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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources "Aircraft Engines of World War One." Aviation History, History of Flight, Century of Flight.

Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <>. One of the major advancements to the airplane during the World War I era was the rotary engine, and this site gave us a detailed explanation of why it was so revolutionary. Many primary sources within the website were used. "Airman Wounded in Battle." Popular Mechanics Apr. 1912: 1-2. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. As planes became more popular the good and bad side of them appeared to the world, and one of the bad being the fact that they could crash and injure people inside and outside of it. This article describes an Italian pilot in 1912 that crashed. Andrews, Major William F. "The Luftwaffe and the Battle for Air Superiority - Blueprint or Warning?" Air Power Journal (1995): 1-8. Print. This secondary source journal article provided us with just the information we needed to back up the points we try to prove on our website about the Luftwaffe. This article explains specifically how the Luftwaffe knew that they needed to gain air superiority in order to win their battles. "An Important Year in Military Aviation." The Literary Digest 21 Sept. 1912: 1-3. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <,-P.-A.PDF>. Besides modifications with bombs and airplanes there were modifications with guns and airplanes. To add a gun was a major step forward in aerial combat, and this article outlines Isaac A. Newtons rapid-fire machine gun, one of the first airplane-mounted guns. "Anti-Aircraft Guns Aimed Automatically." Popular Mechanics 70.6 (1938): 806. Print. This is a primary source journal illustrating the progress of the anti-air gun in 1938 WWII. This article helped us develop an understanding of what measures were taken in The Second World War to combat air power. "Army Autogiro." Popular Mechanics (1944): 129. Google Books. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. < ence+1931+plane&hl=en&ei=b0IkTfqeCoKBnAfUbWiAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CEcQ6AEwCTgo#v=on

epage&q=Popular%20Science%201931%20plane&f=true>. This article from the June 1944 Popular Mechanics Magazine describes the development of autogiros, an aircraft similar to a helicopter. Although, we dont exhibit this kind of aircraft on our website, in terms of technological development/advancement, it does act as a marker of where air forces were at this point in time. "Aviation Without Law." The Outlook 27 Dec. 1922: 1. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. Even after the First World War there weren't even any adopted rules of air warfare, not even to the public. This source was a great lead up to the "Hague Rules of Air Warfare" because it showed us that there weren't rules anywhere in 1922 about flying a plane. Bendiner, Pfc. Robert. "Radar." Yank Magazine 5 Oct. 1945: 1-2. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <>. In the Battle of Britain, the Royal Air Force (RAF) may have been outnumbered at times, but they had an advantage: one of the most advanced radar systems in the world. This article explains how radar was used in WWII and more specifically, how it aided Britain's success in the Battle of Britain. Bennet, Judith A. "Fears and Aspirations." The Journal of Pacific History 39 (2004): 283. JSTOR. Ithaca, 3 Nov. 2004. Web. 9 Feb. 2012. <span="" military%2Baviation%2BPacific%2BWorld%2Bwar%2B2%26acc%3Doff%26wc%3Do n&Search=yes>. This journal gave us more than one perspective on the war in the Pacific during WWII because it was full of concerns by Australians as well as British in the Pacific. It contained a page full of military fears and targets of intelligence. "Carrying Flying Boats on Warships." Popular Mechanics Sept. 1914: 1. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. <>. This article was written in 1914, during the First World War and provides a prediction about the near future of war. It predicts that airplanes and boats will play a major role in wars together - and it was right! "Construction of War Balloons in Philadelphia." Scientific American Magazine 16 11 1861: 1.

This article gave documented proof of the involvement of Thaddeus Lowe and his balloons in the American Civil War. This article helped us to understand how the air balloon was actually a significant part of the early revolution of aerial warfare. Contract between the U.S. Signal Corps and the Wright Brothers, dated February 1908. This formal contract stated that the Wright Brothers sold their plane designs to the United States for military purposes. This document put the Wrights plans to action - military action. Cook, Haruko Taya. Japan At War An Oral History. New York City U.S.A: Robert Anthony, Inc., 1992. Print. This book is an oral history of the everyday lives of Japanese citizens from the beginning of World War II till the end. This gave us a first hand perspective on how the Japanese felt about the war, and on some pages, specifically how feared aerial attacks. Dater, Henry M. Tactical Use of Air Power in World War II: The Navy Experience Military Affairs 14 (1950): 192-200. JSTOR. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. < earchText=World&searchText=Airplanes&searchText=Scouting&list=hide&searchUri= %2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DScouting%2BAirplanes%2Bduring%2BW orld%2BWar%2BII%26gw%3Djtx%26acc%3Don%26prq%3DScouting%2BAriplanes% 2Bduring%2BWorld%2BWar%2BII%26Search%3DSearch%26hp%3D25%26wc%3Don &prevSearch=&item=2&ttl=71&returnArticleService=showFullText> This simple article discusses what the advantages of air power were for a Navy soldier. This was helpful for the fact that it actually gives the account of his experiences dealing with aircraft. "Dive Bombing at Targets Assures Accuracy." Popular Mechanics (1933): 561. Google Books. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. < cs%22&hl=en&ei=v_wHTomlB6H30gG6tLzMCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&r esnum=5&sqi=2&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=true>. This brief article, from 1933 Popular Mechanics, explains the importance of the development of dive-bombing targets rather than normally bombing them from a parallel path of travel. This tactic comes into play in WWII and is found to be very innovative. Eisenhower, Dwight D. "Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force." Letter to Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force. 5 June 1944. MS.

