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ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS FROM AN ADVANCED STANDPOINT GEOMETRY FELIX KLEIN Translated from the Third German Edition by E.R. Hedrick Vice President and Provost The University of California and C. A. Noble Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus The University of California DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. MINEOLA, NEW YORK Bibliographical Note This Dover edition, first published in 2004, is an unabridged republication of an earlier Dover reprint (1949) of the translation first published by The Macmillan Company, New York, in 1939. The translation follows volume 2 (Geometrie) of the three-volume third German edition of Elementarmathematik vom héheren Standpunkte aus, published by J. Springer, Berlin, in 1924-1928, Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data Klein, Felix, 1849-1925, [Elementarmathematik vom héheren Standpunkte aus. English] Elementary mathematics from an advanced standpoint. Geometry / Felix Klein ; translated from the third German edition by E.R. Hedrick and C.A. Noble. Originally published: New York : Macmillan, 1939. A translation of y. 2 of the author’s three-volume work entitled Elementarmathematik vom héheren Standpunkte aus. Includes index. ISBN 0-486-43481-8 (pbk.) 1, Geometry—Study and teaching. I. Title: Geometry. IL. Title. QA461.K4513 2004 372.7—de22 2004045586 Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc., 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, N.Y. 11501 PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION In the preface to Part I of these lectures (Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis) I expressed a doubt as to whether Part II, devoted to geometry, could appear very soon. Nevertheless it has been possible to complete it, thanks to the diligence of Mr. Hellinger. Concerning the origin and purpose of this series of lectures I have nothing especial to add to what was said in the foreword to Part I. However, a word seems necessary concerning the new form which this second part has as- sumed. This form is, in fact, quite unlike that of Part I. I made up my mind to give, above all, a comprehensive view of the field of geometry, of such a range as I should wish every teacher in a higher school to have; the discussions about geometric instruction were pushed into the background and were placed in connected form at the end, insofar as there was room. The choice of this new order was motivated partly by the desire to avoid a stereotyped form. There were, however, weightier and deeper reasons. In geometry we possess no unified textbooks corresponding to the general level of the science, such as exist in algebra and analysis, thanks to the model French Cours. We find, rather, a single page here, another there, of an ex- tensive subject, just as it has been developed by one or another group of investigators. In contrast to this, it seemed to be demanded by the ped- agogic and the general scientific purpose which I am pursuing that I attempt amore unified presentation. I close with the wish that the two complementary parts of my Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint which are herewith completed may find the same friendly reception in the teaching world as the lectures on the organization of mathematical instruction by Mr. Schimmack and my- self, which appeared last year. Gottingen, Christmas, 1908 Klein PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION In accord with the comprehensive plan for the new edition of my mimeo- graphed lectures, which I developed in the preface to the third edition of the first volume, the text and presentation of this, the second volume, have re- mained unaltered, except for smal] changes in detail and a few insertions.* ‘Newly added remarks are indicated by square brackets. v