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Recommendation to Comply with the Technical Criteria of the Danish Wind Turbine Certification Scheme

Gearboxes

August 2005

Energistyrelsen

The Danish Energy Authority

Table of contents:

 

Introduction

6

1. Objective

7

1.1

Terms and Definitions

7

1.1.1 Shaft designations

7

1.1.2 Gear designations

8

1.1.3 Bearing designations

9

2. Climate, operational conditions and loads

10

2.1 Environmental conditions climate

10

2.2 Operational conditions

10

2.3 Wind turbine configurations

10

2.4 Loads

11

2.4.1 General

11

2.4.2 Normal operating loads

11

2.4.3 Transient loads

11

2.4.4 Extreme loads

12

2.4.5 Periodic loads

12

2.4.6 Other loads

13

2.4.7 Static loads

13

2.5

Load cases

13

2.5.1 Normal load cases

14

2.5.2 Extraordinary load cases

14

2.6

Symbols for section 2, incl. annex

14

2.7

References for section 2, incl. annex

14

3. Gearbox housing and bearings

15

3.1

Gearbox housing

15

3.1.1 Housing material

15

3.1.2 Housing distortion

15

3.1.3 Inspection covers

15

3.1.4 Housing joints and seals

15

3.1.5 Housing accuracy

15

3.1.6 Cleaning of the housing before assembly

16

3.1.7 Surface coating

16

3.1.8 Lubricating equipment

16

3.2

Bearings

16

3.2.1 Types of bearings

16

3.2.2 Cages

17

3.2.3 Internal clearance

17

3.2.4 Mounting and installation

18

3.2.5 Bearing fit and surface properties

18

3.2.6 External and internal loads

19

3.2.7 Calculation of rating life

19

3.3

Symbols for section 3. incl. Annex B

24

3.4

References for section 3. incl. Annex B

25

4. Gear sets and shafts

26

4.1

Calculation of surface durability (pitting)

26

4.1.1 Size Factor Z X

26

4.1.2 Life Factor Z NT

27

4.1.3 Face load distribution factor K Hβ

27

4.1.4 Load Distribution Factors K Hα and K Hβ in combination

28

4.1.5 Load Sharing Factor K γ

28

4.2

Calculation of tooth bending strength

29

4.2.1 Life Factor Y NT

29

4.2.2 Load Distribution Factors K Fα and K Fβ

29

4.2.3

Load Sharing Factor K γ

29

4.2.4

Design Factor Y D for Reverse Bending

29

4.3 Calculation of scuffing load capacity

29

4.4 Micro pitting

29

4.5 Strength and quality for gears

30

4.6 Calculation of shafts

30

4.6.1

Splines and tooth couplings

30

4.6.2 Shaft-Hub-Connections

30

4.6.3 Keys and keyways

30

4.6.4 Interference fit

30

4.6.5 Reverse loading

30

4.7

Reference to section 4, including annexes F, H, I, J and K

30

5.

Lubrication

32

5.1

Lubrication regimes

32

5.1.1 Full hydrodynamic conditions

32

5.1.2 Mixed film conditions

32

5.1.3 Boundary film conditions

32

5.2

Lubricating systems general

32

5.2.1 Splash lubrication

33

5.2.2 Forced lubrication systems

34

5.2.3 Combined lubrication systems

34

5.3

Cleanliness

34

5.3.1 Rinsing of lubrication system

34

5.3.2 Recommended cleanliness of lubricant

35

5.4

Components

35

5.4.1 Pumps

35

5.4.2 Filters

35

5.4.3 Cooler systems

36

5.4.4 Oil heaters

36

5.4.5 Tubes, hoses and fittings

36

5.4.6 Lubricant reservoir

36

5.5 Additive systems

37

5.6 Lubrication analyses general

37

5.6.1 Sampling techniques

37

5.6.2 Sampling from the gearbox

37

5.6.3 Sampling from oil drums

38

5.6.4 On site testing

38

5.6.5 Appearance test

38

5.6.6 Odour test

38

5.6.7 Laboratory analysis

38

5.6.8 Recommended analysis limits

38

5.6.9 Recommended properties of new oil

38

5.6.10 Recommended analysis limits during operation

39

5.7

Symbols for section 5. incl. annex C

40

5.8

References for section 5, including annex C

40

6.

Operation, monitoring and maintenance

42

6.1

Start-up procedure

42

6.1.1

Run in procedure

42

6.2 Monitoring

42

6.3 Maintenance procedures

42

6.3.1 Manuals

43

6.3.2 Lubrication

43

6.3.3 Inspection

43

6.3.4 Documentation

43

6.4

Reference to section 6, including annex L

43

7.

Test and commissioning

44

7.1

Testing of prototype

44

 

7.1.1 Specification of prototype tests

44

7.1.2 Rinsing

44

7.1.3 Additional surface conditioning

45

7.1.4 Functional tests in the factory

45

7.1.5 Dismantling and examination of gear unit

46

7.1.6 Functional tests after installation

46

7.2 Acceptance tests of the mass-produced units

47

7.3 Documentation of tests

47

7.4 Symbols for section 7 including annex

47

7.5 References to section 7, including annex D

48

Annex A to Section 2 of "Gearboxes" Determination of gear loads (informative)

49

A 1.Wind regimes

49

A 2.Fatigue load sources

49

 

A 2.1 Fatigue load generated by rotation and torque

50

A 2.2 Fatigue load generated by torque variations

50

A 2.3 Fatigue load generated by bending moment and rotation

51

A 2.4

Fatigue load generated by bending moment variations

51

A 2.5 Combined fatigue load

51

A 2.6 Load spectra arrangements

51

A 3. Load cases

 

52

Annex B to Section 3 of "Gearboxes" Calculation of rolling bearings (informative)

61

B

1. Selection of contamination factor e C

61

B

2. Determination of life factor a DIN

64

B2.1 Life factor for radial roller bearings:

65

B2.2 Life factor for radial ball bearings:

65

B2.3 Life factor for axial roller bearings:

65

B2.4 Life factor for axial ball bearings:

65

Annex C to Section 4 of "Gearboxes" Lubrication (informative)

66

C

1.

Laboratory analysis

66

C

1.1 Viscosity

66

C

1.2

Total acid number

66

C

1.3

Water content

66

C

1.4

Spectrochemical analysis

67

C

1.5

Automatic particle counting

69

C

1.6

ISO solid contamination code

69

C

1.7

Ferro graphic analysis

70

C

1.8

Characteristics of particles

71

C

1.9

Wear particle analyser

72

Annex D. to Section 7 of "Gearboxes" Run-in methodology (informative)

73

D

1. Run-in methodology

73

D

2.

Run-in conditions

75

D

3. Calculation of min. oil film thickness

76

D

4. Calculation of max. contact pressure and deformation (simplified solution)

78

Elliptical contacts:

78

Annex F. to Section 4 of "Gearboxes" Gear calculation methodology (informative)

79

F

1. Stress-cycle spectra

79

F

2. Fatigue curves

80

Fatigue curve in general

80

Fatigue curve of flank

81

Fatigue curve of tooth root

81

F

3. Safety S calculated by using Miner's rule directly

82

F

4. Safety S calculated by using the K A factor

83

Equivalent stress

83

Annex H to Section 4 of "Gearboxes" Assessment of risk of micropitting (informative)

88

H

1. Considerations among micropitting

88

H

2. Appearance

88

H

3. Incubation, Initiation life

88

H

4. Significance

89

H

5. Assessment of influence factors

89

H

5.1 Surface topography

89

H

5.2 Initial roughness

89

H

5.3 Persistent roughness

90

H

5.4 Measurement of surface topography

90

H

5.5 Gear tooth finishing

90

H

5.6 Gear tooth geometry

90

H

5.7 Speed, sliding

91

H

5.8 Load

91

H

5.9 Run-in

91

Annex L to Section 6 of "Gearboxes" Inspection of gearbox (informative)

92

L

1. Identification

92

L

2. Gear meshes

92

L

3. Bearings, lubricant and overall impression

92

L

4. Additional initiatives

92

Annex I.

Standard deviation for end gap calculation

Annex J.

Face load distribution of shaft supported gears

Annex K.

Face load distribution of spherical supported planet gears

Introduction

This recommendation forms the technical criteria of the Danish Wind Turbine Certification Scheme and in terms of gearboxes and is to be used for evaluation purposes in that context only.

The recommendation has been prepared in the period from May 2000 to December 2004 by a technical committee, set up by the Advisory Board for the Danish Wind Turbine Certification Scheme under the auspices of the Danish Energy Authority.

The recommendation is based on existing codes and standards for gearboxes supplemented by best engineering practice and state of the art knowledge from experts who have been consulted in the process.

It should be kept in mind that the rules and recommendations reflect present knowledge and as such cannot cover all conceivable configurations of gearboxes to wind turbines.

Compliance with this recommendation does not exempt the manufacturer from product liability. The Danish Energy Authority (DEA) and the authors of the recommendation cannot in any way be held responsible for possible gearbox failures that might be connected with the content or the application of the present document.

Members of the Committee:

Christer Eriksson Knud Erik Petersen Klaus Ørsted Petersen Martin W. Jensen Jens Demtröder Strange Skriver Flemming Vagn Jensen Klaus Udesen Nils E. Werner Jens E. Fisker Egon T. D. Bjerregaard Jesper H. Schaarup Poul Højholdt

Det Norske Veritas, Danmark A/S Vestas Wind Systems A/S Siemens Wind Energy A/S (formerly Bonus) -do- Vestas Wind Systems A/S (formerly NEG Micon) Danish Wind Turbine Owners Association Energi E2 (formerly SEAS) Elsam A/S (formerly Tech-wise) Codan JFM Consult Risø, DEA Secretariat -do- Risø (Editor)

Preliminary drafts of the recommendation have been submitted for review by an international hearing panel.

From January 2005 the Danish Standard Association Committee S588-A04 is responsible for update and maintenance of the recommendation, until it can be withdrawn and replaced by the new standard IEC 61400-4 prepared by an international IEC-ISO joint working group.

