororgansisyourear.Youhavetotrainyourear,andthatmeans listeningverycarefullyonthebus,onaplane,inadoctorsofficewaitingroomlisteningtopeople andmentallyjottingdown.Youareananthropologist.Ananthropologistlearnstotakenotesinthe dark,insidetheirpockets,sothattheirsubjectswillnotknowandchangetheirbehavior.Theycanmake littlenotesonwhatpeoplesaid,eithermentallyorinsecret.Soyouredoingthat;yourejustsponging upallthisstuff.AndIsay,nothingiswasted;nothingyouveeverexperiencedorheardorseenis wasted,anditsgoingtocomeoutofyourscriptsomeday.Sothatsjustone;onemuscleyourear muscle. TheotherthingIthinkisreallyimportant,forme,isactiveimagination.Ijustdidaproject;Imtryingto prepsomethingtogivetoWillSmith,anactorattractorforhim.Ispent,literally,dozensofhoursina

deeptrance,sittinginmycomputerwithmyheaddownandmyeyesclosed,lookingwaydowninside mygutssomewhere.IvenowbuiltanelevatorinsidemyselfandInowcangetin,pressthebutton,go down20floors,wherethatimaginativestuffhappens. Sothesearethingsthatdontjusthappen.Youhavetodevelopthatmuscle.Thosearetwothings. MARVIN:Howfantastic!Thatisgreat!Youknow,listen,IhadreadastoryaboutDanielDayLewis,who actuallyhasaroominhishome,thatnooneisallowedtoenter.Ifheisinit,theycannotknockonthe dooruntilhecomesout. CHRISTOPHER:Thatsgreat. MARVIN:Yeah,andhejustsitsthereandallhedoesisimagine. CHRISTOPHER:Yeah,thisisgreat.Ithink,youknow,(VirginaWalts?)Saidthatoneofthethingsawriter needsisaroomofonesown.Iabsolutelyagreewiththatideaofbeingabletoshutthedoor.Itcouldbe averysmallspace,butthatsyouraltar;thatswhereyoupray,thatswhereyoumakesacrificeofyour timeandyourmentalenergyandyourfingertipsbleedasyoutypeaway.Butthatsabsolutely necessary. MARVIN:Now,heresaquestionfromCarmenofCarlsbad,andshewrites.Herquestionis:Inwriting actionscripts,shouldwemakeeachsceneabusinessdealfromtheverybeginningscene?Couldyou provideexamplesonhowtomakethesceneabusinessdealwhenwereintroducingcharactersand settingupthestory? CHRISTOPHER:Yes,itlookslikeCarlahasread,somehow,shesgotaholdofoneofmyrecentThought Bubbles,whichwasaboutastorybeing,everysceneinthestorybeingsomekindofabusiness transaction.ThatssomethingIlearnedveryearlyincareer.Astoryeditorcalledusin,allusreaders,and said,you,guys,dontevenknowwhatasceneis.Isaid,yeah,sure,itsaunitofactionwithinthescript, somepieceofinformationisgivenorsomeactionhappens.Andshesaid,wrong,itsabusinessdeal. Everysceneissomekindoftransaction,whereatthebeginningCharacterAwantssomethingCharacter Bdoesnthimtohave,andintheend,theresadifferentdeal,anewdealhasbeencut.Inromance,or whateveritis,theresalwaysthispattern,andthatshowyouknowisdonewhenthedealhasbeen transacted. ButIwouldsay,yeah,ineveryscene,ineveryactionscene,thereissomekindofpowerexchangefor sure;thatsthebusinesstransactionthatsgoingonthere.Youknow,somebodyhastheupperhandat thebeginningofthescene;andtheyresurprised,theotherguyhassomeweaponsalso.Attheendof thescene,thelittleguymaybehasknockedthebigguydown.Sotheresbeenareversaloffortune.I thinkthesereversalsandtwistsandupsanddownsmakethescript,especiallyanactionscript, dynamic. Imworkingwithaverygoodwriterrightnow,withthestudio,withParamount.Itsamazingbecause everysceneis,hesup!Hesdown.Hesup!Hesdown.Andontheonepage,therellbe,thisisthe biggestandmostimportantandhappiestinthischaracterslife.Andbytheendofthepage,thisisthe