One thing we really wanted to emphasize was how strategically important a good air offense could be when fighting in a battle. In Dwight D. Eisenhower's address to the soldiers about to go off into Operation Overlord (D-Day), he clearly states how the U.S. air offense had reduced the enemy's strength in the air and on the ground in previous battles. English, Dave. "Great Aviation Quotes: Air Power." Great Aviation Quotes., McGraw-Hill, 1996-2011. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. This site has provided our project with numerous primary source quotations that serve to back up the information presented on all areas of our website. Many of the quotes express valuable insights and reactions from both military commanders and the actual aviators who mastered the skies decades ago. The author who compiled this website is a professional aviator himself. Fryer, D. W. "The British Vehicle and Aircraft Industry." Geography Sept. 1948. Print This economic report on the rise of the automobile and aircraft industry for Britain in post-WWII provided information on the war itself, and showed the economic effect of the aircraft. "Gains and Losses in Aviation." The American Review of Reviews Aug. 1910: 1-3. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. There were many positive reactions to such a revolutionary movement as the introduction of flight to war, but there were also negatives and this article outlines both. Hewitt, Kenneth. "Place Annihilation: Area Bombing and the Fate of Urban Places." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 73.2 (1983): 257-84. JSTOR. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <>. This scholarly journal article provides an insight to the impact and sheer destruction of strategic bombing in WWII. Also, it provides hard statistics that were very useful for our website. K. B. Bombing Japan. JSTOR 11.9 (1942): 105. This is a great article written just about a week after the tragic bombings in Japan. This was very useful because it gives us not only a pretty accurate interpretation of what the bombings were like, but also the initial reaction that followed. Kimball, Warren F., ed. Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1984. Print. This is a complete collection of letters sent between Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill during WWII. These primary sources showed us their reactions to the rise of air power along with the strategies they used to apply aviation to warfare. Letter from Abraham Lincoln regarding Thaddeus Lowes war balloons, dated 7/25/1861. This letter was written from Abraham Lincoln to Lieutenant Scott proposing that he see Thaddeus Lowe, the chief aeronautic during the American Revolution, about using his war balloons for military use. This showed the U.S. governments early interest in air power as a major advantage, and therefore it showed the signs of an early revolution. Lochner, Louis P. "The Blitzkrieg in Belgium: A Newsman's Eyewitness Account." The Wisconsin Magazine of History 50 (1967): 337-46. JSTOR. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <>. This document is one of our best primary sources; it documents an American news reporters own experience of a German Blitzkrieg assault on Belgium. There is much emphasis on airborne capacities of the Germans and the Luftwaffe. Marshall, General. "Price of Victory." Biennial Report 19 Oct. 1945: 1. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. < .pdf>. Although this article was written after the Second World War it still shows a the massive impact aerial warfare had on the lives of people - in this case for the worse. Millet, John D. "Appendix C." The Organization and Role of the Army Service Forces. Washington D.C.: Albert C. Smith, 1954. 1-494. Print. United States Army in World War II. This book provided us with a report from the Commanding General of the United States Army to the Chief of Staff, explaining the relation of Supply and Service Agencies to Combat Forces. In his report he mentions the importance of the U.S. Army's Air Force. "More About Balloons." Scientific American Magazine 3 1849: 1. This article is about the Austrian Governments plans in the mid 1800s to use war balloons to bomb Venice. This article gave us primary evidence of the early use of air power for military use in countries other than the Unites States.

"New York Times Mid-Week Pictorial." New York Times Feb. 1915: 1-2. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. <>. Trench warfare and other ground forces had the advantage in WWI because planes were still very undeveloped. This article gave us a view at the war from the trenches its actually a published letter written from a soldier in the trenches. He mentions the role that planes had in warfare at the time. "Rollable Runways." Popular Mechanics (1944): 129. Google Books. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. < ence+1931+plane&hl=en&ei=b0IkTfqeCoKBnAfUbWiAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CEcQ6AEwCTgo#v=on epage&q=Popular%20Science%201931%20plane&f=true>. This article was found in the June 1944 Popular Mechanics Magazine. It illustrates the development of rollable runways during World War II, which can be noted as a fairly significant technological improvement. Root, Amos I. Gleanings in Bee Culture 1904: 1. This is an article published in a magazine journal about bee keeping. Although one wouldnt think to find something about the Wright Brothers in such a magazine, Amos I. Root, the journalist, was one of the main journalists who publicized the works of the Wrights. This article gave us a look at the Wright Brothers through the eyes of someone living during the time they were conducting their experiments. Rosenthal, R. E., and W. J. Walsh. "Optimizing Flight Operations for an Aircraft Carrier in Transit." Operations Research 44.2 (1996): 305-12. Print. This scientific journal illustrates some of the mechanics behind an aircraft carrier. Though the article focuses on how to improve the design, it provides key insight as to how an aircraft carrier works. Telegram from Orville Wright to his father Milton Wright. This telegram shows Orvilles excitement in him and his brothers recent success with there flying machine. This document showed a significant step toward the Wrights perfecting their designs. "The Hague Rules of Warfare." World War I Document Archive. Brigham Young University Library, 20 May 2009. Web. 17 Sept. 2011. < Rules_of_Air_Warfare>.