Acknowledgement

The members of the Committee are acknowledged for the big effort they have put into the creation of the recommendation during laborious meetings, and the individuals in the hearing panel who have reviewed the draft versions are acknowledged for their written comments.

Special thanks to Jens E. Fisker, who is the author of Annex F, I, J and K to section 4.

The AGMA Wind Turbine Committee has kindly permitted that extracts from its draft material be used in the recommendation.

1.

Objective

The objective of this recommendation is to provide data and information that can be used in connection with the approval of gearboxes for wind turbines under the Danish Certification Scheme.

The recommendation covers design loads, construction and manufacturing of housing, bearings and gear wheels, lubrication, maintenance and monitoring, testing and commissioning in order to form the technical criteria of gearboxes for the Danish Certification Scheme for Wind Turbines. Operation, service and maintenance of the gearbox are dealt with to the extent that such recommendations are important for the lifetime and safety of the wind turbine.

The present section 1 is an introduction to the recommendation as a whole, and contains an overview of definitions and terms used throughout the recommendation.

1.1

Terms and Definitions

1.1.1

Shaft designations The sketches below show the designation of the shafts in a 3 stage parallel-shaft gearbox and a 3-stage planet/helical gearbox.

gearbox and a 3-stage planet/helical gearbox. High-speed shaft High-speed intermediate shaft Low-speed

High-speed shaft

High-speed intermediate shaft

Low-speed intermediate shaft

Low-speed shaft

shaft Low-speed intermediate shaft Low-speed shaft High-speed shaft High-speed intermediate shaft Planet shaft

High-speed shaft

High-speed intermediate shaft

Planet shaft

Low-speed shaft

Low-speed intermediate shaft

1.1.2

Gear designations The sketches below show the designation of the gears in a 3 stage parallel-shaft gearbox and a 3-stage planet/helical gearbox.

High-speed pinion

High-speed intermediate wheel

gearbox. High-speed pinion High-speed intermediate wheel High-speed intermediate pinion Low-speed intermediate

High-speed intermediate pinion

Low-speed intermediate pinion

Low-speed wheel

Low-speed intermediate wheel

High-speed pinion

Ring gear

Sun wheel

intermediate wheel High-speed pinion Ring gear Sun wheel High-speed intermediate wheel High-speed intermediate
intermediate wheel High-speed pinion Ring gear Sun wheel High-speed intermediate wheel High-speed intermediate

High-speed intermediate wheel

pinion Ring gear Sun wheel High-speed intermediate wheel High-speed intermediate pinion Low-speed intermediate

High-speed intermediate pinion

Low-speed intermediate wheel

Planet wheel

1.1.3

Bearing designations The sketches below show the designation of the bearings in a 3 stage parallel-shaft gearbox and a 3-stage planet/helical gearbox. Designations R: rotor side, NR: non-rotor side.

High speed bearing, NR High speed bearing, N

High speed intermediate bearing, NR bearing, NR

Low speed intermediate bearing, NR

Low speed bearing, NR

Low speed intermediate bearing, NR Low speed bearing, N R High speed bearing, R High speed
Low speed intermediate bearing, NR Low speed bearing, N R High speed bearing, R High speed

High speed bearing,

R

bearing, NR Low speed bearing, N R High speed bearing, R High speed intermediate bearing, R
bearing, NR Low speed bearing, N R High speed bearing, R High speed intermediate bearing, R

High speed intermediate bearing, R

Low speed intermediate bearing, R

Low speed bearing,

R

R Low speed intermediate bearing, R Low speed bearing, R High speed bearing, R High speed

High speed bearing, R

High speed bearing, NR High speed intermediate bearing, R High speed intermediate bearing, NR Low
High speed bearing,
NR
High speed intermediate
bearing, R
High speed intermediate
bearing, NR
Low speed intermediate
bearing, NR
Low speed intermediate
bearing, R
Planet carrier bearing, R
Planet
Planet carrier bearing,
NR

bearings

2.

Climate, operational conditions and loads

2.1 Environmental conditions climate The expected operating environmental conditions shall be specified. As a minimum the gearbox purchaser should define the following items:

- the normal ambient temperature range

- the extreme ambient temperatures

- expected normal and extreme temperature range in the nacelle

- size and flow rate of cooling air intakes

The gearbox has to be protected against influences from the environment. Such influences could be intrusion of abrasives from the air (like dust and sand) or chemical substances (like saline, pollution etc.) Surface protection, shaft seals and air breathers must be appropriately designed for these circumstances.

For off shore applications special considerations are required [2.11].

2.2 Operational conditions The whole temperature range shall be considered. The electrical power grid conditions such as tolerances on frequency and voltage, voltage asymmetries and grid outages and the number of occurrences may have a significant influence on the gearbox loads. For remote areas with weak electrical grids and unstable supply, the turbine may experience the shut down and cut in sequence several times a day. These conditions have to be carefully investigated.

2.3 Wind turbine configurations The dynamic loads are greatly influenced by the wind turbine configuration, and the control strategy. It is the responsibility of the gearbox purchaser to consider each specific control and safety function and possible operational states. Some of the configuration features that influence the loads may be:

- number of blades

- rigid or flexible hub

- upwind or down wind rotor

- method of power regulation

- configuration of drive-train, including moment of inertia in drive-train components

- method of yaw control

- configuration and operation of aerodynamic and/or mechanical brake

- gravity loads of rotating and stationary components

- controller response when the turbine exceeds the operational limits e.g. choosing stand still or idle

- safety system response to fault conditions

- configuration of the gearbox supporting

- gearbox inclination

- generator slip/variable speed

- coupling properties

- overload devices e.g. safety friction clutch

- configuration of components integrated in the gearbox e.g. generator, main bearings, yaw bearings, pitch control mechanisms etc.

2.4

Loads

2.4.1 General The description is based on the traditional wind turbine concept and in case of different wind turbine nacelle and drive-train designs, more detailed methods could be necessary. The wind turbine manufacturer shall supply the gear supplier with sufficient and intelligible information about loads and operational conditions that the gearbox will be exposed to. It is the wind turbine designer's responsibility to consider the influence on gearbox load of all operational and environmental conditions, bearing in mind that the circumstances are unique for each wind turbine configuration.

As gearbox loads varies with time, the load histories shall be presented in terms of either load duration distribution (LDD) spectres or as load cycle (RFC) spectres depending on type of loads and type of component investigated. The spectres can be supplemented by time series.

The LDD-spectre shows load levels and the corresponding duration of each load level. The duration may be applied in terms of hours or in number of revolutions. For variable speed configurations the rotational speed at each load level shall be evaluated with respect to its importance for the actual calculation.

The RFC-spectre is determined by the rain flow counting method, which supplies a number of load ranges with the corresponding number of occurrences (cycles).

More detailed principles of establishing gearbox design loads are provided in annex A.

2.4.2 Normal operating loads Normal operational loads are defined as the loads, which occur in normal operation at wind speeds between V cut in and V shut down including normal yaw error. At the same time normal climate and normal operational condition such as cut-in, generator change over, shut down etc. are considered. Errors are not considered as a normal operational condition. (Fig. A 5)

The normal operating loads shall be evaluated for the entire design life for a specified climatic regime. Experimental measurements may be used or scaled under certain conditions, e.g. from a turbine of similar configuration, operational conditions and size. Extreme caution should be taken during such a process. See also section 2.6. When the load spectrum is established for the normal operating conditions, the loads experienced during all other conditions must be added.

2.4.3 Transient loads Transient loads are defined as short but high load events such as cut in, change-over between small and large generator, braking, grid fall out etc. (fig. A 6)

Although they comprise only a small fraction of the operating time they can significantly affect the lifetime of the gearbox. A failure mode like scuffing or micro-pitting are most sensible to such short but high loads.

Caution should be taken in using data from other wind turbines to represent transient events because small changes in the wind turbine configuration, components or control strategy can cause significant differences in dynamic response of the drive train.

A dynamic simulation model of the drive train, which accounts for the rotating inertia and

material stiffness of each component may be a rather overwhelming task with a possibly questionable result, which under all circumstances has to be verified through measurements. For that reason experiences from similar wind turbines combined with measurements are often the most practicable approach.

In gearboxes with mechanical brakes on the high speed shaft, the gear components may be

subjected to very high transient loads during the brake sequence that significantly exceed

the normal design operational loads.

It should be born in mind that the magnitude of these transient brake loads are

significantly affected by the adjustment and the maintenance of the braking system.

For each single transient event type, the wind turbine designer should estimate a number of probable occurrences over the design life of the wind turbine. The transient loads shall be evaluated with respect to ultimate load criteria’s but will also contribute to the fatigue load spectrum.

The wind turbine manufacturer should provide time histories for each type of transient load events to the gearbox manufacturer.

2.4.4 Extreme loads Extreme loads are defined as very seldom occurring loads, which is hard to investigate both experimental and analytic due to their infrequency.

Such loads can occur e.g. at normal external condition combined with a fault, or normal operating conditions combined with extreme external conditions. Thus, all possible combinations must be considered and for the extreme load analysis, the statistical aspects should be taken into account.

Extreme loads should be given in terms of a number of matrices (one for each load component e.g. M x , M y , F x , F y etc.) showing e.g. the 5 highest load values in rank. For each

of these ranked load values the corresponding values of the other load components are

given. On basis of these matrices the governing design combinations should be evaluated.

The wind turbine is designed to withstand a single extreme wind speed load event using the ultimate strength criteria, and is based on the maximum wind speed occurrence. The max. wind speed with 50 years reoccurrence is normally used.

The maximum one-time load event for a gearbox is more likely to be the consequence of rare events during operation, utility grid failure or brake failure. The wind turbine designer shall assess the magnitude and probability of these maximum load events and specify them to the gearbox manufacturer.

