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CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The writer discusses the overview of the problem with respect to its

background setting and the events precursory to the inquiry. I.T. Innovation The writer discusses the Technology used in line with his/her proposed system. The medium extended here are the software and hardware facilities used in the aid of computerization. A good example is a Computer, Internet, Barcode Readers, LAN, Programming Languages and others. Rationale It deals with the rational basis of conducting the inquiry, an explanation of reasons why research has to be conducted on the problem. The researcher has to give emphasis on the benefits he/she will gain from developing the proposed system. Objectives of the Study The objective of the study is the declaration statement of the problem with the specific definition of desired outputs of the research process. General Objectives is an expanded reiteration of the thesis title itself. This acceptable statement of the general objectives is such that it is stated in precise terms to be broken down into specific objectives. Specific Objective expresses (concisely and clearly) the what, where, who, why and how of the subject inquiry. It should be realistic, attainable and preferably expressed in the form of the behavioral objectives. Specific Objectives should be presented logically and is expected to serve as the general solution to the general objectives. Hypothesis/Assumption Research hypothesis is a shrewd guess that is provisionally adapted and explained observe facts or condition that guides in further investigation. Scope and Limitation This section defines the scopes and limitations of the study for the purpose of establishing a cohesive and comprehensive framework. The scope is explicit with respect to coverage of the study and period of time involve in the investigation. It defines the area of investigation (whether it is an expert system, information system, networking, system utilities, etc.) and indicates what to be included in the study and what is to be left out. The delimitation narrows down the scope into reasonable extent which considers manageability and permits careful treatment. It also includes an honest admission of any weakness or shortcoming or the study (like lack of representative of sample, cost, time constraint, etc.) Significance of the Study This is a careful formulation of the implication of possible application of knowledge that helps give the proposal an urgency justifying its worthlessness. To achieve this, the writer must: a) Establish a logical need for the study. b) Ensure it does not duplicate a previous study, or it must establish the inadequacy of the previous study and capability of the current study to fill identified gaps in knowledge.

c) Illustrate the importance of the study in terms of content and methodology; and d) Show the expected impact of (on educational, economics, technological, political aspect). CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Chapter 2 presents a survey of related literature on research and writing of recognized experts, both of which have significant bearing on or relation to the problem under investigation. This chapter also includes the theoretical/conceptual framework of the study. Review of related literature and studies is presented in abstract from with short annotation. Related Literature Related literature is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related, For instance, if the present study deals with the development of an expert system for common diseases, literature to be reviewed or surveyed should be composed of materials that deal with expert system as well as common diseases. These materials are usually printed and found in books, encyclopedias, professional journals, magazines, newspapers, and other publications. Related Studies Related studies, on the other hand, are studies, inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity. They are usually unpublished materials such as manuscripts, theses, and dissertations. Theoretical Framework This section defines the independent variable (IV), dependent variable (DV), and intervening variable (ITV) of the study and shows their relationship with each other. This includes the paradigm representing the theoretical framework of the study. Thesis in the field of computer studies, which requires the designing and developing of a system or software, have its theoretical framework. This framework should manifest the bounds and limits of the study as previously defined under scope and delimitation Conceptual Framework This section includes the researchers idea and how he/she conceptualized the study. The flow of the system can be can be represented by the researcher/s in various ways. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This deals with methods of research used, methods used in developing the software/system. Together with the research methods, the data gathering instruments and analytical tools as well as the methods used to evaluate the developed software should be discussed. Research Population This includes the total number of respondents, their socio-demographic profiles such as gender, sex, age, job category, position, salary, status, etc. Methods of Research (THESIA) Page 2 of 8

Research Setting This specifies the venue where the particular research will be conducted, the nature of the place and other relevant information needed by the researcher/s. Research Design This deals with the appropriate research design that the researcher/s can apply such as descriptive statistics ( frequency, mode, mean,etc.), using different statistical tests such as t test, ANOVA, Regression, Correlation, MANCOVA, etc.. Methods of Research Used This should be discussed in the following sequence: what, why and how. The writer should define first the particular method of research and then he/she should state why and how did he/she employ the particular research method. Each specific objective (written on Chapter 1) should be carefully examined to identify the appropriate research method. Descriptive Method. It is defined as a fact-finding method with adequate interpretation. The descriptive method is something more and beyond just data gathering; the latter is not reflective thinking and not research. The true meaning of data collected should be reported from the point of view of the objectives and the basic assumptions of the project underway. Descriptive research may be subdivided into a number of types. They are: Research Survey. The survey is an organized attempt to analyze, interpret, and report the present status of the social institution, group or area. Its purpose is to get groups of classified, generalized, and interpreted data for the guidance or practice in the immediate future. Continuity Description. Valuable as a complete status survey may be at any point of time in development of individual, group situation, or institution, it is obvious that this check represent of cross-section reports of the factors operating in the natural or the human activity realms. Case Study Research. It is a complete analysis and report of the status of an individual subject with respect, as a rule, to specific phases of his/her total personality. Job and Activity Analysis. Analytical knowledge of the details of human activity for the purpose of improvement is the basic reason for the movement that came to be called job analysis in industry, and business and activity analysis when the curriculum of educational institution were under considerations. Library and Documentary Research. Historical Method. The historical method interprets past trends of attitude, event, and fact. From one point of view, history deals with unique phenomena, collected and reported without ordered reflective thought. Experimental Method. Experimentation is the name given of the type of educational research in which the educator controls the educative factors to which child or group of children are subjected during the period of inquiry and observes the resulting achievement. Prognostic Type of Research Methods of Research (THESIA) Page 3 of 8