This document is the actual, original "Hague Rules of Warfare", a document drafted by the Hague Convention of Jurists in 1922-1923. It proved to be very essential and useful for our project's reform aspect, as it is a primary example of an attempt to reform airplane warfare. Tittoni, Renato. Engineer Corps. The Italo-Turkish War (1911-12). Kansas City: Franklin Hudson, 1914. 100. Google. Web. 7 May 2012. < turkish war&hl= en&sa=X&ei=vJCoT9vWBbTk6QHqnLHIDw&ved=0CDwQ6AEwA g#v=onepage&q=italo turkish war&f=false>. During the Italo-Turkish War the fixed-wing aircraft was used for the first time for reconnaissance and even for dropping bombs on the enemy. This primary source collection of reports from the Italian General Staff provided us with a quote signifying the airplane's new importance in warfare. United States patent for the Wright plane, patented May 22, 1906 This patent made the Wright Brothers designs and ideas official. This shows another significant step towards the emergence and revolution of the fixedwing aircraft. Vaccaro, Arturo. "Arturo Vacarro Barbarossa (at the Front)." Telephone interview. 12 Feb. 2012. This interview was conducted by two of our group members and was translated from Italian by Anthony Ruccolo, the nephew of Arturo Vaccaro. Mr. Vaccaro was an actual Italian soldier in Operation Barbarossa, and gave us a first hand account of the influence that aircraft had in this particular WWII operation. Van De Linde, Jan. "Air Power's Impact on War." Telephone interview. 13 May 2012. Jan van de Linde was part of the Netherlands "resistance" against the Germans during WWII and saw air power's impact on the war. Although he was interviewed only concerning his part in WWII, he was also a Rear Admiral of the Royal Netherlands Navy in the Korean War. He is one our group members' grandfather. Willis, Clint, ed. The War: Stories of Life and Death From World War II. New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth, 1999. Print. This source compiles numerous tales of war veterans who fought in The Second World War. This book was extremely useful for looking at the experiences of people who had connections with airplanes during WWII. Woodhouse, Henry. "Wilbur Wright, The Man Who Made Flying Possible." Collier's

Magazine 15 June 1912: 1. Web. 6 Dec. 2011. <>. This article on Wilbur Wright, much like an obituary, gave us an insight on how important of a man Wilbur Wright was in the production of the first airplanes. Unfortunately, he died in 1912 of a disease and his brother went on to live into the 1940's, but he certainly left behind a legacy. Wooldridge, E. T. Carrier Warfare In The Pacific. WASHINGTON AND LONDON: SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1993. Print. SMITHSONIAN HISTORY. This book is full of oral stories from the veterans of battles in the Pacific during World War II. A lot of great primary sources are in this book that give detail into a lot of important WWII battles. Young Women Wanted as Civilian Airplane Plotters Science News Letter 3 May 1941: 283. Print. This article is from a newspaper called Science News Letter. It details the role of women in military aviation in the form of a signup sheet. This showed us how airplanes, at the time of their emergence, were effecting the lives of everyone, not just men. 1908 footage of the Wright Brothers second flight The Wright Brothers first flew their lighter-than-air flying machine in Kitty Hawk North Carolina in 1903, but the flight only lasted 12 seconds. In the spring of 1908 when they had received their patents for their machine in America and several European countries, they began testing their machine in other countries to spread there success and begin to revolutionize their new concept of flight. This video gave us the opportunity to visually see what it was like back in 1908 when the Wright Brothers were testing their machine. Secondary Sources "Aircraft Engines of World War One." Aviation History, History of Flight, Century of Flight. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <>. One of the major advancements to the airplane during the World War One era was the rotary engine, and this site gave us a detailed explanation of why it why it was so revolutionary. A. J. B. American Aircraft Production Bulletin of International News 18 (1941): 173538. JSTOR. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. < =Britain&searchText=Aircraft&searchText=BAttle&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2

FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DAircraft%2BBAttle%2Bof%2BBritain%26acc%3Don%2 6wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=2&ttl=5681&returnArticleService=showFullText&resu ltsServiceName=null>. This article gave us some insight into the experiences of producing aircraft during the early 40s. This also gave us some information on key parts to the plane that were significant. AJIL The American Journal of International Law 463-467 JSTOR. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. %3DTurko Italian%2Bwar%26gw%3Djtx%26acc%3Don%26prq%3DTurkish%2BItalian%2Bwar% 26hp%3D25%26wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=1&ttl=28&returnArticleService=showF ullText This journal article gave us another perspective on the Italo-Turkish war. Although it may not have contained a lot of information on air power, it provided us with information that led us to other sources that did. Algeo, John (1993). Fifty years among the new words: a dictionary of neologisms, 19411991 (2, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. Through research we learned quickly that there are two types of bombing, strategic (bombing cities and civilians) and tactical (bombing of military bases and other targets on a battlefield.) This article explains the general concept of strategic bombing. Ambrose, Stephen E., and C. L. Sulzberger. American Heritage New History of World War II. New York, NY: Viking, 1997. Print. This is an incredible encyclopedia on all things World War II. This resource was undoubtedly useful for not only general reference information, but to also things like diagrams, maps, key information, even some primary sources. Bard, Mitchell G. The Complete Guide to World War II. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marie Butler-Knight, 2010. Print. The Complete Guide. This book gives an overall summary of World War II and key battles in all areas from the pacific to the Atlantic, which was very helpful in figuring out the main ideas of our project. It also gives a history of how the war started. Barde, Robert E. "Midway: Tarnished Victory." Military Affairs 47.4 (1983): 188-92. JSTOR. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. <http:// cSearch%3FQuery%3Dbattle%2Bof%2Bmidway%26acc%3Doff%26wc%3Don&Search