2.4.5 Periodic loads Periodic loads are defined as deterministic loads, which are correlated to rotor azimuth position i.e. the peak load of each rotational cycle of the rotor shaft occurs at near same angular position, (fig. A 7). The analyses described above assume that each tooth of a gear experiences the same load history. This is however not the case for the low speed gear stage, where the gear and the rotor position do not change over time. The teeth numbers should preferable be selected so the same pinion and gear teeth are not always engaged at the maximum load, i.e. the largest common denominator for the teeth numbers must be one (hunting tooth combination). However this target may be subordinated other criteria (e.g. gear ratio).

Sources for periodical loads may be aerodynamic or mass unbalance of the rotor system, mass unbalance in high-speed coupling, run out or geometrical imperfection of rotational components in the gearbox components. Periodic loads shall be included in all load cases, where the wind turbine is in operation.

2.4.6

Other loads For integrated gearbox systems it is necessary to specify the load spectrum at all the critical housing interfaces. An integrated gearbox housing supports the rotor bearings, and

it commonly contains interfaces for the generator, pitch mechanism and yaw

system. All

these subsystems transmit loads through the housing. Hence a more thorough analysis is

required.

In large scale wind turbine design the internal components in the gearbox have a considerable weight and it should be considered if accelerations during operation may cause internal inertia loads of any significance on the components. In the same context the consequences of internal deformations and tolerances in the gearbox components shall be considered. Especially the consequences of the relative large clearance in the largest bearings shall be evaluated.

Loads during transportation and erection as well as loads during tests and maintenance shall be considered.

2.4.7

Static loads Static loads are defined as loads occurring at stand-still or idling with very low rotational speed. Typical loads, which should be evaluated as static loads:

- All transient loads occurring during operation but near zero rotational speed

- Transient loads occurring at wind speeds higher than V shut down especially extreme wind speed (50 years recurrence)

- Static loads also occurs e.g. during transportation, erection, and storage.

Special attention should be paid to phenomena such as fretting corrosion and plastic deformation in bearing raceways.

Static loads should be evaluated with respect to the ultimate limit states as well as harmful plastic deformation causing reduced service life.

2.5

Load cases In practice it is not possible to calculate the load response of the construction over the entire design life, time step by time step. Consequently one needs to choose a number of load cases, which are assumed to result in the same safety as the actual load history.

Load cases may be categorised according to DS 472 into two namely:

- Normal load cases

- Extraordinary load cases

The extent of load cases shall always reflect the actual design and the actual environmental conditions and operational conditions. Typical load cases are shown in annex A, table A 1 –

A2.

2.5.1

Normal load cases Normal load cases are defined as loads occurring at normal environmental conditions and normal operational conditions.

2.5.2 Extraordinary load cases Extraordinary load cases defined as loads occurring at normal environmental conditions and extraordinary operational conditions or at extraordinary environmental conditions and normal operational conditions.

Further more should extraordinary operational conditions be combined with extraordinary environmental conditions if the extraordinary operational condition is a consequence of the extraordinary environmental condition.

2.6 Symbols for section 2, incl. annex A.

MR x, i

M y

MR z, i FR x, i FR y, i FR z, i

S

S

V cut in

ext

V

F

H

V hub V shut down

Resulting moment in x-direction at gearbox interface i.

[kNm]

Driving torque at low speed shaft

[kNm]

Resulting moment in y-direction at gearbox interface i.

[kNm]

Resulting force in x-direction at gearbox interface i.

[kN]

Resulting force in y-direction at gearbox interface i.

[kN]

Resulting force in z-direction at gearbox interface i.

[kN]

Safety against tooth rupture

[-]

Safety against pitting

[-]

Wind speed at which the turbine starts to produce power

[m/sec.]

Extreme wind speed in hub height with a recurrence interval of 50 years

[m/sec.]

Wind speed in hub height

[m/sec.]

Wind speed at which the turbine stops to produce power

[m/sec.]

2.7 References for section 2, incl. annex A.

[2.1]

[2.2]

[2.3]

[2.4]

[2.5]

[2.6]

[2.7]

[2.8]

[2.9]

[2.10]

[2.11]

[2.12]

N.G. Mortensen, Lars Landberg, Ib Troen and Erik Lundtang Petersen: Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WA S P) Ib Troen and Erik Lundtang Petersen: European Wind Atlas Jørgen Thirstrup Petersen: Kinematically Non-linear Finite Element Model of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine part 1. and 2. (HAWC) S. Øye: FLEX 4- Simulation of wind Turbine Dynamics. In proc. of the 28 th IEA Expert Meeting ”State of the art of aeroelastic codes” IEC 61400-1, Wind turbine generator systems - part 1: Safety requirements Jens Fisker: Gearkasser i vindturbiner, rapport EEV 94-01 G. Niemann, H. Winter: Machinenelemente Band II. DS 472 Last og sikkerhed for vindmøllekonstruktioner, inkl. tillæg af 14.09.01. DS 410 Norm for last på konstruktioner 4.udg. 1999. Kenneth Thomsen: The statistical variation of wind Turbine Fatigue loads.

Risø-R-1063 (eng). Energistyrelsen: Rekommandation for Teknisk Godkendelse af vindmøller på havet dec.

2001.

Wind Turbine Generator Systems – Part 1: Safety requirements

3.

Gearbox housing and bearings

3.1

Gearbox housing All gearbox housings for wind turbine applications are subjected to high loads, especially gearboxes for wind turbines with an integrated drive train system where the gearbox housing provides one or more bearing supports for the rotor. The housing should be carefully designed so that the load path transfers the rotor loads to the tower without causing high stresses or excessive deflections in the housing. The complex shape of the housing usually requires finite element calculation (FEM). The calculation should be done

by experienced analysts, and should be conducted and

verified according to ref. [3.14].

Gearboxes are prone to be climbed over, stepped on and used as working surface. Therefore auxiliary components should be placed or shielded so no damages occur during maintenance activities. The interior design should prevent pockets where oil is not drained away and contamination can build up. Preferably it should be possible to replace the bearings on HSS and IMS shafts with the gearbox mounted in the nacelle. Replacement methodology has to be specified.

3.1.1

Housing material Materials for gear housing are mostly cast iron or welded steel plate. For highly loaded parts such as integrated gear systems cast ductile iron is often in use.

3.1.2

Housing distortion The housing should be designed and constructed to prevent harmful distortions caused by thermal and/or mechanical deformation.

3.1.3

Inspection covers The housing has to be supplied with covers, which enable inspection of the full width of all parallel shaft gear meshes (for a planetary gear stage a bore scope may be needed) and allow for visual examination of the oil. The design should take following conditions into account:

- Preferably no large top covers, although providing excellent access to the interior, they

may be difficult to handle and constitute a large risk of contamination and of technicians inadvertently dropping tools etc. into the gearbox.

possibility

- It should be easy to clean the cover and surroundings before its removal.

- Tapped holes in the housing should be blind.

3.1.4

Housing joints and seals Only O-rings or a suitable sealing compound should be considered. Flat reusable gaskets should only be used for inspection covers. All rotating seals should be equipped with an additional outside V-ring to exclude contamination and moisture. The design has to take into account the risk of a pumping effect for high-speed shafts. The resistance of sealing material against the actual lubricant should be documented.

3.1.5

Housing accuracy The housing bores should be machined to an accuracy which ensure that detrimental effects will not occur on the gear meshes and in bearing operation. The machining accuracy of the housing has always to be considered in co-operation with the bearing manufacturer. The housing stiffness must be high enough to maintain the accuracy of the bearing positions also under max. load.

3.1.6

Cleaning of the housing before assembly The following conditions also apply to the interior of the lubrication system. The objective of cleaning and surface coating the gear housing is to prevent initial damage from impurities on the internal components especially the bearings. The final cleaning of the housing should be performed just before assembling the gearbox. Depending on the housing material and the manufacturing processes the remains may be rust, welding splatter, mill scales, casting sand, grinding particles etc. The gearbox manufacturer should demonstrate a consistent procedure for cleaning and preparing the interior of the gear housing. The procedure shall include at least the following subjects:

- Preparing the surface for coating e.g. dusting and degreasing.

- Cleaning the surfaces after manufacturing of housing e.g. for weld scales, burrs, weld spatter, casting fins etc.

- Cleaning the surface after machining e.g. for cutting liquids and chips.

- If required, special instructions should be given for areas difficult to access, such as oil channels, holes and pockets.

3.1.7

Surface coating The long-term resistance of the inside painting against the actual lubricant should be verified. Painting film thickness and painting surface should be suitable for the purpose. For better orientation when inspecting, the inside colour should preferable be held in a light nuance. Painting system for outside painting has to be specified.

3.1.8

Lubricating equipment The housing shall be equipped with an air breather with filter of similar fineness as the system filter. The filter shall have sufficient capacity to prevent vacuum or pressure build up during heating and cooling and must be protected against oil splashes. The housing should be equipped with a magnetic dip stick in the oil system. The design shall enable removing the magnet without oil waste. Drain- and fill valves have to be adequately covered to prevent contamination. The oil reservoir should be equipped with an oil level indicator enabling to visual check. The indicator should be of a hermetically closed type.

3.2

Bearings

3.2.1

Types of bearings Selection of the bearing type shall reflect all the actual operating conditions i.e. loads in radial and axial direction, speed, deformations in housing and shafts as well as lubrication conditions. To establish a better overview of the recent experience of bearing arrangements in wind turbine gearboxes the selection matrices in annex B may apply.

3.2.1.1 Ball bearings

Because of their lower load carrying capacity deep groove ball bearings are seldom used in wind turbine gearboxes except for planet carriers and as axial thrust bearing on the high-

speed shaft.