worstdayofmylife.Youknow,thosedynamicrangesreallymakethestuffexcitingtoread.Itskindof breathtaking. MARVIN:Ilovewhenwritersjustgrabyou.Theyjustgrabyoubythethroatanddontletyougo.I mean,itsjustsopowerful. HeresaquestionfromBernardoftheU.K.:Ifeelthataheroneedsenoughtests,obstaclesbefore winningtheday.Toofewwouldtendtoleadathinstoryline.Ontheotherhand,Iveseenfilmswith constantaction,aneverendingseriesofobstacles.Wheredoyoudrawtheline? CHRISTOPHER:Well,Ithinkthatisasensethatyoudevelopasyoureadanumberofscriptsandasyou rereadandrereadyourownscript.ThewayIoperateandIthinkmostpeopledoisinaseriesof whatIcallpasses,makingapassoverthescript.Thisisrelatedmaybetotheideaofbullfighting,where theycallthempasos,whereeverytimethebullgoesbyyou,youmakeaflourishwithyourcape,oryou turnsomehow.Thatsapasoandthatsabigmomentfortheaudiencetoenjoythoselittlemovements. Butwithascript,itsamatterofgoingoverittimeandtimeandtimeagain.AnothermetaphorImbig onmetaphors,obviouslyisyouremakingaboat,andthatboatneedsakeelanditneedsribsandit needsplanksanditneedsasail,andallthatstuff.Butpartofitissandingthehauldownsothatitgoes smoothlythroughthewaterandtherearenoprojectionsthatstopyou. Sowhatthequestionerisaskinghereisabout,youknow,howdoyousanditdownandnotsandittoo smooth,butstillhasthataerodynamicquality.Thatjustcomesfromreadingitoverandoveragain,and yougetasenseof,thisistoomuch,orthisisevenslowingmedownoritsnotquite.Ijustthinkthese areinstinctivethingsthatcomefromrepetition. Oneofmyhugeprinciples,somethingIveobservedinmycareer,isthebenefitofrepetition.Theysay, inbusiness,youdontdotenthousandthings;youdotwelvethingstenthousandtimes.Youdothesame thingsoverandoveragain,andwhenyouvedonethattenthousandtimes,youbecomeamasterof that.SoIwouldsaytheanswertothisoneisjustpractice,practice,practice.Readalotofscripts, observemoviesandseewhere,youknow,oh,thatonewastoomuch,orthatonewasnotenough,and usethattocomparewithyourownwork. MARVIN:Oneofthemostsuccessfulandmostrecognizedsalesprofessionalsintheindustry,hesone ofthebiggestconsultantsintheworldformarketingandadvertisingthatshisexactphilosophyyou know,youdontdotenthousanddifferentthings;youdotwelvethingstenthousandtimes.AndI couldntagreewithyoumoreonthat. Heresthenextquestion.ThisisfromMarkinLosOsos,Ibelieveitis,Ihaventactuallybeenthere.If youdonthaveanagentorknownname,whatwillgetyounoticedsothatsomeonewillreadyour script? CHRISTOPHER:Thatsgood.Thisisvery,verytoughforpeoplewhoareontheoutsidelookingin.Ihave aphraseIuseaboutmypublisher,theMike..PublishingCompany,whichisthattheyturnoutsidersinto