=yes&uid=3739696&uid=2134&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=476987390 75167>. This is an essay on unjust treatment of Japanese POWs following the Battle of Midway. Though the focus is not on aircraft, it does provide valuable information on how aerial battles in the Pacific were fought. Bill Gunston, ed. Aviation Year by Year. London: DK, 1992. This source gives an amazing history on every single event that happened in aviation since the beginning of the 20th century. This book will be useful as a general reference guide for any information we may need but dont know where else to find it. "Boeing B-17F Flying Fortress - Manufacturer Was The Boeing Company." The Museum of Flight Aviation History, Airplane and Spacecraft Collections, Aerospace Library, Education and Research Center | The Museum of Flight. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. <>. This is one of the aircraft pages from the Museum of Flight. It contains a fairly detailed description of the B-17 Flying Fortress, one of the most famous bombers in history. "Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Manufacturer Was Boeing Aircraft Company." The Museum of Flight Aviation History, Airplane and Spacecraft Collections, Aerospace Library, Education and Research Center | The Museum of Flight. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. <>. This is another page of the Museum of Flight Website that provides information on a specific plane. This page provides information on the B-29 Superfortress, the plane that dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Boyne, Walter J. Clash of Wings: World War II in the Air. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. Print. This book is excellent in that it covers all the aspects of the significance of air power in WWII, including those aspects in which we are interested. Many useful images are included. It also gave a bibliography, and a whole section on statistics of aircraft in WWII. Boyne, Walter J. The Smithsonian Book of Flight. New York: Wings Books, 1987 This probably is not the best source for historical context, however, it does have some short-term significance with World War I, and it was also helpful in long-term significance with World War II.

Bradshaw, Gary. The Tale of the Airplane. Mississippi State University. 9/27/2011 <>. This website provided crucial information about the upbringing of the airplane into the skies as well as into society. "Fairchild-Republic A-10A 'Thunderbolt II' (Warthog)." Aerospace Museum of California. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. <>. The second page off of the Aerospace Museum of California website provided us with his details on the The Thunderbolt II, a modern fighter used to eliminate surface targets, specifically Soviet tanks. Carlson, Benjamin F. "The Pros and Cons of Killer Drones - Technology." The Atlantic Wire. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 7 Aug. 2009. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>. This source is a good article that provides basic information on what military drones are, as well as one of their modern uses, fighting in Pakistan. The article also organizes a small list of simple positives and negatives of the usage of drones. Citino, Robert M. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in The German Army, 1920 - 1939. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1999. Google Books. In our project we look at how planes brought about different strategies in war. Blitzkrieg, meaning, "lightening war" in German, is a high-speed war tactic. In particular parts of this book there are primary source explanations of how airplanes played an important role in the existence and growth of this strategy. Clancy, Tom. Carrier. New York: Rubicon, 1999. Print. During the Second World War aircraft carriers became extremely important because battles could be fought between airplanes without the planes actually seeing each other. This book provided us with primary and secondary quotes about aircraft carriers. Crosby, Francis. Bombers: An Illustrated History of Bomber Aircraft, Their Origins and Evolution. London: Lorenz, 2004. Print. This detailed secondary source book illustrates the history of the bomber. It gives both specifications to the bombers and when they were used and to what effect during both World Wars and the Cold War. Crosby, Francis. Bombers of World Wars I and II. London: Southwater, 2005. Print

This is another bomber book, found alongside the previous source, as they share a mutual author. This book provides less information than its counterpart, but focuses more on battles in World Wars I and II and the role of aircraft. "Days of Glory: Day 11 - Battle of Britain." Days of Glory. Blogger, 20 July 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <>. Besides information to back what we had gotten from other sources concerning the Battle of Britain, this blog actually provided us with a couple of primary sources. One was a British newspaper from 1940 with headlines regarding fears of a German invasion. Dighton, Len. Battle of Britain. New York, NY: Coward, McCann, & Geoghegan, 1980. Print. This book provided us with primary sources about many European WWII battles, and in a particular section, with a lot of details on the German conquest of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France, and the role of the Luftwaffe. On one particular page there is a primary quote from Winston Churchill commenting on the necessity and importance of air power for the success of the British in WWII. We got other primary quotes from this book and there is even a section on radar, which we saw as a major reaction to growing dominance of air power in WWII. Dor-ner, Zvi. "The Bombing of Germany." American Experience. PBS. 2010. Television. This documentary was very helpful in leading us toward other sources because it was very easy to understand and got its message across really well. It had great interviews with historians and first hand accounts of Battles in WWII. "Drones in SE Colorado." Mountain Bike Review. 29 Oct. 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>. One aspect of our failed reform section is the fact that humans now aren't even bombing themselves but have made so many advancements that we are now using drones to do our "murdering" for us (as this article called it.) This is a perfect example of a failed reform on regulations, or limits to air warfare. Enemy At The Gates. Dir. Jean Jacques Annaud. Perf. Jude Law, Joseph Fiennes, Rachel Weisz, and Ed Harris. Paramount Pictures and Mandalay Pictures, 2001. DVD. When researching Operation Barbarossa we wanted to look into The Battle of Stalingrad because it is a result of Barbarossa. Although this video was about a sniper and his success in the battle, there were parts with airplanes and we