3.2.1.2 Cylindrical roller bearings

Cylindrical roller bearings are very often used because of their high radial load capacity. The ability to accommodate angular misalignment is limited and has to be considered

according to the manufacturers guidelines. The ability to accommodate axial load is moderate and mainly governed by the lubrication and heat dissipation from the bearing, and

has to be carefully evaluated. Appropriate condition for axial loading is achieved when the axial to radial load ratio F a /F r is less than 0.4 and viscosity ratio κ is higher than 2. If CRB are chosen for axial loading at worse conditions, the strength of the lip in the bearing rings must be carefully evaluated in respect to fatigue bending and shock loads as well as heat dissipation. Proper support of the lip by a well-designed abutment is mandatory under any condition. Full complement roller bearings (fc CRB) should not be used except for low speeds with optimal lubrication conditions can be secured. Low radial loads should be carefully considered, because a high rate of sliding may cause smearing and will cause early bearing failure.

3.2.1.3 Spherical roller bearings

Spherical roller bearings have a high radial loading capacity and can accommodate a higher degree of misalignment. The experiences in wind turbine gearboxes are at the time not unambiguous. Consequently the operating conditions such as the ratio F a /F r , and the ratio

between roller diameter and roller length, low radial loads as well as the risk of a considerable amount of skidding has to be carefully evaluated.

3.2.1.4 Taper roller bearings

Taper roller bearings have a high radial and axial load rating, but are sensitive to misalignment and maintaining the axial clearance during all operating conditions. For bearing arrangements subjected to high temperature gradients particular care has to be taken during mounting and maintenance. Because of the raceway inclination, an axial force is created internally in the bearing, which carries radial load. This force acts on the housing. In larger units the housing may not be sufficiently stiff, and therefore the use of 2 paired single row taper roller bearings is recommended, as the axial forces here counteract each other, thus preventing the housing walls from being deformed. In this case a non-locating bearing at the other end supports the shaft. The paired locating bearings are normally arranged in X- formation and the adjustment of the internal clearance should be chosen with proper considerations of the thermal conditions. It should be born in mind that a temperature difference between inner and outer ring will affect the internal clearance in different ways for X-arrangements and O- arrangements. X-arrangements and O-arrangements are also referred to as face-to-face and back to back respectively.

3.2.1.5 Integrated bearings

Integrated bearing means a bearing where the outer and/or inner raceways are made directly

in the housing or on the shaft. One of the benefits of this solution is a more compact construction, which is widely used in many applications.

3.2.1.6 Axial bearings

The axial loads are often adapted in the radial bearing. For high speeds and heavy axial loads it is recommended to separate the radial and axial loads on two separate bearings.

3.2.2 Cages Cages made from polymers such as PA 66 are not recommended because of low strength and low long-term resistance against oil additives especially at high temperatures. The design of cages has a considerable influence on the lubrication conditions in the bearing and has to be carefully considered.

3.2.3 Internal clearance Internal clearance greater than standard must be considered in case of heavy interference fit or high expected temperature difference between inner ring and outer ring.

3.2.4

Mounting and installation At least the following aspects has to be carefully considered and to be an integrated part of the manufacturing procedures:

The assembly has to take place in clean surroundings, with clean tools and performed by skilled personal. Other activities, e.g. machining, grinding and welding, are definitely not allowed in the same room. Precautions have to be taken to prevent dust drifting from the outside through windows, gates and ventilation systems.

Bearings have to be stored in clean and dry surroundings. Bearings should not be left unprotected on workbenches and not fully assembled gear units have to be carefully protected.

An instruction for the mounting procedures and description of the necessary tools shall be present. The instruction shall be the joint responsibility of the gearbox manufacturer and the bearing manufacturer.

Internal radial and axial clearances shall conform to the requirements and assumptions made in design calculations. When the clearance of a bearing arrangement is adjusted during assembly of the gear (e.g. cross locating CRB NJ, cross locating TRB or paired TRB), the achieved value shall be measured and documented.

3.2.5 Bearing fit and surface properties Bearings in wind turbine gearboxes require heavy duty fitting practices and have to be rigidly supported at the whole circumference to permit full load bearing capacity. The influence of interference fit and temperature difference from inner ring to outer ring on internal clearance shall be evaluated. The influence of the interference fit and temperature gradient from inner ring to outer ring on operating clearance shall be evaluated, and internal clearance shall be designed to accommodate these conditions. Radial clearance of the bearing shall be controlled to limit misalignment of the gear meshes. This is especially important for the input shaft bearings. The inner ring fit on the shaft shall be evaluated not to induce too high hoop-stresses at running conditions. The hoop stress should not exceed 150 MPa to avoid reduced bearing service life.

Bearing fits, geometrical tolerances, and surface roughness has to comply with the bearing manufacturers recommendations. Creeping bearing rings shall be carefully considered to avoid damage to shafts or housing. In this context the worst case of tolerances shall be considered, e.g. largest bore to smallest bearing outer ring and worst temperature difference between bearing and housing. Spinning bearing rings shall definitely be avoided. Shaft bearing outer rings can e.g. be axially clamped (or glued) to avoid rotation.

It should however be considered that creeping may be inevitable on the planet bearing outer ring, but it shall be limited such no spinning and no wear occurs. Special attention should be given to surface properties and accuracy of the planet wheel bore. For planet bearings following general guidelines may apply:

- Planet bearing outer ring shall be fitted to planet bores with a reasonable tight fit to reduce creep. In this connection it should be noted that rim thickness strongly influences the creep of the planet bearing outer ring.

- The bore should be case hardened and ground. The hardness should be as close to the bearing ring hardness as possible.

-

The surface roughness of the bore should be maximum R a = 0.8.

- The cylindricity error should not exceed IT 4/2 according to DS/ISO 1101.

- Inner rings of planet bearings shall be fixed to avoid rotation, except where two axially internally fixed bearings e.g. SRB are used.

Different surface coatings and surface treatments are reported to have a beneficial effect on fretting and wear on shafts and housings.

3.2.6 External and internal loads See section 2.

3.2.7 Calculation of rating life The service life is the life actually achieved by a rolling bearing. This can deviate substantially from the calculated rating life; due to the variety of applications and operational conditions i.e. the service life cannot be precisely calculated in advance.

Consequently the “rating life” is understood as a safety index rather than an amount of operating hours. This fact is reflected in the different required rating lives for different methods and different applications. The bearings shall comply with the requirements in sections 3.2.7.1, 3.2.7.3 and 3.2.7.4.

It is always recommended to make comparisons with similar applications, which have

operated successfully for an appropriate amount of time.

3.2.7.1 Static loads The static load safety f S of all bearings shall always at least be 2 for ball bearings and 3 for roller bearings. P 0r is calculated for the highest load to which the gearbox is ever exposed to, without partial load factors.

f S = C 0r /P 0r

where P 0r is the static equivalent bearing load calculated as:

P 0r = X 0 × F 0r + Y 0 × F 0a

where F 0r is the static radial load and F 0a the static axial load component respectively.

X o and Y 0 are load factors depending on type and size of the bearings, as well as the load

ratio F a /F r . X o and Y 0 and can be taken from relevant catalogues.

3.2.7.2 Minimum operational bearing load

The bearing manufacturers always prescribe a minimum operational load, depending on the bearing type, however in a wind turbine gearbox the loads varies from almost zero load to max. load. Consequently this issue has to be carefully evaluated in corporation between the manufactures of the wind turbine, the gearbox and the bearings. The evaluation shall also consider the significant acceleration and decelerations typical for wind turbine operation.

3.2.7.3 Basic rating life L 10h , according to ISO 281

The basic rating life calculation method only accounts for the dynamic load rating of the

bearing, the equivalent bearing load and the rotational speed:

L 10 = (C r /P r ) p

[10 6 revolutions]

L 10h = L 10 ×10 6 / (60×n r ) [h]

The exponent p equals 3 for ball bearings and 10/3 for roller bearings. L 10 denotes a 10 % failure probability life.

The ratio C r /P r shall always be higher than 2.5 for extreme characteristic operational load without partial load factors, with operational loads as defined in section 2.

The equivalent dynamic bearing load P is calculated as:

P r = V × X × F r + Y× F a

where F r is the dynamic radial load and F a is the dynamic axial load component respectively.

X and Y are load factors, which depend on type and size of the bearings, as well as the load

ratio F a /F r . X and Y and can be taken from relevant catalogues.

The rotational factor V (>1) is a factor to consider in case of stationary inner ring.

V = 1.05 applies for bearings where inner ring is stationary relative to load, such as planet

bearings. For rotating inner rings V = 1.0.

The basic rating life method has proved its universal applicability in a broad range of applications for decades, but it is also stated that this calculation underestimates the attainable service life considerably in most cases. The value of this method is mainly for comparison of an actual bearing application to others, which have operated successfully for a long time. If the comparison shall be meaningful it is essential that the operating conditions are comparable e.g. one cannot compare the L 10h lifetime ratings for a slow speed planet bearing and a high-speed output shaft bearing.

To ensure a basic sound design based on successful experience in the past the basic rating life, L 10,h shall be calculated and compared to the corresponding L 10,h for similar designs, which has proven its applicability over long time

The following basic rating life calculated with equivalent load and for 20 years shall apply:

Bearing position

Rotational speed

Required basic rating life, L 10,h

(rpm)

High speed shaft

1,000

30,000

High speed intermediate shaft

300

40,000

Low speed intermediate shaft

100

80,000

High speed planet

100

80,000

Low speed planet

< 100

100,000

Low speed shaft

< 100

100,000

Table 3.1 Required basic rating life, L 10,h

Required basic rating life for shafts in alternative gearbox designs may be extrapolated from table 3.1 using the rotational speed as reference.

