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Aim Problem statement Hypothesis

: To study the effect of air movement on the rate of transpiration : How does air movement affect the rate of transpiration? : The faster the movement of air, the greater the rate of transpiration.

Manipulated variable : Air Movement Responding variable : Rate of transpiration Controlled variable Materials Apparatus : Type and size of plant : Leafy plant, Vaseline, a dry cloth, water : Potometer, stopwatch, ruler, knife, beaker, rubber stopper with holes, tissue paper, fan and basin Technique : Measure and record the time taken for the air bubble to travel from P to Q by using a stopwatch Procedure: 1. The potometer is immersed in water to remove all air bubbles. 2. The screw clip is opened to fill the capillary tube with water. 3. A leafy shoot is cut in water. 4. The end of the shoot is pushed through the hole in the rubber stopper under water. 5. A beaker of water is placed at the end of the capillary tube. 6. The screw clip is closed and the potometer is removed from the water. 7. The surface of the leaves and stems are wiped with tissue paper. 8. Vaseline is spread around the stem and the rubber stopper to ensure the potometer is airtight. 9. The potometer is left aside until the air bubble in the capillary tube is moving steadily. 10. Two points, P and Q, of length 10cm apart are marked on the capillary tube. 11. The time taken for the air bubble to move from P to Q is recorded. 12. The air bubble is forced to move to point P again by opening the screw clip. 13. Steps 11 to 12 are repeated twice and the mean time is calculated. 14. Steps 11 to 13 are repeated by placing the potometer below a moving fan. 15. The rate of respiration is calculated by using the following formula: Rate of respiration = cm/minute

t = time taken for air bubble to move from P to Q

Results: Air movement 1 Still air Fast moving air (fast-moving fan) 20.0 5.6 Time / minute 2 18.5 5.4 3 19.5 4.5 Average Rate of transpiration, cm/minute

Discussion: 1. Why must the leafy shoot be cut in water for this experiment? To prevent air bubbles from forming inside the xylem vessels of the shoot. 2. What does the movement of air bubbles in the potometer indicates? The transpiration is occurring. 3. Why the rate of transpiration is higher in fast moving air? The air movement helps to remove the water vapour which diffuses out from the stomata and accumulates near the leaf surface. Hence, the faster the air movement, the faster the loss of water vapour.

Conclusion: The hypothesis is accepted. The faster the movement of air, the greater the rate of transpiration.