could see how they affected the mindset of the soldiers and the overall outcome of the battle. Many scenes were very intense because they were very graphic, but this allowed us to see the true effects of the airplane in WWII battles. Feltus, Pamela. Air Power: The Role of Bombing in World War II. 9/13/2011 <>. This site is chock full of information on the very smallest details on both World Wars, which helped us to better understand something after we had learned the broad idea. A section of this website that we used was extensively on World War Two bombings, which gave us information on when bombs came into play in the WWII. Another section of the website (of the many that were useful) helped us to understand what strategic and tactical bombing actually are. "Fighting The Blue: The Battle of Britain." UKTV: "Yesterday" UKTV. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>. This source provides great key facts about the Battle of Britain, one of the most significant air-only battles in WWII and perhaps air warfare history. It contains hard-fact statistics and strategic information, which also helped us on the moral focus of our project. "Firebombing of Dresden This Day in History 2/13/1945." History Made Every Day American & World History. A&E Television Networks, 1996-2011. Web. 11 Sept. 2011. <>. This webpage, managed by the well-known and credible History Channel, discusses the firebombing of Dresden during WWII. It also discusses the controversies and claimed motives behind the event. This area of research was uses in our (failed) reform section of our project. Fuchida, Mitsuo, and Masatake Okumiya. Midway, the Battle That Doomed Japan; the Japanese Navy's Story,. [Annapolis]: Naval Institute, 1955. Print. This is a secondary source book written by two Japanese historians on the Battle of Midway. It provided accurate information on what role aircraft played during the battle, as well as how important the battle ultimately was. Gates, Bill. "Aviators: THE WRIGHT BROTHERS." TIME 29 Mar. 1999. Print This article from Time Magazine is about the history of the Wright brothers, by Bill Gates. It provides a brief family background instead of a real aviation history, which was good in giving us a general idea about the Wright Brothers before getting into details about their accomplishments in flight. Ginsburgh, Wheeler, Robert, Ed. The Evolution of Air Warfare. 1/9/04 Air and Space

Power Journal. 9/13/2011 <>. This website was written by two majors who clearly had an extensive knowledge of war history and war techniques. They used this knowledge in helping us to understand how early air warfare played a role in the big scheme of war and war technique. Gropman, Alan. "Aviation at the Start of the First World War." U.S. Centennial of Flight: Born of Dreams, Inspired by Freedom. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commssion. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. *Note: an excerpt from a primary source is found within this secondary source. This website article is from a strongly reputable source: the US Centennial of Flight Commission, managed by NASA. The Commission was instigated by US Federal Legislation. The article discusses the development of fixed-wing heavier-than-air aircraft for military use before and during WWI, and how this invoked reactions in many nations militaries and the nature of war. Gropman, Alan Aviation at the Start of the First World War The Centennial of Flight Commission. Web.27 Sept. 2011. This article explains Italys expansive military aviation growth during the years before World War I. Previous to WWI, the Italo-Turkish War had shown the fixed-wing aircrafts abilities when Italy won the war due to its air superiority. Hansen, Ole, Steen. World War I: War In The Trenches. Austin, New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2001. Print. In WWI, ground troops, especially troops in trenches, had the advantage, despite the fact that planes were emerging in warfare. This was because planes were so new and very undeveloped that they didn't have a major impact on the battlefield (yet.) This book provided us with a primary source from a WWI pilot who saw the trenches below him. Harclerode, Peter. Wings of War: Airborne Warfare 1918-1945. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005. Print. This book covers the time period in between the end of World War I and the end of World War II. Considering we already had plenty of sources discussing World War II, this book was mainly useful for researching the interwar period. Harris, Richard. "First Flyers -- They're Not Who You Think..." Richard Harris and Associates Aviation Services. 2003. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. <>.

Besides the Wright Brothers there were many men around the world around the time of the early 1900's and even earlier, who were also contributing to the rise of air power. This website article provided us with information on two French inventors who made a previously designed engine come to life. Hertel, Christiane. Dis/Continuities in Dresden's Dances of Death. JSTOR 82.1 (2000): 83. This article from this book does a good job of detailing the aftermath of actual bombings themselves. It also shows peoples reactions to what had happened, this means it is also a good source to search for information on controversies. Overall, it doesnt give too many details on World War II in general, but rather on the specific disaster of the bombing in Dresden, Germany. "History and Historical Symbol." City of Dresden Press and Public Relations Office. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>. This website memorializes those lost in the 1945 Bombing of the German city of Dresden. It showed us how traumatic the bombings were and how they were a perfect example of the devastating impact that the airplane had on war and more specifically, civilians. "Holocaust History." World War II in the Pacific. 06 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <>. This site, similar to one seen further on in our bibliography, gives specific information on actions made by both the Japanese and the Americans in the war in the Pacific. It gives information on Japan's rise to power and its early military success and the turning point in Midway in which the Americans took the offensive. Honious, Ann. What Dreams We Have. 2003 National Park Service. 9/27/2011 <>. This is a national park website which provided chapters of information on the Wrights from when they were just kids to when they tested out aerodynamics on bicycles to when they were famous, successful entrepreneurs. Hough, Richard, and Denis Richards. The Battle of Britain: The Greatest Air Battle of World War II. New York: Norton, 1989. Print. This book, solely discussing the Battle of Britain, covers a multitude of aspects of the battle. It provides explanation on why the battle was decisive, and how it was revolutionary: it was fought by planes only. Within this source, there are