3.2.7.4 Advanced Methods and (Modified) Reference Life L nmr The method to determine reference life L nr and modified reference life L nmr is described in DIN ISO 281 Beiblatt 4, ref. [3.16]. Most bearing manufacturers have developed their proprietary tools (hereinafter called “advanced methods”) for these calculations. Though not identical, all these methods have in common that they account for a number of interdependent influences, which causes the difference from the basic lifetime rating and the achievable lifetime experienced from bearing tests. The main influences that shall be considered in an advanced life calculation are:

- Radial, axial, and moment loads

- Load sharing between rolling elements

- Load distribution along the roller length considering actual roller and raceway profiles

- Load distribution on flanges of bearings

- Elasticity of bearing, shaft and housing

- Internal design of the bearing, hereunder roller- and raceway profiling

- Truncation of contact area

- Operating misalignment between inner and outer rings

- Operating internal clearance considering initial clearance, shaft and housing fit, and temperature of inner and outer rings

- Operating lubricant viscosity and required lubricant viscosity for full hydrodynamic lubrication condition

- Operating lubricant cleanliness

- Performance of additive package

- Temperature transients during start-up

Such advanced methods shall be used in the design phase of a wind turbine gearbox. The advanced rating life shall be greater than the specified design life of the wind turbine. Calculations shall be performed bin-by-bin using the specified load spectrum, deriving a combined lifetime using the formula:

L hnr = Σt i /Σ(t i /L hnr, i )

The formula is applicable to varying rotational speed also, i.e. provided that the speed is kept constant within the same load class. To find life rating in number of revolutions the above formula applies when L hnr,i are substituted by L nr,i and the number of revolutions u i of each class are inserted instead of accumulated time.

It may be appropriate to reduce the number of bins in the load spectrum, but not less than 10 bins shall be used. Miner’s rule shall be used for this reduction, using the same life exponent as used in the advanced life rating calculation.

The advanced analysis may be used to study the sensitivity of a bearing arrangement against misalignment, manufacturing variation, or elasticity of mounting, especially in respect to load sharing among rolling elements and load distribution along roller length. Special care shall be taken to avoid stress risers at the roller ends and contact truncations.

Advanced methods, as well as reference life calculations according DIN ISO 281 Beiblatt 4 are very sensitive for the validity of the assumptions and assessments made during the computation. It is therefore recommended to put a great deal of effort on the communication between turbine, gear and bearing manufactures concerning this topic. It shall the windturbine manufacturer’s responsibility to ensure that all relevant information are communicated to the bearing manufacturer. Following guidelines and prerequisites shall be observed when defining the computation inputs:

- The operating temperature in each single bearing has to be verified during test run. In lack of more accurate figures the bearing temperature for preliminary calculations may be estimated from table 3.2. The oil temperature T oil used in table 3.2 is the temperature of the oil supplied to the bearing, which typically will be between the sump temperature (for bearings submerged in the oil bath) and the temperature after the cooler (for forced lubricated bearings). Provision should be taken to avoid hot lubricant from the gear mesh to be injected direct into the bearing.

- Oil cleanliness in calculations should not be taken better than -/17/14, if bearings are not sealed. However if it can be demonstrated that the cleanliness always is better than -/17/14, a better cleanliness class may be used in the bearing calculations. In this case the cleanliness class chosen for the calculations shall be 1 class poorer than the documented cleanliness class. (See also section 5.3.2 concerning lubrication)

- It should be demonstrated by test that each bearing is provided with an adequate amount of lubricant.

- For bearings with κ > 4, the calculation shall be done with κ = 4. The method shall not be applied for bearings with κ < 0,1.

- The cleanliness factor e C shall be derived from the figures in Annex B fig. B1-B9 which are valid for a lubricant without EP additives. For bearing diameters between two curves linear interpolation may be used.

- Bearings under boundary lubrication conditions may benefit from EP- additives, provided that the oil is clean and cooled. The calculation may therefore be executed with κ = 1 if the cleanliness factor e C is larger than 0.2 and oils with proven EP-properties is used. In this case, the life factor a xyz shall not exceed 3. Note that, for bulk temperatures above 100 ˚ C, EP additives might decrease the bearing life ref. [3.9-3.11].

Bearing location

Min. difference T bearing –T oil ˚ C

High speed shaft

20

Intermediate shaft

15

Low speed shaft

10

Planet wheel

5

Input shaft

5

Table 3.2 Minimum temperature differences

Following checks shall be performed for verification of the results achieved by the advanced methods:

- A calculation of modified reference rating life according DIN ISO 281 Beiblatt 4, though with the actual internal geometry, shall be performed. Discrepancies between the advanced methods and the reference method shall be rationalised between bearing manufacturer, gearbox manufacturer and windturbine manufacturer.

- If the modified reference rating life L nmr is greater than 10 × reference life L nr , both calculated according DIN ISO 281 Beiblatt 4, then the modified reference life L nmr shall be set equal to 10×L nr .

- The maximum contact stress in the bearing at Miner’s sum dynamic equivalent bearing load shall not exceed the values specified in table 3.3. An approximation for the maximum contact stress is found in ANSI/AGMA/AWEA 6006-A03. Discrepancies between this approximation and the values computed by advanced methods shall be rationalised between bearing manufacturer, gearbox manufacturer and windturbine manufacturer.

Bearing position

maximum contact stress,

p

max

High speed shaft

1 300 MPa

High speed intermediate shaft

1 650 MPa

Low speed intermediate shaft

1 650 MPa

Planet

1 450 MPa

Low speed shaft

not applicable as no “equivalent load” is defined

Table 3.3 Maximum contact stress equivalent load

3.3

Symbols for section 3. incl. Annex B

C

C

F

F

F

F

HV

L

r

0r

a

r

0a

0r

10

L n h

L

L

L

P

P

10,h

10,mh

10,advanced

r

0r

C ur

P nom

R a

T

X

Y

V

X

0

0

Y

a

a

d m

f s

n

n

p

t i

u i

r

1

DIN

β x

e C

ν

ν 1

κ

ρ

Basic dynamic radial load rating of bearing Basic static radial load rating of bearing Axial load component Radial load component Static axial load component Static radial load component Hardness according to Vickers method Rating life Rating life for n% probability of failure

[N] [N] [N] [N] [N] [N] [N/mm 2 ] [10 6 rev.] [h]

Basic rating life for 10% probability of failure Modified rating life for 10% probability of failure Rating life for advanced calculation methods Dynamic equivalent bearing load Static equivalent bearing load Fatigue load limit for radial load

[h] [h] [h] [N] [N] [N]

Nominal power defined as max

on the power curve

(10 min. average)

[kW]

Arithmetic mean value of surface roughness

[µm]

Bearing temperature at outer ring

[º C]

Radial dynamic load factor

[-]

Axial dynamic load factor

[-]

Factor to consider in case of stationary inner ring

[-]

Radial static load factor

[-]

Axial static load factor

[-]

Adjustment factor for probability of failure 10 % Combined life modifying factor according to ref. [3.19] Mean diameter of bearing (D+d)/2 Static safety factor C 0r /P 0r

[-] [-] [mm] [-]

Probability of failure Number of revolutions pr. minute

[%] [min -1 ]

Exponent in rating life equation Hours at constant operational conditions Number of revolutions in load bin i

[-] [h] [-]

Separation ratio for filters at particles size x µm Stress factor for contamination

[-] [-]

Actual viscosity of lubrication in bearing Requisite viscosity of lubrication in bearing

[mm 2 /s] [mm 2 /s]

Viscosity ratio ν/ν 1

[-]

Specific mass

[kg/m 3 ]

3.4

References for section 3. incl. Annex B

[3.1]

ISO 76 Rolling bearings – Static load ratings.

[3.2]

ISO 281Rolling bearings – Dynamic load ratings and rating life, including Amendment 1.

[3.3]

and 2. ANSI/AGMA/AWEA 6006-A03 - Standard for Design and Specification of Gearboxes for

[3.4]

Wind Turbines Transmission Bearings, Fag Publ. No. WL 04 200 ER.

[3.5]

Rolling Bearings in Power Transmission Engineering,

[3.6]

FAG Publ. No. WL 04 202 EA. Rolling bearings in industrial gearboxes, SKF Publ. 4560 E.

[3.7]

Brändlein, Eschmann, Hasbargen, Weigand: Die Wälzlagerpraxis.

[3.8]

AGMA Information sheet 921-A97 Recommended practices for design and Specification of

[3.9]

gearboxes for wind turbine generator systems. H. P. Nixon: Effects of extreme pressure additives in lubrication on bearing fatigue life.

[3.10]

G.T.Y. Wan, E.V. Amerongen and H Lankamp: Effects of extreme–pressure additives on

[3.11]

fatigue life of rolling bearings. Harvey P. Nixon, Harry Zantopulos: Lubricant Additives, Friend or Foe.

[3.12]

G. Bergling, Eustathios Ioannides: Hjälpemedel förenklar livslängdsberäkning,

[3.13]

Kugellagertidningen 243. E. Ionnides, G. Bergling, A. Gabelli: Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Mechanical

[3.14]

Engineering Series No. 137 An Analytical Fornulation for the life of Rolling Bearings. NAFEMS: Guidelines to Finite Element Practice.

[3.15]

T. E. Tallian: Failure Atlas for Hertz Contact Machine Elements.

[3.16]

DIN ISO 281 Beiblatt 4 (April 2004)

4.

Gear sets and shafts

Calculation of gears

General The failure modes covered by existing standards (e.g. ISO 6336) are only bending rupture and pitting at fatigue load. Thus some typical failure modes experienced in wind turbine gears are not covered:

- micro-pitting

- pitting at dedendum/addendum or tooth ends

- subsurface fatigue

- wear

- scuffing

These failure modes may occur in their generic form, but more frequently they will occur in combination. However, this chapter is based on ISO 6336:1996 and ISO/CD 6336-6:2003 where it is possible. Wear in mild form may not be dangerous, but in its most severe form called scuffing it may lead to further damage. For scuffing only an ISO Technical Report type 2 is available [4.6]. For scuffing, fatigue loads has no significance, but even few high transient loads are able to initiate this failure especially with insufficient initial surface finish and at high lubricant temperature.

In general the safety is calculated as the ratio between the allowable stress and the calculated stress (as defined in ISO 6336-1: 1996). For variable loads (load spectrum) one can take this into account in two ways either by calculating an equivalent load from the spectrum or one can apply Miners rule.

4.1

Calculation of surface durability (pitting) The safeties S H of two cylindrical gears in mesh shall be calculated according to ISO 6336- 2 method B or A with the exceptions described in sections 4.1.1 through 4.1.5. The direct Miner's rule according ISO/CD 6336-6 shall be used (elaborated in annex F). The safety S H 2 shall be at least 1,45 at Miner’s sum equalling unity.