insidersthatswhatyouretryingtodoherebygivingthemtheinformation,bygivingthemthetools intheformofthebooks. Sothatsmyadviceonthatone,todistinguishyourselfsomehow,thisisanotherthingIhavetodo.Asa coginthewheelofthestudiomachinery,therewerealotofpeopledoingwhatIdo.Therewereatleast ahundredpeopleinTheUnionwhodidthesameexactthingIdo.Ihadtodifferentiatemyself.Ihadto setmyselfapartasaspecialguywhodoesspecialthings.SoIthinkyoufigureoutwhatyoure particularlygoodatorparticularlypassionateabout,andemphasizethat. Alotofpeoplecanwriteascript,butcantheywriteascriptthatisasinspiredasyoursoras enthusiastic? MARVIN:Ofcourse,Icantagreemorewithyou.Imean,therealityofitis,thinkaboutitthisway: Whenyouwalkintoagrocerystoreormarket,youwilllookontheshelf.Onthatshelf,youwillseea varietyofpotatochips.Youlookatthosepotatochipsandtheresareasonyouredrawntooneof them.Muchofthathastodowithbecauseitsrecognizabletoyou,andobviously,themarketingofthat hascomeintoplay.Orsomethingaboutthechipitsanallnaturalchip;itsanorganicchip.Theyhave distinguishedthemselvesfromthegroup,fromthepack.Asaresult,thatswhytheyregettingthe attentionandrecognition.SowhatChrisisgivingyouasadvicehereisyouneedtostandout,andthe wayyoustandoutIthink,goingbacktothefirstposition,whichis,makeadecisionastowhoyouare. Declarethat.Onceyouvedeclaredthat,theneverythingelsewilljusttruly,trulyjustfollow. HeresaquestionfromAmyfromIrvine.Whatarethemostcommonissuesyoufindyourselffixing whenyourebroughtinasastoryconsultantonascriptwrittenbyanAlistscreenwriter? CHRISTOPHER:Ohokay,sowiththebigshot.Youknow,ingeneralforeveryone,everyscripthasa differentsetofproblemsordifferentsetoflimitations.Butevenwiththebigshots,peoplearelimited bytheirowncharacterandbytheirownpersonality.Nobodyhasalloftheskillsthatyouneed.Thats whypeoplearemystifiedbythis,butitswhythereissomuchrewritingofpeopleswork,andwhyeven thebigAlisters,whoeveritis,thoseguysarealmostalwaysrewrittenbysomebodyelse,becausethey donthavethefullpackageoftheskills.So,theyllbelimitedinsomething,likemaybetheywritegood femalecharacters,maybetheirdialogisnotassharpasitcanbe.Sosomebodyelseisbroughtinto punchitup. Tothatquestion,thethingIfindmostcommonlyisthatthewriters,theAlisters,willflingthemselvesat thesubject,andjustkindofblastitout.Buttheresaninnerstructuretoitthatisthere,butthey haventrecognizedityet.IrecognizethatstructureandIsay,look,youalreadyhavethescenehere,but youhavetomakethatscenebigger.Oryouneedtoplantthatsceneearliersothatitmakestheoverall structureworkforyou.Mostofthetime,itsnotchanginganythingsomuchaschangingtheemphasis onthings. ImjustgoodatlookingatthethingfromaMartianpointofview,lookingdownontheEarthandgoing, oh,thisbelongshere,thatbelongshere.Youknow,ifyouhadthatscenemovedonesceneover,itwill

havemoreimpact.Soitsamatteroftuning,andseeingthebigpicture,becausewritersgetlostinthe enthusiasmofscenebyscene.Andthatsaparticularskillthevisionofthewholething. MARVIN:ThenextquestionisfromKennyofSagHarbor,NewYork.Kennysquestionis:Ivebeentold thatmyscripthastoomuchdescription,notenoughaction.Inmystory,therearequiteafewscenes withnodialog,onlyaction,includingacomplicatedcarchasethatIdescribedindetail.Idontknowhow togetaroundthis.IhavecutthedescriptiondownasmuchasIpossiblycanwithoutwritingshorthand, whilemaintainingtheessentialelements,suchasaction,poetryandmood.Canyougivemetipsabout that? CHRISTOPHER:Illtry.Youknow,onethingIdsayis,thisistowardsunderstandingthepersonwho readsthismaterial,thetypeofpersonwhoreadsthismaterial.Asyoupointedout,Marvin,thispeople