many primary source materials, useful images, and a bibliography that led us to other sources. Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. 199 Days: The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Forge, 1993. Print. Operation Barbarossa is one of the battles of WWII that we exhibit on our website where air power plays a major role. The Battle of Stalingrad, where planes were also very important, was a direct result of Operation Barbarossa. This book on Battle of Stalingrad provided us with some information on the air raids and their effectiveness. Hussein, Jamal. Evolution of Air Power. Defense Journal. 9/13/2011 <>. This website was full of statistics and details and dates about the early developments of war aircrafts which gave us what we needed to find out information in the early stages of our project. "International Humanitarian Law - Washington Treaty 1922." International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) - Home. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. <>. In our website we examine attempts at trying to limit air warfare, and this reputable branch off of the ICRC site, gave us full text of the Geneva Protocol of 1922, a protocol that attempted to put rules and regulations on warfare, some of which applying to air warfare. Jakob, Peter L. "The World's First Military Airplane." Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Blog. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 23 July 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <>. This article posted by Smithsonian about the first military flyer, the Wright 1909 Military Flyer, gave us useful information on what the Wrights first planes were like and why they were revolutionary. Johnston, Alan. "BBC News - Libya 1911: How an Italian Pilot Began the Air War Era." BBC - Homepage. BBC, 9 May 2011. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <>. *Note: a primary source was found within this secondary source. The first Italian bomber was Giulio Gavotti, and this article provided us with excerpts from letters he actually wrote to his father explaining his bombings on the Ottomans (Turks.) Keegan, John, ed. Picture History of World War II American Aircraft Production.

London: PRC, 199 This is a very detailed and not to mention huge encyclopedia dedicated to everything World War II. Things from operations to vehicles to strategies, this book has all of it. Unfortunately, most of this book did not serve much use to us considering our topic is very specific, air warfare. However, this encyclopedia does have some information on strategic bombing and gives details on operations in both Germany and Japan where strategic bombing was implemented. These pages have information on why this type of bombing was used and how it was successful. Khan, Iftikhar A. "U.S. Denial of Civilian Deaths in Drone Attacks Dismissed as Untrue."Dawn 19 July 2011. Dawn. 19 July 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>. This was an interesting article from Dawn, Pakistans oldest English newspaper, about the use of U.S. military drones and civilian casualties. This article gave us an idea at what we wanted to look into further for our (failed) reform section. Kirby, M., and R. Capey. "The Area Bombing of Germany in World War II: and Operational Research Perspective." The Journal of the Operational Research Society 2958 (1978-2007): 661-77. JSTOR. Web. 18 Sept. 2011. Examining the strategic bombings on Germany during World War II through an "operational research perspective" of Britains Bomber Command during the war, this scholarly article gave us insight into exactly how effective these strategic bombings were, and also perhaps the intentions behind them. This consequently helped us in concluding the ethics of those controversial strategic bombings. Lake, Jon, The Great Book of Bombers. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2002 This book contains detailed information on every bomber to ever fly the skies. It was useful in finding information on the planes that led to World War II and the planes that followed. Lammers, Stephen E. "Area Bombing in World War II: The Argument of Michael Walzer."The Journal of Religious Ethics 1-33 (1973-2005): 96-113. JSTOR. Web. 18 Sept. 2011. Stephen E. Lammers provides an analysis of Michael Walzer's examination of the ethics and justice involved in World War II. We specifically found sections in the article that looked at the justifications/arguments surrounding strategic bombings against German cities and populations by the RAF.

Levine, Alan J. The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945. New York: Praeger, 1992. Print. This book was helpful, though more than a decade old. It provided us with a detailed description of the bombings on Germany during WWII, as well as the politics behind it in Command, and it is highly recommended. "Lawrence Hargrave Centre - Radial Rotary Engine." Lawrence Hargrave Centre Inc. Lawrence Hargrave Centre Inc., 22 July 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <>. An Australian inventor/engineer named Lawrence Hargrave came up with a basic design for an engine that later became the "rotary engine." This site provided us with his original drawn-out plans of the engine and the basic information on what he contributed to the rise of air power. Manning, Scott. "World War I: Troop Statistics." Historian on the Warpath Articles, Reviews, and Everyday Encounters with the past. 4 Jan. 2007. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <>. One of the major reactions to the rise of aerial warfare was to civilian casualties. This website provided us with useful data on the civilian and military casualties of the First World War. Martinez, Michael. "U.S. Drone Killing of American Al-Awlaki Prompts Legal, Moral Debate - CNN." Featured Articles from CNN: CNN Politics. Cable News Network, 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>. When resubmitting our project for the district level after our school level of NHD, one of the new focuses for our project was connections to today. This very recent CNN article covers a story about a U.S. drone killing its own U.S. citizen, showing what advanced military aviation technology has become. Also, it reveals the morals of air warfare today and a possible reform that needs to happen. Meacham, Jon. Franklin and Winston: An Intimate Portrait of an Epic Friendship. New York: Random House, 2003. Print. Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt had an amazing friendship that helped them to succeed in the Second World War. They saw the usefulness of air power and this book provided us with two quotes from Churchill about his (positive) attitude toward air power. Mets, David R. Airpower and Technology: Smart and Unmanned Weapons. Westport,