4.1.1

Size Factor Z X Following equations should apply for determination of the size factor Z X for endurance life (DIN 3990-2:1987 method B):

material

normal module

Z

X

through hardened steels

 

all

Z X = 1,0

case carburized and induction hardened steels

m n 10 10 < m n < 30

Z X = 1,0 Z X = 1,05 – 0,005·m n

30

m n

Z X = 0,9

nitrided steels and nitro-carburized steels

m n 7,5 7,5 < m n < 30

Z X = 1,0 Z X = 1,08 – 0,011·m n

30

m n

Z X = 0,75

If the gearbox manufacturer can document that the chosen hardening depth is appropriate for all operating conditions, larger values up to Z x =1 may be used.

4.1.2

Life Factor Z NT

Z NT shall be selected from table 2 in ISO 6336-2, and shall be set to 0.85 at 10 10 cycles

irrespective of material and conditions.

4.1.3 Face load distribution factor K Hβ

K Hβ reflects the load distribution across the face width. The distribution is influenced by

load level, mesh stiffness, flank line deviations due to difference of bearing clearances and

manufacturing tolerances as well as flank line deviations due to deformations and deflections of gears, shafts, bearings and housing. Furthermore, the load distribution is influenced by thermal deformations as described in section 7.1 of ISO 6336-1.

Detrimental effects of these deviations shall be compensated by corrective grinding, i.e. flank line corrections of the teeth serving to smooth the load distribution.

For planet gear stages (epicyclic gear stages) also the deformation, deflections and manufacturing tolerances of the planet carrier must be considered as well as the manufacturing tolerances of the annulus. Furthermore, the eccentricity between planet carrier and splines/teeth of the coupling of the shaft to which the sun gear torque is transmitted shall be considered.

The following contributions of manufacturing parameters to flank line deviations (inclinations) shall at least be addressed:

· tooth alignment

· bearing bore alignment

· internal clearances of bearings in service condition

· clearances at outer or inner bearing ring in service condition

The internal clearance of a bearing in service condition is a result of the free condition clearance, the fit character at inner ring and/or outer ring and the temperature differences between the bearing elements.

Each contribution, related to the common face width, is characterised by a mean value and

a standard deviation in accordance with the manufacturing tolerances. A mean value may

be zero as by gear tooth alignment errors (±f Hβ ) or different from zero as by an internal bearing clearance or a diameter. The standard deviation of each contribution is set to 1/4 of its tolerance area, i.e. 1/4 of the difference between maximum and minimum value. The uncertainty in assessment of the temperature differences of bearings should be considered in a similar way. From the individual standard deviations a resultant standard deviation related to the common face width is calculated using the square root of the sum of squares as usual for linear expressions. By this, maybe some of the manufacturing parameters shall be regarded as mutually dependent parameters, e.g. by mutual nominal diameters combined with machining in a single process, compare annex I.

The mean value contributions and the contributions of the elastic deformations and deflections together describe a mean situation of flank deviations for a given load. Based on this situation flank line corrections shall be properly carried out.

The variation of the manufacturing tolerances shall be considered as the corrected mean situation is superimposed a linear flank line inclination of ±2 resultant standard deviations (plus and minus situation), which for a given load leads to two different load distributions. To avoid hard end contact by these situations the crowning correction (or similar) applied to counteract hollow flank lines of the pinion due to torsion and bending should be somewhat exaggerated.

By determination of the safety S H using Miner's rule directly the load dependence of K Hβ shall be taken into account. For a given macro geometry of a gearset the S H -values of the

plus and minus situation become equal for a certain amount of linear flank line correction and bigger than the smallest S H -values for other amounts of correction. Thus, the volume of a gear set should be minimised by choosing an appropriate linear correction.

There are numerous computer codes available for analysing the load distribution along the face width of parallel shaft gear stages. Most of these codes have only limited relevance for planet gear stages, and where random external loads influence shaft alignment (e.g. input shaft of integrated designs).

Detailed methods for determination of required tooth corrections and calculation of the face load distribution factor are given in annexes J and K. The method of determining the face load distribution in annex J does not deal with triangular areas of elevated load at the face ends of helix gear teeth. The elevated load can suitably by calculated by 3-D methods as dealt with in 4.1.4 and should be counteracted by corrective grinding.

4.1.4 Load Distribution Factors K Hα and K Hβ in combination The design process of a wind turbine gearbox shall employ an advanced code that provides full information of the local loading in the entire contact area by simultaneous analysis of the contact intensity in face and profile directions.

The load distribution factor over face width K Hβ will usually have a much larger influence than the load distribution factor over profile length K Hα . Typically, the two influences K Hβ and K Hα will be analyzed separately, but 3-D computer codes allow the analysis of a combined factor K Hβα at once. If separate analysis is performed, then K Hβα can be determined from

K Hβα

= K Hβ · K Hα

Beyond the scope referred in ISO 6336-1:1996, such an advanced theoretical analysis of the load distribution shall at least account for the influence of adjacent gear meshes and the influence of local discontinuities in the stiffness at the extremities of the contact area.

4.1.5 Load Sharing Factor K γ By distributor gear stages the power is transmitted from a single gear to a number of intermediate shafts from which the power further on is transmitted to another single gear. Due to manufacturing and assembling tolerances the distribution of power between the intermediate shafts is not uniform. The load sharing factor K γ expresses the torque of the most loaded intermediate shaft and its two gears in relation to the torque of a uniform power distribution. The torque deviation from the latter is a result of load, stochastically varying geometrical parameters, temperature differences and elastic properties of teeth, shafts, bearings and housing parts. A resultant standard deviation of the stochastical parameters influencing the torque deviation can be calculated (compare K Hβ ). As the stochastical mean value of the torque deviation is zero, 2 resultant standard deviations should be used as torque deviation by determination of K γ of the gears involved. The factor decreases with increasing load as the manufacturing deviations become smaller in relation to the elastic deformations. By planet gear stages the tooth forces of the planets may be different due to manufacturing tolerances, especially of the planet carrier. Here K γ expresses the maximum tooth force of the planets in relation to that of a uniform load distribution. In this case, K γ can hardly be statistically analysed but is typically addressed by the combined dynamic load sharing factor K γ ·K v . For LS planet gear stages with 3 planets and stiff assembly of the branches, the value K γ ·K v = 1.05 is recommended if no further investigations are performed. Higher values may apply with increasing rotational speed.

For planet stages with more than 3 planets, the dynamic load sharing shall be analysed taking the statistical variations into account.

4.2

Calculation of tooth bending strength The safeties S F of two cylindrical gears in mesh shall be calculated according ISO 6336-3 method B or A with the exceptions described in sections 4.2.1 through 4.2.4 The direct Miner's rule according ISO CD 6336-6 shall be used (elaborated in annex F). The safety S F shall be at least 1,45 at Miner’s sum equalling unity.

4.2.1

Life Factor Y NT Y NT shall be selected from Table 1 in ISO 6336-3, and set to 0.85 at 10 10 cycles irrespective of material and conditions.

4.2.2

Load Distribution Factors K Fα and K Fβ The load distribution factors K Fα and K Fβ shall be derived from K Hα and K Hβ by use of the relevant equations in ISO 6336-1 for the respective load level under consideration of chapter 4.1.3 above. A combined factor K Fβα may be derived from a 3-D analysis.

4.2.3

Load Sharing Factor K γ See 4.1.5.

4.2.4

Design Factor Y D for Reverse Bending Allowable stress numbers according to ISO 6336-5 are appropriate for repeated, unidirectional tooth loading, and shall be reduced when reversals at full load occur. In the most severe case (e.g. an idler gear or planet where full load reversal occurs each cycle), the value of σ FE and σ Flim , shall be reduced by a factor of 0.7.

4.3

Calculation of scuffing load capacity Scuffing resistance shall be calculated according DNV classification note 41.2 [4.12] using the flash temperature criterion. The minimum safety S S shall be 1,3. The load level used in the calculation is the maximum operating load expected within the service life with all corresponding K-factors determined at the respective load level. Abnormal load cases must not be considered in the scuffing calculation (see section 2.3 Loads). It is anticipated that scuffing occurs at incidental peak load that are too short in duration to cause a significant raise in bulk heat of lubricant and gears. The bulk temperature θ M shall therefore be determined at the max. endurance load that may occur in the given wind turbine design, typically the peak point of the power curve, again with the corresponding K-factors determined at this load.

4.4

Micro pitting Micro pitting is a relevant failure mode in wind turbine gearboxes, but currently no generally accepted calculation procedure exists. The gear supplier shall however document that he has given reasonable attention to the major factors influencing micro pitting, such as

- initial surface finish (surface roughness)

- persistent relative surface roughness

- relative surface hardness

- sliding speed and slide-roll-ratio

- contact pressure at the extremities of the contact area, especially in dedendum

- metallurgy, especially retained austenite

For more details see annex H and D

4.5

Strength and quality for gears All materials used, the heat treatment procedures applied, and the respective quality measures throughout the entire manufacturing process shall at least comply with MQ-level according ISO 6336-5.

4.6

Calculation of shafts Shaft strength may be documented using e.g. DIN 743 [4.7]. Material properties shall be selected for 50% survival probability with a confidence interval of 95%. The minimum safety shall be in accordance with IEC 61400-1 ed. 3 sec. 6.7.2.2 for yielding and sec. 6.7.3.2 for fatigue Measures shall be taken to include the influences of technological size effect, surface roughness, stress ratio and possible notch factors. [4.26-4.27].

4.6.1

Splines and tooth couplings Splines shall be made from alloy steel with sufficient hardenability to obtain the strength and fracture toughness meeting the requirements of the application. Splines shall be designed to prevent fretting corrosion e.g. by nitriding of one of the parts. Lubrication shall be adequate to prevent fretting corrosion, meaning that the oil flow through the spline connection is able to remove debris direct back into the sump. Pressure feed lubrication is consequently recommended. The strength may be documented using e.g. DIN 5466 [4.20-4.21]. The minimum safety shall be in accordance with IEC 61400-1 ed. 3 sec. 6.7.2.2 for yielding and sec. 6.7.3.2 for fatigue.