areincrediblystressedfortime,andtherearemanythingsgrabbingtheirattention.Soyouhaveto makeiteasyforthem.Oneofthethingsthatyoufindis,youcantellalotaboutthescriptjustbyriffling throughit.Youcantellalotaboutitbyheftingitinyourhand.Youknow,Icanpickupascriptandgo, oh,myGod,thisis20pagestooheavy.SoIknowthewriterhasoverwritten.Or,thisfeelskindoflight; thisiswhat,about90pages.Yeah,thisguyhasntreallydevelopeditenough. Sotothatexactquestion,Ithinkifyoulookatanypageatarmslengthacrosstheroom,youcantellif itsoutofbalanceinthewayhestalkingabout.Ifitsasolidblockoftypepageafterpage,orevenon onepage,theressomethingwrong.Ifitsasolidrunofdialogandtheresnoaction,evenhewalks acrosstheroom,theressomethingwrong.Sothingshavetohavealittlebitofbalance,evenvisually,at adistance.Youneedtoseetheressomedialogandsomeactiononjustabouteverypage. Now,whenyougettotheactionsequence,Iwouldjustgiveyouthisrecommendation.Iveseen professionalwriters,bigshots,dothis.Theyunlessitsreallyvitaltocharacterdevelopmentwithinan actionscene,thatherealizessomethinginthemiddleoffightinghisenemytheywilljustshorthandit, andtheywillusethatshorthandofsaying,andthenIturneditovertothespecialeffectscoordinator andthestuntcoordinator,letthemworkout.Itsthemostamazingcarchaseyoueversawinyourlife. Andattheendofit,thecarfliestothewallofthewarehouseandlandsontheshowroomfloor. Ithinkitisatemptationyouwanttotellthemeverythingandshowthatyougotitallworkedoutin yourmindbutthisisanarea,andmaybeyouresteppingontheirtoes,andleavethemsomelatitude. SoIdsaybackoffalittlebitandseeifthatmakesitabetterread,makesitreadfaster.Thatsthekey thing:Youwantittoflythroughthehandsandbeforetheeyesofwhoeverisreadingit. MARVIN:Iloveit.Iworkedforagentlemanmany,manymoonsago.Wheneverwritersdeliverscriptsto us,thefirstthinghewoulddoisgrabthescript,hedliftitinhishands,hedweighitinhishands,andit wasalways,therewereoccasionswhenhedgo,thatstooheavy,itneedsarewrite. CHRISTOPHER:Right.

MARVIN:HeresKenWhitefromModesto,California.Hisquestionis:AlthoughIvebeentoldHollywood isnotcurrentlylookingforperioddramas,doyouthinkascreenplayaboutaformativeperiodinJoseph Campbellslifewouldstillbeofinteresttoproducers? CHRISTOPHER:Mycommentonthisoneis,oh,screwthem,whoeversaidthatthatwedontdothisor wedontdothatorHollywoodisnotlookingforthisorthat.IcanttellyouhowmanytimesIhave hearditwithinthestudio,youknow,MichaelEisnerjustsaidwewouldneverdoanythingaboutVikings orwewouldneverdoanythingnativeAmericans.Hesaid,nothingbutdustinit,noWesternsor anythinglikethat.Andthen,sixmonthslater,werelookingforVikingpicturesandpictureswithlotsof dustand,youknow,abouttheAmericanWest.Sowhatevertheytellyou,itseitherdeadwrongnowor itsgoingtobewronginsixweeks.Sodontletanythinglikethatstopyou.Ifyouhaveagoodstory,its agoodstoryfortheages. Certainly,somethingaboutJosephCampbellwouldbetough.Thatsnotaneasysell,becauseyouhave obstaclesofwhoisheandwhyshouldIcareandallthat.Butyouknow,Icertainlyknow,thattheres greatdramaticmaterialthere.Itsjustamatteroffindingtherightpeople.Soputitoutthere. MARVIN:Absolutely.Imean,look,therealityofitis,andImabelieverofthis,thatcertainly,youshould pursueanythingthatyourepassionateabout.Youcertainlyjustneedtounderstandthatthemore narrowyourstorymayverywellbe,youknow,itmaytakeandrequireyoutobeevenmoreaggressive inyourmarketingofthematerial. CHRISTOPHER:Ormoretargeted,youknow. MARVIN:Exactly.Abowandarrowapproach,aswhatIliketosay. CHRISTOPHER:Thatsright.VeryGood. MARVIN:ThisisCarmenfromSanDiego.Carmensquestionis:Imstartingmynewscript.Whatisthe bestwaytoorganizetheentirescriptbeforeIsitdowntowriteit?Doyoubelieveinthe40notecard system? CHRISTOPHER:Icantellyou,WillSmithcertainlydoes.Ispentaweekendwithhimdoingabsolutely nothingbutstaringataglasswindowonwhichhehadpastedthe40cards.Idontknowifitwas40,but youknow,2540cards.Thatsallwedidfortwoandahalfdays,itwastostareatthatwindowand rearrangethosecards.SoIamahugebelieverinthatkindofprepreparation. Iwouldsay,everybodyhasadifferentchannelforlearningandoperating.Somepeopledoitinthe computerinvariousprograms.Somepeoplehavetohavethephysicalcards.Iwilleventhrowthemon thefloorandwalkaroundthem,becauseImthattactile,Ineedthatphysicalityaboutit.Ialmostmake alabyrinthoutofthemandwalkaroundinitasakindofwalkingmeditation.Idoallsortsofthings beforeIeversitdowntowrite. Iwillthrowthetarotcardsforthecharactersthatsalittletrick,techniquejusttogetsomeinsightor getsomerandomthingsintomythinkingaboutthecharacters.Becauselifeisrandomyouknowsome

thingsbutsomeofitisjustlikecardsthataredealttoyou.Sothoseareafewtricks,butIstrongly recommenddoingwhateverkindofprepyoucanbeforeyousitdown.Itwillenrichthething. MARVIN:IsoappreciateyourveryZenmetaphysical,verygrandapproachtocharacterdevelopmentto thestorystructure.Ithinkitsabsolutelypowerful;very,verypowerful. CHRISTOPHER:Itsnotgoingtoworkforeverybody.Thatsjustme;thatwhatworksforme. MARVIN:SuzannefromIndiana.Herquestionis:Whenyouhavelimitedfunds,andyouknowthatyou haveanexceptionalscript,whatisthebestwaytogetitintotherighthands? CHRISTOPHER:Well,nobodycananswerthatoneinageneralway,becausethepathisdifferentfor everysinglestory.Everyprojectfindsitsownpathway.Ithinkwhenyourestartingfromzeroandyou havenoconnections,youdontknowanything,againyoumustdifferentiateyourselffromthecrowd somehow.Soanykindofrecognitionatthatstageisgood,andthatspeakstoenteringitinlocal screenwritingcompetitions.EvengettingthirdrunnerupintheNottingham,Englandscreenwriting competitionisadistinction.Itsetsyouapartfromalltheother200entrants,whodidntgettheirplace. Soeverylittleadvantagelikethatcangiveencouragementtopeopletogiveyouachanceandtakea lookatit. Ithink,too,packagingisveryimportant,becauseitisasuperficialbusiness,soithastolookgenerally likealltheotherscripts.Ithastobeprofessionallyputtogetherandlooklikeyoucared.Thatdoesnt meananembossedlettercoverforthescript.Itjustmeanswellboundandnicelytyped,andallofthat. Anothercallerhasmentionedalreadythattheformatsareallovertheplace.ThatsnotwhatImtalking about.Imjusttalkingabout,youknow,somethingthatdoesnthavecoffeestainsonitandisa professionalproduct. MARVIN:Aprofessionalpresentation,absolutely.Andbytheway,Iwouldaddthat,asascreenwriterin Indianaorwhereveryoulive,ifitsoutsideofLosAngeles,andevenifyouliveinLosAngeles,bepartof screenwritinggroups.Bepartofphysicalscreenwritinggroups,butbepartofscreenwritinggroups online.Iwouldsaythat,frommyexperience,writershelpwriters.Writers,generally,helpotherwriters. Inadditiontothat,Iwouldsaythatyoushouldparticipateinthingslikethis,andofcourse,more importantly,ifyoucanparticipateonanyonesfilm.IfIlivedinIndiana,IdlookuptheFilmCommission inIndiana,andIdvolunteer,ifnecessary,tospendsometime,becausetherearepeoplewhoare contactingtheFilmCommissionfromLosAngeles.Itsjustaway,youknow,inessence,toplantseed andnurturethemforthefuture. CHRISTOPHER:Yeah,Idsay,whereveryourefrom,andIdealwithpeoplefromallovertheworld,its reallyagoodtechniquetobeoutstandinginyourownbackyard,inyourownterritory,becausethatwill allowyoutostandoutalittlebitonthelargerscale.Soyouwantto,asyousaid,absolutelyright,if theresanythinggoingonaroundyou,evencommunitytheaterisaveryimportantpartofgetting yourselfintothiswholeworld.Whateveryoulearntherewillnotbewasted.Itmightonlybeseenby

fiftypeoplebutthatsactuallyhuge.Thatisabigdeal.Thatwillalleventuallypourintoyourbagof tricks. MARVIN:Absolutely.AndIvegotafewmorequestionsthatIwanttodiveinyourend.Iknowwegota littlelateofastart,butthen,wellwrapup.Letmegiveafewmorequestionshere.WevegotJohn fromLosAngeles.Johnsquestionis:DoyoueverlookatTheHerosJourneystructuretocreatewhatis supposedtocomenextinthestory?Ordoyoutendtouseitmoreasaneditingandstrengtheningtool? CHRISTOPHER:Iwouldsaymorethelatter,moreasatroubleshootingdevice.Ikindofhaveinternalized itnow,sothatIdonthavetothinkaboutitverymuch.Alotofmymaterialcomesfromhistoryorfrom thingsthatalreadyexist,somehowexistinglifestories,forexample.AndIjusthaveagoodsensenow of,oh,thatsastory;oh,yeah,thatfeelslikeastory.Idonthavetoanalyze,doesithaveStep9ofThe HerosJourney?Butitsmoreabout,onceIcreatedituptosomelevel,thenapplyingthosetoolsand think,doesithaveeverythinginit?Orsomethingsnotworking.Thisisnotquiteright.Whatisit?And then,Igobacktotheguidelinesandtrytofindtheanswerthere. MARVIN:ThisisaquestionfromKatherineinLondon.Whatisthefirstandmostimportantelementyou considerwhenyoureadascript? CHRISTOPHER:Ah,veryinteresting.Okay,well,Imjustlookingforthestory.Iwantsomethingto compelmeandtomakemeturnthepagessothatIhavesomestakeinit.Iwanttoknowwhatsgoing on.AndIrelyverymuchoninstinctualthing.Thereisntawholelotofmentalcalculation.Iturnthelast pageandhowImfeelingatthatmoment,ifIwanttothrowthescriptagaintothewall,thatsano.Orif Imgoing,hmm,thatwasreallyinteresting,thenImgoingtowriteagoodreportonthat.Soitslargely amatterofthatinstinctivestuff.Youjustwantagreatstory;thatsreallythebestanswertoallofthis. Itsastorythatjustcriesouttobetoldandiscompelling. MARVIN:AndthisisKristineAnnfromGermany.Shesays,DearMarvinandChristopher.First,Ihaveto thankyoufortheopportunitytoask.HowcanIshowthecharactersneedofcrossingthethreshold mostimpressive? CHRISTOPHER:Okay,IthinkthatyouaredealingherewithtouseaGermanterm,(Gestalt?),whichis thewholepicturetheforegroundandthebackground.Andinthebeginningofthepicture,youwant toshowtherelationshipofthecharactertothebackground.Aretheycomfortablewithit?Arethey uncomfortableinit?Dotheyfitin?Oraretheykindofsquirmingarounduncomfortably?Ithinkthe moretheyresquirming,thebetteritis.Themoreuncomfortabletheyare,thebetteryoullbeatthat thresholdcrossingpoint,whereyoufeelthepressureisbuildingup.Thepersonhasgotthislittleneedle stickinginthemhere.Thatthingisannoyingthemhere.Thisismakingthemhumiliatedor uncomfortableoverhere.Thatwillbuildandbuildandbuildinthefirst25pagesorso,untiltheyjustgot todosomething.Itsgottohappen.Ithinkthatshowyouturnthescrewstighterandtighteron somebody.Havethemfromthreeorfourdirections. MARVIN:AlmostlikeAnthonyRobinssays,youknow,desperationcausesinspiration.

CHRISTOPHER:Yes,thatsright.Thosethingsthatseemtocreateanxietyactuallyareleadingyouto yourbreakthrough. MARVIN:ChrisfromDetroit:Shouldtheaudienceempathizewiththebadguyinanyway?Orshouldwe savetheempathyforthehero? CHRISTOPHER:Ithinkyouwanttheempathy.Ithink,youknowifyoudontprovideit,theaudience doesit,anyway.Theyarelookingforalittlehumantouch,somewhere,theylleveninventone.Ifyou dontgiveittothem,theyllkindofcreateabackstoryforeverycharacter.Butespeciallyforthe villains,becausewerehabituatedtoexpectthat,youknow,justfromlife,youknowthattheresalways aninterestingstory.Whenonegoescrazyonarampage,theresareasonforit.Somekindoftrigger backintheirhistory,andweoftenwillfeelsorryforthemorhaveempathyforthem.Thatjust immenselyincreasesthedimensionofthatcharacter;itmakesthempopintothreedimensions,asIsaid before. MARVIN:Andifalso,inmyopinion,attractsreallyqualitypieceoftalent.Imean,ifitsa(delicious?)bad guy,comeon,absolutely. Thisisourfinalquestion.AndlikeIsaidtoeveryone,whateverquestionswedonotgettheopportunity toaddress,wewillbesuretogetaddressedforyou.ThisisMarybethfromSedona,Arizona:Theresa certainlevelofviolenceintheDisneymoviesthatIfindunsettling.WhileIrealizethatthejourneyoflife isnotimmunefromviolence,Itendtowritescriptsthatdonotcontainviolence.Myquestionis:Cana formulaforthemythicjourneyberenderedwithoutsuchviolence? CHRISTOPHER:Well,thatsamatterofdegree.Youknow,Icanrelatetothisquestion,becauseIfound inthebeginning,itwasverydifficultformetowriteconflict,becauseIdontlikeconflict.Iavoiditas muchasIcaninmylife,andItrytominimizeconflict.Soyoumightquestionyourchoiceofcareerifyou donthavethatnaturalimpulsenotforviolencebutcertainly,forintensestrugglesandconflict. ButIthink,definitely,youcanwriteastorythatisfreeofthekindofgratuitousviolencethatIthinkthe questionistalkingabouthere.Ifeelit,too.IjustsawTheWatchman.IwanteddesperatelytoseeThe Watchman,butIwassopushedawaybythewaytheyhandledtheviolence.Ialsoknowwhatsbeing referredtowiththeDisneymovies,thatevenbackinWaltsday,peoplequestionedhimaboutthat,and inthispartoflife.Butyouknow,Iwouldjustencouragethiscallertopursuethepaththeyreandlets proveittotheworldthatyoucanmakeagangbusterstorythatdoesntdependonthosethings. MARVIN:Perfect.Well,Chris,Iwanttosay,onceagain,inbehalfofbothmyself,theBusinessofShow Institute,andofcourse,moreimportantly,allofthewriterslisteninginandwhowillbelisteningtoyou later,thankyouforbeingamazingwithaddressingeverybodysquestionshere.Wesoappreciateyou makingtimethismorningonaFriday.Ialsoknowthatyouhaveaverybusyschedule.Sothankyoufor makingthetime.Itsextremelyappreciated.

Everyonestayingon,Ihaveafewmorethingsforyou.ButChris,youknow,Icanassureyoutheres applausegoingon.Wecannothearitourselves,butthankyousoverymuch.HaveabeautifulFriday. Haveagreatweekend,andIwilltouchbasewithyoushortly. CHRISTOPHER:Thankyouandgoodlucktoallofyouinyourcareers.Ihopeyougetsatisfactionfrom yourwriting. MARVIN:Everyone,firstofall,letmesaythatagain.Ifwedidnotaddressyourquestion,youcanbe absolutelyassured;ChrisandIspokeearlieronthecallthatwewouldfindawaytoanswerthoseand getthoseanswerstoyoudirectly.Sodontbeconcernedwithregardstothat;Iwillabsolutelymakethat happenforyou,andChrishasbeengenerousenoughtoagreetoanswerthem,aswell.Thatsnumber one. Numbertwo,IwanttosaythatChrisactuallycanbevisitedathiswebsite,whichwewillmakesurethat itsincludedinyourbroadcastemail,sothateachandeveryoneofyouwillhavethat,sothatyoucan beawareofwhereChriswillbespeakingnext,orhowhisservicescanbeavailabletoyou. Lastbutnottheleast,Iwanttomentiontoyouthatifyouveenjoyedthis,ifthisissomethingyouhave foundtobeveryhelpfulasausefultoolinyourprofession,inyourcareersasyouaspiretobecome professionals,Iwanttoofferyouallanopportunitytocontinuebeingmembers. AttheBusinessofShowInstitute,weobviouslyarestrivingtobringguestslikeChrisandother executivesmanagers,producers,agentstogiveaninterview,notonlytheinsights,butalsothe opportunitytoaskyourquestionsandhavethemanswered. So,heresthedeal:Thedealis,ifyoulikewhatyouheardtodayandyouwanttobeanongoingmember tothismembershipseries,goaheadandtypeinthebusinessofshowinstitute.com/subscription.What welldois,ifyoucontinuetobeasubscriber,itwillbe$20,insteadofthetraditional$27.Ofcourse,you canjustchoosetosignupnextmonthifyoudesire,oryoucan,ofcourse,signupasasubscriberandit willbe$20amonth,whichisareductionthere.Inmyopinion,lessthanmovietickets,lessthantaking anyofthesefolksouttolunch. Andlastbutnotthelast,ImgoingtobeattheNALIP10thAnniversaryovertheweekend,whichisthe NationalAssociationforLatinoIndependentProducers.Itsagreatorganization,Idlookintothat.Last butnottheleast,Iwillbetherethisweekend.Ifyourethere,feelfree;Idlovetomeetyouinperson. Andlastbutnottheleast,justhaveanincredible,amazing,spectacularweekend.Iapologizeinadvance forthetechnicalproblems.Again,wewillgetthereplayouttoyounolaterthanMonday.Wewillhave Chriswebsiteforyoupostedaswell,soyoucanhaveaccesstothat. Keepinmind,thebusinessofshowinstitute.com/subscription,ifyouwanttobeanongoingmember. Otherthanthat,ladiesandgentlemen,thankyouforyourtime.Congratulationsforinvestinginthe time,andmayallofyourlivesbeextraordinary. ThisisMarvinAcunafromTheBusinessofShowInstitute.Bewell.