CT: Praeger Security International, 2009. Print. David R. Mets, a Professor Emeritus of the USAF Air University and a former USAF commander, provides in-depth analysis of the evolution of American airpower, technology, and strategy. The book offers an explanation of air warfare's past in several distinct eras, the reforms in war strategy and theory, and the legacy of military aviation into the future. We specifically focused on the controversies on some specific strategic bombings, especially during WWII, as well as revolutionary changes in bombing technology. Mondey, David, ed. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Worlds Aircraft. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Book Inc., 1978 This book is quite simply an encyclopedia of all aircraft. It was mainly useful for exploring the different types of early aircraft. However, it will also useful when searching for information to enhance our historical context and reaction sections. Mueller, John. "Changing Attitudes Toward War: The Impact of the First World War." JSTOR 28. JSTOR. 9/13/2011 <>. This journal gives an in depth look at the changing opinions and attitudes of people toward aircraft after The First World War, and after just reading the first two paragraphs, one could understand in general, how the First World War and its aircraft impacted the world. Murray, Williamson, and Allan Reed. Millett. A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2000. Print. This detailed book helped us investigate many various battles and engagements in which air power played a decisive and essential role. This book contained a lot of good information on the tactics and impact of Nazi Luftwaffe, and also reactions. Murray, Williamson, and Allan Reed. Millett. Military Innovation in the Interwar Period. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. Print. This book describes advancements taken in between The World Wars. Primarily, we looked at parts that suggest innovations in aircraft related areas, such as dive bombing, aircraft carriers, and in the aircraft themselves. (No Author Listed). Italo-Turkish War (TURKO-ITALIAN WAR 1912). This article deals with the events of the Italo-Turkish war, reporting on the first

aerial bombings in all of history, an event that opened the gateway to World War I and to a new way of warfare. (No Author Listed). "The First Military Flyer." US Centennial of Flight: Born of Dreams, Inspired by Freedom by. US Centennial of Flight Commission. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. This is another article off of the U.S Centennial of Flight Commission's website; this one gives essential information on the Wright Brothers' development of their first military flyer. This invention/development led to the Italian and American introductions of war airplanes. Neillands, Robin. The Bomber War: The Allied Air Offensive against Nazi Germany. Woodstock: Overlook, 2001. Print. This secondary source contains quotations, and a clear, concise interpretation and accounts of the strategic bombing events during WWII and their impacts. Noorani, A.G. India and the Geneva Convention Protocols. Economic and Political Weekly. 4-10 April 1998: 746. The Geneva Conventions put certain regulations on war, some of which applied to airplanes. This journal entry is very detailed when it comes to the specific protocols of the Geneva Conventions. It also relates to a certain event in India that had to do with the Geneva Conventions. Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. Kamikaze Diaries: Reflections of Japanese Student Soldiers. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2006. Print. This book helped us to understand the mindset of Kamikaze fighters during WWII. The Kamikaze fighter pilots introduced a whole new way of fighting with airplanes an example of how the aircraft was revolutionary. Osborne, Linda B., Susan Reyburn, and Staff of Library of Congress. "Instruments of War: Aircraft." The Library of Congress World War II Companion. By Margaret E. Wagner. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007. 328-44. Print. This source had great insights and facts on the uses, tactics, and significant role of military aviation in the Second World War. This source includes great primary quotations, commenting on the importance of air power "Pacific War - World War 2 - Japan vs. U.S." Pacific War. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <>. This site gives a brief analysis behind the war in the Pacific with the Japanese. It gives information about prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor all the way to the turning point at The Battle of Midway and the strategies America used afterward to achieve victory.

Parshall, Jonathan B., and Anthony P. Tully. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Washington, D.C.: Potomac, 2005. Print. This is another account of the Battle of Midway. This source was a very accurate account of The Battle That Doomed Japan, and also complimentary on the use of aircraft. Perret, Geoffrey. Winged Victory: The Army Air Forces in World War II. New York: Random House, 1993. Print. This book gives a detailed discussion on the role of the USAAF in WWII (its use of airpower, methods, and significant battles), including information on the battles we are interested in. There are also useful images and a bibliography. Prange, Gordon W., Donald M. Goldstein, and Katherine V. Dillon. Miracle at Midway. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. Print. This book tells of the turning point for naval dominance in the Pacific. It shows how a superior Japanese fleet was defeated by an inferior U.S force. Putland, Alan L. "September 4th 1940." THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 2003. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <>. This website provided us with a part of a speech that Hitler made during the Battle of Britain. The speech is all about air power because the Battle of Britain was an all air war. Robertson, Nic. "How Robot Drones Revolutionized the Face of Warfare" International - Breaking, World, Business, Sports, Entertainment and Video News. Cable News Network, 27 July 2009. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>. This credible CNN article is a goldmine in terms of how exactly the UAV unmanned drone has "revolutionized the face of warfare". There is a great balance of positive views, especially for the U.S., as well as counterpoints. Rummel, R. J. "Commentary: Was World War II American Urban Bombing Democide?"Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War. University of Hawaii, 22 Sept. 2003. Web. 18 Sept. 2011. This website, written by political scientist R.J. Rummel, was extremely useful in that it addressed our group's forward-most question in our project: were the controversial strategic bombings by the Allies during World War II just? The author of this article argues no in every way.