4.6.2

Shaft-Hub-Connections Connection between shaft and hub may be designed as either a key connection or a shrink connection or as a combination of both. Shrink connections are preferable. [4.8]

If a combination of key connection and shrink connection is used the key connection alone shall be able to transmit the max. torque of the application.

4.6.3

Keys and keyways Keys and keyways may be designed according to e.g. DIN 6892 [4.25]. Keyways should not be extended into bearing journals or sections where stress concentrations are present. Sharp edges shall be deburred or chamfered.

4.6.4

Interference fit The interference fit may be documented according to e.g. DIN 7190 [4.8]. The friction connection is to be able to transmit at least 1.5 times the characteristic peak torque without slipping.

4.6.5

Reverse loading Adequate measures shall be taken to avoid harmful consequences of reverse load direction, which may occur e.g. during the last phase of the brake sequence or at idling combined with a fault in the yaw system. See also section 2.3.8 Static loads.

4.7

Reference to section 4, including annexes F, H, I, J and K

[4.1]

ISO 6336-1:1996 Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears: Basic principles,

[4.2]

introduction and general influence factors, incl. Cor. 1:1998 and Cor. 2:1999. ISO 6336-2:1996 Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears: Calculation of

[4.3]

surface durability (pitting), incl. Cor1:1998 and Cor 2:1999. ISO 6336-3:1996 Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears: Calculation of tooth bending strength, incl. Cor1:1999.

[4.4]

ISO 6336-5:2003 Calculation of load capacity og spur and helical gears: Strength and

1997-09-01

[4.5]

quality of materials ISO/CD 6336-6:2003 Cylindrical gears – Calculation of service life under variable load–

Conditions for cylindrical gears in accordance with ISO 6336

[4.6]

ISO/TR 13989-1:2000 Calculation of scuffing load capacity of cylindrical, bevel and

[4.7]

hypoid gear-Part 1: Flash temperature method DIN 743:2000 Tragfäihigkeitsberechnung von wellen und achsen, teil 1: Einführung,

[4.8]

Grundlagen, Teil 2: Formzahlen und kerbwirkungszahlen, Teil 3:Werkstof- Festigkeitswerte. DIN 7190:2001 Pressverbänd-Berechnungsgrundlagen und Gestaltungsregeln

[4.9]

DNV Classification notes No. 41.2: Calculation of Gear Rating for Marine

[4.10]

Transmissions:Maj 2003 ISO 14635-1:2000 Gears-FZG test procedures, FZG test method A/8.3/90 for relative

[4.11]

scuffing load-carrying capacity of oils DIN 51354-1:1990 Prüfung von Schmierstoffen; FZG-Zahnrad-Verspannungs-

[4.12]

Prüfmaschine; Algemeine Arbeitsgrundlagen DIN 51354-2:1990 Prüfung von Schmierstoffen; FZG-Zahnrad-Verspannungs-

[4.13]

Prüfmaschine; Prüfverfahren A/8,3/90 für schmieröle A. V. Olver Micro-pitting of gear teeth: Design Solutions, Mechanical Engineering 1995

[4.14]

Robert Errichello: Micro pitting of Gear Teeth, A Review of Literature, Description of

[4.15]

Morphology and Mechanism, and Recommendation for prevention Klaus Michaelis, Definition, Influence Factors, Rating Methods, Examples

[4.16]

Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik E. V. Heft 152 1983 Foschungsvorhaben Nr. 54/II

Graufleckigkeit [4.17] Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik E. V. Heft 106 1981 Foschungsvorhaben Nr. 54/I

[4.18]

Einfluss der Schmierstoffe auf die Zahnflankenermüdung Stout et al. The Development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three

[4.19]

dimensions, EUR 15178EN rapport of EU Commission Surface Topography Characterisation Part I-III Danish Technological Institute 1998

[4.20]

DIN 5466-1:2000 Tragfähigkeitsberechnung von Zahn. Und Keilwellenverbindungen:

[4.21]

Grundlagen DIN 5466-2:2002 Tragfähigkeitsberechnung von Zahn. Und Keilwellenverbindungen:

[4.22]

Zahnwellen-Verbindungen nach DIN 5480 P. Dietz, G. Schäfer, K Wesolowswski: Zahmwellenverbindungen- Beanspruchungs- und

[4.23]

Versvhleissverhalten, Konstruktion 45 (1993) G.Niemann/H.Winter: Maschinenelemente, Band II, Springer-Verlag 1985/1989

[4.24]

DIN 3990–6:1994 Tragfähigkeitsberechnung von Stirnrädern,

[4.25]

Teil 6: Betriebsfestgkeitsrechnung DIN 6892:1998 Mitnehmerverbindungen ohne Anzug- Passfedern-Berechnung und

[4.26]

Gestaltung Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute, Bericht ABF 11, 1983: Berechnung von Wöhlerlinien

[4.27]

für Bauteile aus Stahl, Stahlgüss und Graugüss –Synthetishe Wöhlerlinien- (SWL 83) Studiengesellschaft Stahlanvendung: Forschung für die Praxis P249, 1999: Synthetische

[4.28]

Wöhlerlinien für Eisenwerkstoffe. SKF CADalog Plus. SKF Bearing Application Programs, ver. 1.0 Manual 1996

[4.29]

O. R. Lang & W. Steinhilper: Gleitlager, Springer 1978

5.

Lubrication

Proper selection and condition monitoring of the lubricant is a profound issue to achieve unproblematic operation during the service life of a wind turbine. Of that reason the selection of the lubricant shall be the joint responsibility of the gearbox purchaser, the gearbox manufacturer, and other involved parties such as the lubricant supplier, bearing supplier or filter supplier. The wind turbine gears are characterised of relatively low pitch line velocity and high and alternating loads, which calls for oil with contents of extreme pressure additives (EP additive). As all components in the gearbox and lubrication system are affected by the lubricant, the effect on each component such as paints, seals, pumps, coolers, hoses etc. should be considered carefully.

Minimum physical and performance specifications are provided in tables 5.2 and 5.3.

5.1 Lubrication regimes

Development and operational influence of the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) oil film depends on lubricant characteristics, lubricant inlet conditions, load intensity, operating velocity, surface conditions, metallurgy and cleanliness. It is common practice to categorise EHD lubrication into three regimes.

5.1.1 Full hydrodynamic conditions Full hydrodynamic lubrication exists when the lubricant film facilitates complete separation of the metal surfaces. Full EHD film is formed generally under conditions of light loads and moderate velocities or higher load intensities with higher velocities. Full EHD film is formed when the surface roughness asperities do not make contact with the opposite surface through the oil film. For surfaces manufactured on the basis of normal cutting operations like turning or grinding the roughness tops are so sharp that they retain their form until they break through the oil film and touch the opposite surface. The oil film thickness can thus be compared with the composite roughness of the two surfaces to determine the state of lubrication, the λ-value. For very smooth surfaces, and when surfaces have been run-in, the roughness tops are so smooth and blunt that they can work like small bearings and be elastically smoothened further until the wear stops. If the load or speed then is changed, the running-in starts again. The running-in process thus requires running at different loads and speeds to smoothen the asperity tops across the whole load-carrying surface. The lower film thickness used during the running-in, the smoother the surfaces will be.

5.1.2 Mixed film conditions Mixed film lubrication exists where the surfaces operate with partial metal to metal contact. Mixed film lubrication is the most prevalent form and is generally associated with moderate velocities and relatively high load intensities.

5.1.3 Boundary film conditions Boundary lubrication exists where the surfaces are wetted with oil but the film thickness developed is small compared to the surface roughness. Generally boundary lubrication is associated with low velocities and/or heavy load intensities.

5.2 Lubricating systems general

The lubricating system has to be considered as an integrated part of the gearbox from the very beginning of the design phase, and kept in eye through the entire development. The system shall always reflect the actual wind turbine concept and operating philosophy.

Proper function of the lubricant system shall be demonstrated under all relevant operational conditions. The function of the system may be demonstrated by tests in the workshop and/or by field tests on a prototype wind turbine. See section 7.

The gearbox manufacturer and lubricant supplier shall be accurately informed of the operational conditions for the wind turbine. See section 2.

The lubricating system shall always be equipped with an adequate filtering system to obtain the assumed cleanliness of the lubricant. At long lasting stand still in braked condition direct metal-to-metal contact will occur and may cause fretting corrosion. Consequently it is preferable to minimise the amount of time where the turbine is parked. Conditions during transportation and storing e.g. vibrations and corrosion have to be considered. For double row bearings the oil should be supplied in the middle of the bearing and drained to both sides. Oil level in the bearings shall not exceed half the diameter of the roller. Hot oil leaving from a gear mesh and ejected directly into the bearing shall be avoided. The actual operation philosophy has to be taken into account especially concerning lack of lubricant caused by variable speed or during idling and parking.

In design and fabrication of the lubrication system the following subjects shall be considered:

- proper supply of lubricant to each single lubricant point.

- pipes and other components should be designed on the large side to minimise viscosity dependence.

- proper workmanship has to be ensured.

- maintain adequate cleanliness during assembling, mounting and maintenance.

- proper installation of components with respect to vibrations, adequate function and damage during maintenance.

- it shall be possible to drain the gearbox and the entire lubrication system only leaving a negligible amount of lubricant left in the system.

- need for bleeding devices shall be considered

5.2.1 Splash lubrication Splash lubrication is a simple and reliable system and has done well in carefully designed and operated wind turbines. Especially for medium loaded helical gearboxes with relatively large oil volume.

The low speed gear should dip into the oil bath for at least two times the tooth dept. Precautions has to be taken to capture the oil splash and conduct a proper amount to all bearings and meshes which are not immersed in the oil bath. Plates, scrapers and troughs have to be fastened and secured carefully.