Prognostic Research refers to any scientific investigation in which the main stated purpose is to predict the future operation of factors investigated, so that inevitable things that must be done maybe controlled more intelligently on the basis of knowledge about the analyzed trend of the occurrence over definitely selected period of time. Sociological Types of Research Sociological research includes a study of all human group relationships. The institutions of society are investigated with the purpose of furnishing recommendations for their improvement. Creative Type of Research Creative research is reflective thinking in a situation of aesthetic values. It employs basically the implicit and stylistic approach in an analysis of human experience. It evaluates the aesthetic product in terms of personally held standards of value. Data Gathering Instrument It should specify how observation, questionnaire, evaluation and interview, etc. may be applied in the collection of pertinent data. Observation. There are instances when the research has to employ observation as a technique of gathering data. Usually, such instances come when certain data cannot be secured adequately or validly through the use of questionnaire or some other techniques except through observation. Hence, it is important that the investigator should be conversant and even proficient with the way observation technique should be handled.( See Appendix B) Questionnaire. The questionnaire has been defined by Good as a list of planned, written questions related to a particular topic, with space provided for indicating the response to each question, intended for submission to a number of respondents for reply.(See Appendix C) Interview. The interview is a data-gathering device which, from one point of view may be considered an oral type of questionnaire in which the research worker gets the needed information from the subject or interviewee verbally and directly in face-to-face contact. One marked advantage of the interview over the questionnaire is that if the interviewer is skillful enough and is able to establish rapport with the interviewee, he is likely to draw from the later certain types of confidential information which might not be possible through the use, for instance, of the questionnaire. (See Appendix D) Evaluation Form. The researcher should develop an evaluation form that will be used for the assessment of the performance of the proposed and existing system. Criteria that will be used as a basis of the evaluation should be properly defined so as not to bring confusion to the evaluators. The research writer should be careful in defining each criteria, the definition should not be bias to either the proposed or the existing system. (See Appendix E) Analytical Tools The researcher should list down all the analytical and design tools he/she used in the analysis and design of the proposed system. The researcher should observe the proper order of listing down the tools he/she utilized. Tools used in the analysis of the existing system should be presented first only after then that the tools used in the design of the proposed system. The most common tools used in the analysis and design of any systems is the following: Data Flow Diagram (DFD).Definition and Application

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Visual Table of Contents (VTOC). Definition and Application Input-Process-Output (IPO). Definition and Application Program Flowchart. Definition and Application Methods Used in Developing the System / Software Product This deals with description of the techniques used in developing the software product. The research writer could choose any appropriate method in the development of the proposed system/software as long as he/she could justify the method used. The graphical representation of the chosen method should be illustrated. Methods Used for Product Evaluation The researcher should discuss how the product should be evaluated in terms of its performance and/or feasibility of being implemented. As a standard operating procedure, all proposed systems should undergo three feasibility studies and these are as follows: Technical Feasibility. This refers to the availability of the resources which are needed in the development of the proposed software. The resources being referred to are the software and hardware that will be used by the developers in the coding phase of the proposed software. Operational Feasibility. Operational feasibility of proposed software could be established and proved with the help and use of evaluation form. The data gathered from the evaluation should undergo statistical treatment. T-test is usually used as a statistical tool. Under this section the criteria to be used in the evaluation as well as the formula to be used in the t-test should be presented. Economic Feasibility. Since there is no Market Analysis/Cost Benefit Analysis, economic feasibility is not possible. The researcher will only present, under this subchapter, the formula he/she will used in presenting the Software Development Cost (SDC).. CHAPTER 4 - PRESENTATION OF DATA, SOFTWARE PRODUCT, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Presentation of Data The writer should present the data in tabulated form based on the data gathered from the observation, interview and questionnaire, and evaluation form. Profile of the Respondents. Discussion Age. Discussion Table Gender. Discussion Table Job Description. Discussion Table Problems Encountered in the Existing System. Discussion Methods of Research (THESIA) Page 5 of 8

Table ______________________. Discussion Table Etc. ( as needed). Discussion The writer should discuss, analyze and interpret the data presented in figures or in tabulated forms. Components Of The Proposed System/Software This section is further subdivided into three sections namely: General Function, System Function and System Input and Output. General Features. The writer should explicitly discuss the features integrated in the proposed system or software. Features that could be incorporated in the proposed system maybe one or more of the following: menu driven security user friendliness back up files System Functions. The writer should enumerate the components of the main menu and give a brief discussion of the function of each menu. In this way the writer would be able to give his/her readers a clear picture of the function of the system she/he had developed. System Inputs and Outputs. The writer may refer the readers to a part of his/her document where the IPO chart could be found. The IPO could explicitly show to the readers all the inputs, including the process that will take place, and the output that the user may expect after some processing. E System/Software Development The write, under this subchapter, should discuss what he/she went through the development of the proposed system, particularly on the following stages: 1. Specification This is concerned with the identification or specification of what the proposed system should carry out or execute. Furthermore, under this section the writer should also enumerate the hardware and software specifications needed in the implementation of the proposed system. In identifying the hardware and software requirements it is the best that the writer will give a list of minimum requirements. Optionally, he/she could also give a list of recommended hardware and software specifications, leaving the prospective users a choice. 2. Design The software design is the process through which the specifications of what the proposed system should carry out are translated into representation of the software. Prior to designing the proposed system the researchers should analyze first the flow of the existing system. 3. Programming Methods of Research (THESIA) Page 6 of 8

This is the actual development of the proposed system. The writers or researchers may discuss here the programming techniques they employed to make the development or the coding of the system quite easy. Furthermore, he/she may also narrate on which part of the coding phase he/she encountered difficulty. 3. Testing This is phase is crucial in order to determine the reliability and accuracy of the proposed system. Prior to implementation of the proposed system several testing may help to foresee problems that may occur in the future. 5. Security, Back-up Provision of security and back-up would be beneficial to both of the developer himself and to the end users. Security will protect the system from unauthorized users while back-up will save the developer from any hassle in case of system crash. Implementation of the Proposed System A discussion of plans for the implementation of the proposed system should be found under this section. Plans may include conducting a users training prior to full implementation, hiring an administrator who will maintain the system, provision of users manual and the likes. Evaluation of the System/Software Product A discussion of the methods to be used for the evaluation of the proposed system was already presented under the last section in Chapter 3. The result of the evaluation is presented under this section. The sequence of the presentation of the result of the evaluation is as follows: 1. Technical Feasibility. Among the three feasibility studies this one is the easiest to establish. The writer may refer his/her readers to the hardware and software requirements he/she presented in one of the sections in this chapter. After this, the writer may then claim that his/her study is technically feasible. 2. Operational Feasibility. This could be best proven by presenting a summary of the statistical treatment applied to the data collected in the software evaluation. The result of the statistical treatment applied to the gathered data could be summarized using the table above. After the presentation of the table the values of t-computed and ttabulate should also be stated. More importantly, the writer should of course state the result of the hypothesis testing. Table 1.0 Summary of the Weighted Mean of the Existing and Proposed System 3. Economic Feasibility. There is no economic feasibility since there is no Market Analysis or Cost Benefit Analysis. Only Software Development Cost (SDC) will be presented.




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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIOION Summary The researcher should state the objectives of the proposed system. Along with this, he/she should also discuss all the methods, instruments and tools he/she utilized in order to attain his/her objectives. The writes should give a brief description of those methods, instruments and tools. Conclusion On this part the writer should refute or substantiate what is written under the hypotheses of his/her study. Thus, this should be consistent with the hypotheses he/she had stated in Chapter 1. Recommendation Recommendation should be made on the light of the findings stated in the previous section. RULES AND REGULATIONS A. Quotations The use of quotations within a research paper is a way of representing the continuity of research within a field and introducing the ideas of others by referring directly to their works. Quotations involving more than a few contiguous paragraphs or stanzas, and the use of anything in its entirety a poem, an essay, a letter, a section of a book, an illustration, or sometimes a table- may exceed the limits of fair use as defined by the Copyright Act. Publishers, libraries, and others who hold the rights to literary works do not interpret fair use uniformly. For example, some publishers and others holding copyright defined fair use in terms of length, although the Copyright Act and the courts have defined more generally, in terms of the proper use to illustrate or support a point, of accurate transcription, and of proper credit given in notes or in parenthetical references. Some publishers require permissions for lengthy quotations used in dissertations and some do not. Short, direct prose quotations should be incorporated into the text of the paper and enclosed in double quotation marks: One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. But in general a prose quotation of two or more sentences that runs to four or more lines should be set off from the text in single-spacing and indented in its entirety four spaces from the left margin, with no quotation marks at the beginning or end. A quotation so treated is called a block quotation. Exceptions to this rule are allowable when, for emphasis or comparison, it is desirable to set off shorter quotations. Paragraph indention in the original text should be indicated by four-space indention within a block quotation, but single space between the paragraphs. When including material from different sources in a single block quotation, however, double space between separate passages.

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