Saward, Dudley. Victory Denied: The Rise of Air Power and the Defeat of Germany, 1920-45. New York: F. Watts, 1987. Print. This source shows the development of air power (both tactical and strategic) through WWII, and how it became an essential and decisive force for both sides to bring German defeat. Primary quotations were found in this source. Schaffer, Ronald. Wings of Judgemen: American Bombing in World War II. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Print. This source shows a historian's account and viewpoint of American air power and strategic bombing in WWII, detailing specific missions, their impacts, and he also discusses morals. Schlenoff, Daniel C.. "The Equivocal Success of the Wright Brothers." Scientific American Magazine 10 11 2003: 3. Scientific American. Scientific American. 9/27/2011 <>. This magazine article gave us even more information on the Wright Brothers, but from a more modern point of view (written in 2003.) Spartacus Educational Web .13 Sept. 2011. This website is dedicated to the memory of World War I airplanes and provided us with information on early signs of strategic bombing. Stille, Mark, and Tony Bryan. US Navy Aircraft Carriers 1942-45: World War Two Built Ships. Osprey, 2007. Print. This book details various aircraft carriers and strategies used during World War II. While this was mainly used for the statistics found in the book, there was some other information detailing the specific carriers during specific battles that proved to be useful. Summary of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols. September, 2006 Red Cross. 9/20/2011 <>. This site, provided by the Red Cross, gives a really good summary of each of the Geneva Conventions and additional protocols. The Geneva Conventions 0f 1949 put regulations on warfare, some of which applied to the use of airplanes. "The Battle of Britain." BBC News. BBC. Web. 21 Apr. 2012.

<>. This page of the BBC News website provided us with exactly what we needed to get a general idea of what really happened during the Battle of Britain. It also provided us with some great photographs of both Luftwaffe and RAF planes and even some primary source audio clips. The Wright Brothers: Inventing a Flying Machine. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. 9/27/2011 <>. This branch of the Smithsonian website had to be one of the most useful websites we found, because it was easy to use and was very professional, and because it provided many primary sources as well as background information. "The Wright Brothers | Military Use of the Airplane." Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. <>. This brief history of military aviation by the Smithsonian, helped us to specifically learn about the development of early fixed-wing aircraft and their introduction to the military, and what the Wrights had to do with it. Tobin, James. "The Greatest Courage and Achievements." To Conquer the Air: The Wright Brothers and the Great Race For Flight. New York: First Free, 2003. 335-38. Googlebooks. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. < quer+the+Air:+The+Wright+Brothers+and+the+Great+Race+for+Flight+By+James+Tob in&source=bl&ots=bHfCM4Pnws&sig=KgVW3Scv2bplBDTEKN21BKsK_U&hl=en&ei=rM7fTrLpJenj0QG1v8isBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resn um=3&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=To%20Conquer%20the%20Air%3A%20 The%20Wright%20Brothers%20and%20the%20Great%20Race%20for%20Flight%20By %20James%20Tobin&f=false>. This book, although secondary, provided us with several primary quotes about the enthusiasm expressed by world leaders and royals who saw the Wright Brothers' demonstrations. It also provided us with another primary source: a French song about the future possibilities of the airplane. Trueman, Chris. "Operation Sealion." History Learning Site. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <>. This website is fairly reputable because although it may not be as reputable as one such as BBC or, the author of this page does have a Bachelor of Arts. This website provided us with primary quotations that explain the airplane's role in the Battle of Britain.

Urban Areas Division. Effects of Air Attack on Urban Complex Tokyo-KawasakiYokohama. Rep. no. 56. U.S. Superintendent of Documents, 1947. Print. This is the United States Strategic Bombing Survey, a report showing the statistics of Japanese production of goods, amount of workers, factories, and overall population during the war. What we looked into is the part that shows the areas that allied forces bombed and its effectiveness on the Japanese. Van Der Kloot, William April 1915: Five Future Nobel Prize-Winners Inaugurate Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Academic-Industrial-Military Complex Pg.149160 (2004) This journal tells the story of five future Nobel Prize winners coming together at the dawn of the First World War and building chemical weapons for Germany. Although we do not examine chemicals weapons on our website, we thought this would help us to get a better understanding of The World Wars, since chemicals weapons were a part of both of them. Various. "BBC - History - The Battle of Britain (pictures, Video, Facts & News)." BBC Homepage. BBC. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>. This site is an amazing resource on anything involving the Battle of Britain. It contains articles, photographs, and even some videos. This will be a good reference tool as well as a general information resource. Walzer, Michael. "World War II: Why Was This War Different?" Philosophy and Public Affairs 1-33 (1971-2005): 3-21. JSTOR. Web. 18 Sept. 2011. This academic journal article explores some of the controversies and questions of justice during WWII, which is our main period of focus. We specifically examined Walzer's take on the controversial issue of firebombing Dresden. Wyman, Richard H. "The First Rules of Air Warfare." Air War College: Gateway to the Internet. Air University Review, Mar.-Apr. 1984. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. *Note: useful excerpts from primary sources were found within this source. Major Richard H. Wyman, USAF, discusses the emergence of military aviation and how aerial means of war and air power was used at different times in history as it progressed. He also discusses the wide-ranging effects, or reactions, that developing military aviation had on the nature of war, especially concentrating on the effect on noncombatant civilians. We specifically focused on the emergence and progression of fixed-wing aircraft in war, how this changed the nature of war (and for civilians: ethics/morals involved), and the reforms in international conventions thereafter.