Precautions have to be taken to remove contaminates to achieve proper lubricant cleanliness.

5.2.2 Forced lubrication systems These systems have the advantage to supply every bearing and gear mesh with the proper amount of lubricant at the temperature and cleanliness assumed in the design. It is recommended that all bearings and gear meshes, which are not immersed, are forced lubricated i.e. HSS and IMS bearings and HS gear mesh. The pressure level in the oil distribution system and pressure drop at the orifices shall be selected as low as possible to avoid unnecessary air intrusions. The system may be equipped with a cooler and shall be equipped with an adequate filter. Oil circulation has to be monitored continuously. Oil starvation during start up at cold conditions caused by high viscosity has to be considered. All internal tubes and spray nozzles should be accessible for tightening and control.

5.2.3 Combined lubrication systems Combined lubrication systems act like splash lubrication at low oil temperatures and high

oil viscosity. When the oil viscosity decreases at higher oil temperatures, a circulation system takes over and distributes the oil directly to gears or bearings. Oil filters and heat

exchangers or oil coolers may be

Such systems allow for smaller sizes of pumps and oil lines; since they are not dimensioned for low viscosity and risk of cavitation is lower.

integrated in this system.

The reduced filtration time achieved with such system shall be considered when determining the achievable cleanliness, unless a secondary filtration circuit is installed and permanently active.

5.3 Cleanliness

Proper cleanliness of lubricant is essential for trouble free operation of gears and bearings. This applies for mounting, run in and tests, as well as normal operation.

5.3.1 Rinsing of lubrication system All components in the gearbox including the lubrication system have to be cleaned separately before assembly, se also section 3. The cleanliness of the new lubricant has to be at least -/14/11 after ISO 4406. After pouring new lubricant in the gearbox and before applying loads, the gear has to be rotated at low speed to circulate the lubricant in order to rinse the gearbox and lubrication system. Loads shall not be applied before the cleanliness is at least -/14/11. During run in and tests the cleanliness of the lubricant has to be monitored regularly and kept at a cleanliness of at least -/15/12. The oil sample should be taken through a test nipple before the filter (upstream). After run in and tests the components have to be carefully sealed before dispatch.

5.3.2

Recommended cleanliness of lubricant

Following values (partly DS 2395) for lubricant in sump may apply:

Min. cleanliness of new lubricant whenever poured into the gearbox

-

 

/14/11

Min. cleanliness before applying load

-

Workshop

/14/11

conditions

Min. cleanliness during run in and tests (at stabilised conditions)

-

/15/12

Min. cleanliness at scheduled maintenance but not longer than 3 months for the first sample and the following at fixed intervals typical 6 months

-

 

/16/13

1) Field

Min. cleanliness immediate after commissioning or repair of gearbox/lubrication system

-

conditions

/16/13

Action programme 1. See table 5.3

-

/17/14

Action programme 2. See table 5.3

-

/18/15

1) Field condition means that an oil sample is taken and subsequent analysed.

Table 5.1 Recommended cleanliness of lubricants

In this context the cleanliness used in bearing calculations should not be taken better than - /17/14. However if it can be demonstrated that the cleanliness always is better than -/17/14, a better cleanliness class may be used in the bearing calculations. In this case the cleanliness class chosen for the calculations shall be 1 class poorer than the documented cleanliness class. In that context the required cleanliness for all activities in table 5.1 has to be modified correspondingly.

5.4 Components

5.4.1 Pumps The pump may be driven by a gear shaft or an electric motor. The viscosity interval for proper operation of the pump has to be considered. Effects from cavitation and false air intake have to be evaluated.

5.4.2 Filters Design of filters has to be considered carefully. At least the following subjects has to be considered:

- Flow capacity

- Filter capacity

- Mesh size and material

- Filtration rate β x [ISO 16889]

- By pass valve with monitor

The filter ratio β x is defined as the number of particles at a size x µm upstream divided with the number of particles down stream.

The system design shall ensure that vibration, pressure spikes, bypass operation or other unforeseen events do not release particles already trapped in the filter.

The filtration system, monitoring devices and associated service concept shall ensure that no harmful particles are released into the oil distribution system and that the oil in the sump remains on the cleanliness level assumed in the calculations even if the main filter is in bypass mode.

5.4.3 Cooler systems The cooler shall have sufficient capacity to keep the lubricant temperature at or below the design temperature.

5.4.4 Oil heaters At low temperatures and high lubricant viscosity it can be necessary to heat the lubricant before start up to avoid oil starvation. The heating element surface temperature has not to exceed a temperature, which can be harmful for the lubricant.

5.4.5 Tubes, hoses and fittings The hoses should be carefully chosen with respect to lubricant, pressure, flexibility and sturdiness. For lines subjected to pressure or suction, fittings and ports should have either high quality fittings or o-ring seals. The fittings should not be sensible to vibrations. Tubes and fitting made by copper or brass may cause electrolytic corrosion and should be carefully considered.

5.4.6 Lubricant reservoir The lubricant reservoir may be either the gear housing itself or a separate tank.

A suitable lubricant capacity may be calculated according to the following equation:

Q r = P nom ×V spec

Where P nom the rated power in kW and V spec is the specific lubricant volume in litre/kW.

A specific lubricant volume not lower than 0.15 l/kW is recommended.

For splash lubricated gearboxes without additional cooling a specific lubricant volume not lower than 0.4 l/kW is recommended.

This is to ensure sufficient time to achieve proper separating of air bobbles and precipitate particles and water. The inlet- and outlet pipe shall be separated as much as possible e.g. by means of a separating baffle. To increase separating of air an inclined wire-gauze can be situated near the return tube. The meshes should be 25-50 µm. The tank has to be equipped with a breathing filter with sufficient capacity to avoid pressure build up and with at least the same fineness as the system filter.

The minimum lubricant level should be continuously monitored (e.g. by means of a minimum level switch) to avoid a leak in the lubrication system to cause gear failure.

5.5

Additive systems

All commercial gear lubricants contain additives that enable them to meet specific performance requirements. Typical additives are:

- rust inhibitor

- oxidation inhibitor

- defoamant additive

- antiwear additive

- antiscuffing additive

Mineral and synthetic lubricants that contain special additives to prevent scuffing under boundary lubrication conditions are referred to as extreme pressure (EP) lubricants. Antiscuffing additives contain sulphur, phosphorus or other soluble compounds that form protective films to prevent scuffing.

Be aware that a certain additive package is developed with a specific purpose e.g. protecting against scuffing and wear and as such probably only tested with respect to this specific purpose. It is recommended to investigate the properties of the lubricant with respect to all technical details, which are present in a wind turbine gearbox e.g. fatigue life of rolling bearings.

5.6 Lubrication analyses general

Sufficient information’s concerning sampling of lubricant and the required analyses has to be stated in the service manual and the owner’s manual.

5.6.1 Sampling techniques Whenever samples are taken, it is important that the same procedures are followed so that consistent samples are obtained. Once the monitoring program has begun, do not change sampling procedures or sampling points without very strong reasons. Always use clean, plastic or glass sample bottles and keep all sampling equipment absolutely clean. Prior to sampling, fill out the label completely and attach it to the sample bottle. Be sure to record the wind turbine serial no., date and sample point.

Oil sampling ports on splash lubricated gearboxes should be situated at a height corresponding to the middle of the operating oil level. If the oil sump is divided, there should be a port in both sections. Forced lubricated gearboxes should be equipped with two ports, one between the pump and the filter and one after the filter.

To avoid misleading results causing hasty provisions at least the following subjects have to be considered:

- Samples have to be taken during operation at normal temperature.

- The oil sampling methodology, and analysing laboratory should not be changed without heavy reasons. Methodology may be according to ISO 4021.

- It is important to use absolutely clean fluid sample bottles and not to contaminate the samples during sampling. Cleaning of bottles may be according to ISO 3722.

- It is recommended to make plots of the result for each turbine to make the tendency in the contamination more clear.

5.6.2 Sampling from the gearbox The surroundings and the sampling port have to be thoroughly cleaned before opening the port. Use a clean plastic hose and discard it after the sampling.

Discard any oil in the drain valve including 3 times the dead volume in the tube in a separate bottle and obtain the sample to be analysed in a fresh bottle.

5.6.3 Sampling from oil drums In terms of samples from near the top, the middle and near the bottom of the drum, a representative sample should be kept and stratification avoided. The sampling tube has not to touch the bottom and the side of the drum. To ensure this a sampling rod with a sampling tube tied to the three positions would be useful. In each point 1/3 of the sample are taken.

5.6.4 On site testing Immediately after the sampling some simple investigations can be carried out:

5.6.5 Appearance test Look at the lubricant in a clean narrow glass bottle. Compare the sample with a sample of new, unused lubricant. The oil should look clear and bright. If the sample looks hazy and cloudy, or has a milky appearance, there may be water present. A darkened colour may indicate oxidation or contamination with fine wear particles. Tilt the bottles and observe whether the used oil appears more or less viscous than the new oil. A change in viscosity may indicate oxidation or contamination. Look for sediment in the bottom of the bottle.

5.6.6 Odour test Carefully sniff the oil sample, and compare the smell of the used oil sample with the new oil. The used oil should smell the same as new oil, that is should have a bland oily odour. Oils that have oxidised have a burnt odour, or smell acrid, sour or pungent.

5.6.7 Laboratory analysis For monitoring the lubricant conditions during operation and for failure analyses a number of laboratory analysis are available. The most common are described in annex C. Also scale numbers for particle counting and characteristics of contamination particles can be found in annex C.

5.6.8 Recommended analysis limits Immediately after the first start up, an oil sample should be taken and analysed, to state the point of reference. It should be born in mind that e.g. the tolerance on viscosity is ± 10% for new oil, and the TAN number varies a great deal from one oil type to another.

5.6.9 Recommended properties of new oil The properties of new oil should comply with DIN 51 517 teil 3. and the following additional requirements will apply: