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Voice over LTE Network Research Department China Mobile Research Institute
Voice over LTE Network Research Department China Mobile Research Institute

Voice over LTE

Network Research Department China Mobile Research Institute

Content

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Alternatives of LTE voice solution

Voice over LTE solution

SRVCC enhancement

Industry status on Voice of LTE

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Different strategies for LTE voice service provision

Voice service can be provided both by CS network or LTE network

No impact to legacy CS network if voice service remains in CS

LTE system is an all-IP network without CS domain

VoIP service can be provided on LTE system with IMS based voice call control

functionality

CS coverage CS IMS MME eNodeB SAE Voice continuity LTE covertage
CS coverage
CS
IMS
MME
eNodeB
SAE
Voice continuity
LTE covertage

Strategy 1: Voice over CS

Voice continuity LTE covertage Strategy 1: Voice over CS • Voice service keeps in legacy CS

Voice service keeps in legacy

CS network

LTE system provides only high speed data service

Strategy 2 : Voice over LTE

only high speed data service Strategy 2 : Voice over LTE • LTE system provides VoIP

LTE system provides VoIP service and high speed data service simultaneously

IMS is used for voice call control

Voice should be provided in CS

network when out of LTE

coverage

Alternatives of LTE voice solution

Voice over LTE VoIMS+SRVCC: Providing IMS-based voice over LTE, and supporting PS/CS interworking between LTE
Voice over LTE
VoIMS+SRVCC: Providing IMS-based
voice over LTE, and supporting PS/CS
interworking between LTE and 2/3G
Multi-mode
Single-standby
CS Fallback (LTE First):If voice
is needed, reselecting from LTE to 2/3G
to provide.
Voice over CS
CS Fallback (2/3G First):First
select 2/3G, if data service is needed,
reselecting from 2/3G to LTE based on
some condition
Multi-mode Multi-mode Dual-standby Single-USIM Terminal Dual-standby Voice over CS Single-USIM The UE access 2G/3G
Multi-mode
Multi-mode Dual-standby
Single-USIM Terminal
Dual-standby
Voice over CS
Single-USIM
The UE access 2G/3G and LTE
simultaneously, voice over 2G or 3G,
data service over LTE or 2G/3G

3GPP

Standard Solution

3GPP

Standard Solution

Network

Independent

Solution

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Alternatives of LTE voice solution

Voice over LTE solution

SRVCC enhancement

Industry status on Voice of LTE

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General Principle of Voice over LTE

Legacy Internet CS PS network nework Voice & SMS services Data service 2G/3G 2G/3G terminal
Legacy
Internet
CS
PS
network
nework
Voice & SMS
services
Data service
2G/3G
2G/3G terminal
& SMS services Data service 2G/3G 2G/3G terminal •Legacy networks provide different services via CS and
•Legacy networks provide different services via CS and PS domains •CS domain provides voice and
•Legacy networks provide different
services via CS and PS domains
•CS domain provides voice and SMS
services
•PS domain provides data service
After LTE and IMS are introduced IMS IMS based network call control Internet CS network
After LTE and IMS are introduced
IMS
IMS based
network
call control
Internet
CS
network
PS
Voice &
nework
Data service
multimedia
2G/3G
services
LTE
•EPC provides
beaers for IP
services
LTE terminal
LTE terminal

VoIP service and high speed data service are

simultaneously offered over LTE

Due to lack of call control function, EPC network needs IMS network for call control and service provision IMS network provides voice continuity from LTE to CS by

anchoring voice call LTE terminal uses the same MSISDN in LTE and CS networks

voice continuity from LTE to CS by anchoring voice call • LTE terminal uses the same

VoIMS+SRVCC: Target Solution for Voice over LTE

SRVCC: VoLTE Target Solution

The consensus has been reached by the industry that the target solution for VoLTE should be based on IMS. SRVCC provides the voice continuity from LTE coverage to 2/3G CS, necessarily ensuring the pleasant experience for VoLTE users at early stage of commercial deployment.

for VoLTE users at early stage of commercial deployment. SRVCC Principle • VoLTE UE under LTE

SRVCC Principle

• VoLTE UE under LTE coverage initiates voice sessions via IMS network, which will anchor
• VoLTE UE under LTE coverage initiates voice
sessions via IMS network, which will anchor the
session and provide SIP-based session control
and applications.
• When the UE moves from LTE to 2/3G CS
coverage with the ongoing IMS session, IMS
switches the session to the CS domain, keeping
both parties of the session unaware of the
handover.
RAN/GE
RAN
CS
MGW
SCC AS
MSC Server
MGC
IMS
SR-IWF
F
PCRF
SV
CSCF
HSS
eNodeB
MME
Internet
SAE-GW
EPC
Voice continuity
Voice continuity

SRVCC Enhancements

• The first version of SRVCC solution has been specified in 3GPP Release 8, but
• The first version of SRVCC solution has been
specified in 3GPP Release 8, but the handover
performance of this version need to be enhanced.
• The Work Item of SRVCC enhancement was
created and completed in 3GPP Release 10,
aiming at the comparable handover performance
with legacy CS network.
SGW/PGW
LTE
SCC
MME
AS
ATCF
P-CSCF
I/S- IMS
eMSC
CSCF
SRVCC UE
ATGW
2G/3G
2G/3G
Remote UE
MGW
MSC Server

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Single Radio Voice Call Continuity

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity RAN/GE RAN SCC AS MSC Server MGCF IMS MGW IWF CS
RAN/GE RAN SCC AS MSC Server MGCF IMS MGW IWF CS PCRF CSCF SV HSS
RAN/GE
RAN
SCC AS
MSC Server
MGCF
IMS
MGW
IWF
CS
PCRF
CSCF
SV
HSS
Internet
MME
SAE-GW
EPC
eNodeB
Voice continuity
HSS Internet MME SAE-GW EPC eNodeB Voice continuity Sv interface between MSC server and MME is

Sv interface between MSC server and MME is defined to handle SRVCC procedure

SRVCC fundamental

• Within LTE coverage voice call is initiated from LTE/EPC via IMS, which controls and
• Within LTE coverage voice call is initiated from
LTE/EPC via IMS, which controls and anchors
the voice call
• When the UE leaves the coverage of LTE, IMS
will transfer the ongoing call to CS network

SRVCC features

SRVCC applies to the scenario that LTE coverage is not continual

SRVCC applies to multi-mode single radio UE

SRVCC is essentially a handover procedure, including transport level handover and session level handover

Considering the impacts to the networks introduced, SRVCC is not recommended until LTE becomes middle level coverage

SRVCC requires deployment of IMS network

Currently SRVCC only supports voice continuity from LTE to CS

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SR-VCC general procedure

Target UE E-UTRAN MME MSC Server 3GPP IMS UTRAN/GERAN Measurement Reports Handover to UTRAN/GERAN required
Target
UE
E-UTRAN
MME
MSC Server
3GPP IMS
UTRAN/GERAN
Measurement
Reports
Handover to UTRAN/GERAN
required
Initiat
es SRVCC for voice component
CS handover preparation
Handl
es PS-PS HO for
non-voice if needed
IMS Service Continuity Pr
ocedure
To eUTRAN
Coordinates SRV
CC
CS HO response to MME
Handover CMD
and PS HO response
Handover
execution

1. EUTRAN indicates MME of SRVCC handover after measurement;

2. MME initiates SRVCC procedure via Sv interface to MSC server;

3. MME also handles PS handover procedure for non-voice sessions

also handles PS handover procedure for non-voice sessions 4. MSC Server reserves bearers in CS network,

4. MSC Server reserves bearers in CS network, then initiates IMS session transfer procedure;

5. After successful bearer reservation, MSC Server indicates MME, who will then notify UE to reselect to UTRAN/GERAN;

6. UE continues the ongoing call when successfully reselecting to UTRAN/GERAN

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Alternatives of LTE voice solution

Voice over LTE solution

SRVCC enhancement

Industry status on Voice of LTE

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The problem of handover performance in existing SRVCC solution

Since SRVCC is an IMS based inter-RAT handover procedure from LTE to the 2G/3G CS, it is much more complex than that of the legacy 2G/3G networks, the question is how to keep the comparable handover performance?

SCC AS

1. SRVCC UE initiates voice call to another IMS UE via LTE.

2. The call is successfully established, with voice media between UEs

3. SRVCC happens when SRVCC UE leaves LTE coverage. SAE network informs SRVCC MSC to prepare for handover. MSC completes the resource reservation

4. The UE is informed to switch to 2G/3G. The voice is

4. The UE is informed to switch to 2G/3G. The voice is Remote IMS UE IMS

Remote IMS UE

IMS CSCF
IMS
CSCF
to switch to 2G/3G. The voice is Remote IMS UE IMS CSCF signal MGCF Sv 2G/TD

signal

MGCF Sv 2G/TD LTE interrupt time
MGCF
Sv
2G/TD
LTE
interrupt time

media

T1

CSCF signal MGCF Sv 2G/TD LTE interrupt time media T1 interrupt time HSS MME SAE-PGW EPC

interrupt time

HSS MME SAE-PGW EPC
HSS
MME
SAE-PGW
EPC
time media T1 interrupt time HSS MME SAE-PGW EPC SRVCC UE T2 MSCS SRVCC eMSC CS
time media T1 interrupt time HSS MME SAE-PGW EPC SRVCC UE T2 MSCS SRVCC eMSC CS

SRVCC UE

T2 MSCS SRVCC eMSC CS MGW MGW
T2
MSCS
SRVCC eMSC
CS
MGW
MGW
SAE-PGW EPC SRVCC UE T2 MSCS SRVCC eMSC CS MGW MGW interrupted during the switching procedure,

interrupted during the switching procedure, for about

200ms in T1

5. SRVCC MSC informs the remote UE to receive voice media from SRVCC MSC, not SRVCC UE

6. The remote UE switch media connection to SRVCC MSC

7. voice media will be interrupted again during the media switching procedure above, for about 800ms(if remote UE

is roaming, the interruption could be longer)

The whole interruption time = 800ms
The whole interruption time = 800ms
SRVCC UE
SRVCC UE

The longest voice interrupt could be more than1s

SRVCC performance issues

Session transfer and remote UE update may need a long time

No sync between session transfer and RAT retuning procedures

The performance issues have notable negative impact on user experience

SRVCC optimization alternatives

SRVCC optimization targetvoice interruption less than 300ms in roaming and the non-roaming; no impact to UE; the impact to the network is minimized.

LTE Wireless SCC SGW/PG access network MME AS W UE 2G/3G 核心网 IMS 2G/3G Wireless
LTE Wireless
SCC
SGW/PG
access network
MME
AS
W
UE
2G/3G
核心网
IMS
2G/3G Wireless
MSC Server
IWF
access network

UE

User plane before SRVCC User plane during SRVCC User plane after SRVCC

before SRVCC User plane during SRVCC User plane after SRVCC • The media is anchored in

The media is anchored in visited network during call setup

The anchor point redirects media flow to CS when SRVCC Pros good performance Cons Impacts to visited network, requiring visited network support

to visited network, requiring visited network support UE User plane before SRVCC User plane after SRVCC

UE

User plane before SRVCC

User plane after SRVCC

 

SCC

access network

MME

SGW/PGW

AS

LTE Wireless

2G/3G

核心网

MR

FP

IMS

MME SGW/PGW AS LTE Wireless 2G/3G 核心网 MR FP IMS UE 2G/3G Wireless access network MSC

UE

2G/3G Wireless

access network

MSC Server

IWF

The media is anchored in home network during call setup

The anchor point bi-cast media flow to LTE and CS during SRVCC Pros Little impact on network, easy to deploy Cons

Local breakout is impossible

All session need to be anchored back to home network

• All session need to be anchored back to home network SCC LTE Wireless SGW/PGW MME
SCC LTE Wireless SGW/PGW MME AS access network IMS UE 2G/3G 核心网 2G/3G Wireless MSC
SCC
LTE Wireless
SGW/PGW
MME
AS
access network
IMS
UE
2G/3G
核心网
2G/3G Wireless
MSC Server
IWF
access network

User plane before SRVCC

User plane after SRVCC

User plane before SRVCC User plane after SRVCC U E • Synchronize IMS session transfer procedure

UE

Synchronize IMS session transfer procedure with RAT retuning procedure to overlap the interruptions Pros Little impact on network, easy to deploy Cons Difficult to accurate synchronization

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Performance not optimized, the best result is no better

than the longer one in the two interruptions

eSRVCC standardizations

In order to enhance the handover performance of SRVCC, a WI named eSRVCC (SRVCC enhancement) is established in 3GPP SA2 in Release 10, with China Mobile as the rapporteur

on July 1, 2010, in the conference call of eSRVCC work group, the solution of eSRVCC to be standardized was determined out of 12 alternatives

IMS based solution, i.e. anchoring the media in visited IMS network, is selected

All 3GPP standardization work has been completed in March, 2011

3GPP standardization work has been completed in March, 2011 Sol 12 : media anchored in SGW

Sol 12media anchored in SGW

Sol 10media anchored in PGW

Sol 4media anchored in MGW

Sol 11media anchored in ALG/TrGW

IMS based solution Access Leg Serving Leg Home Leg SN HN Remote Remote MSC After
IMS based solution
Access Leg
Serving Leg
Home Leg
SN
HN
Remote
Remote
MSC
After
transfer
I/S-CSCF,
UE
After transfer
After transfer
ATCF
Leg
End
Server
SCCAS
Before transfer
Mw
Gm
Before transfer
UE
Media anchored in visited network Media anchored in home network synchronizatio n performance not fulfiled
Media anchored
in visited
network
Media anchored
in home
network
synchronizatio
n
performance not
fulfiled

Sol 8media surface anchors on MRFC/MRFP of home network

D u r i n g t r a n s f e r EPC
D u r i n g t r a n s f e r
EPC based solution
UE
After transfer
CS-MGW
UL
voice media
DL
voice media
Remote
UE
Before transfer
S/P-GW
Before and during transfer
end
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Sol 1:synchronization based on measurement Sol 2:serial handover Sol 5:ST optimization based on sol 2
Sol 1:synchronization based on
measurement
Sol 2:serial handover
Sol 5:ST optimization based on sol 2
Sol 9: synchronization based on packet
check

eSRVCC solution

eSRVCC solution •The solution is based on IMS anchoring, which introduces new entities ATCF (Access Transfer
•The solution is based on IMS anchoring, which introduces new entities ATCF (Access Transfer Control
•The solution is based on IMS anchoring, which introduces new entities ATCF (Access Transfer Control Function) and ATGW
(Access Transfer Gateway)
•As functional entities, ATCF and ATGW can be collocated with other entities, e.g. P-CSCF, IBCF, or MSC Server
•ATCF, anchor point for SIP signaling, stays in the SIP signaling path during registration and session setup, controling ATGW to
anchor the voice media when required
•when SRVCC happens, ATCF indicates ATGW to redirect the media flow to CS, keeping other part of media path unchanged
EPC network LTE wireless access network SGW/PGW MME Sv ATCF P-CSCF SRVCC UE CS network
EPC network
LTE wireless
access network
SGW/PGW
MME
Sv
ATCF
P-CSCF
SRVCC UE
CS network
eMSC
ATGW
2G/3G
wireless access
MSC Server
MGW
network
eMSC ATGW 2G/3G wireless access MSC Server MGW network Remote UE SCC AS I/S- IMS CSCF

Remote UE

SCC AS I/S- IMS CSCF
SCC AS
I/S- IMS
CSCF
MSC Server MGW network Remote UE SCC AS I/S- IMS CSCF • • • • Voice

Voice media is anchored in visited network, therefore the media redirection is executed locally, which is much faster, normally less than 100ms

IMS session transfer and remote update procedures are avoided

Interruption by RAT change can not be avoided, which is normally 200ms

The total interruption time will be less than 300 ms

Control and user planes during SRVCC handover

Both the control plane and user plane are anchored in the network which the SRVCC UE

is attached, the handover is executed locally

Access Leg

Serving Leg Home Leg SN HN MSC After transfer I/S-CSCF, UE After transfer After transfer
Serving Leg
Home Leg
SN
HN
MSC
After
transfer
I/S-CSCF,
UE
After transfer
After transfer
ATCF
Server
SCC AS
Before transfer
Mw
Before transfer
P-CSCF
UE
Gm

Remote

Leg

Remote End
Remote
End
A f t e r t r a n s f e r SN UE
A
f t e r t r a n s f e r
SN
UE
CS-MGW
After transfer
Remote
UE
Before transfer
Serving GW
Before transfer
PDN GW
Before transfer
ATGW
Remo
te leg
end
Media Path of Serving Leg
Media Path of Remote Leg

The change on control

plane during SRVCC handover

The change on control plane during SRVCC handover

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Alternatives of LTE voice solution

Voice over LTE solution

SRVCC enhancement

Industry status on Voice of LTE

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VoLTE standardization status

VoLTE standardization status • IMS introduced R5-R7 • LTE introduced • SRVCC defined Rel-8 • SRVCC

IMS

introduced

R5-R7
R5-R7

LTE

introduced

SRVCC

defined

Rel-8
Rel-8

SRVCC supporting mid- call VoLTE emergency call

Rel-9
Rel-9

SRVCC

enhancement

Rel-10
Rel-10

rSRVCC vSRVCC VoLTE roaming architecture

Rel-11 (ongoing)
Rel-11
(ongoing)
• vSRVCC • VoLTE roaming architecture Rel-11 (ongoing) VoLTE basic r e q u i r
• vSRVCC • VoLTE roaming architecture Rel-11 (ongoing) VoLTE basic r e q u i r

VoLTE basic

requirements

IR.92 defines

VoLTE profile

VoLTE international roaming & interworking

Requirements for

VoLTE roaming architecture VoLTE roaming architecture

IR.65 defines principles for IMS roaming & interworking

IR.88 defines

LTE roaming

architecture for

VoLTE

VoLTE futher

requirements

V o L T E f u t h e r requirements • IR.64 IMS Service

IR.64 IMS

Service

Centralization

and Continuity

Guidelines

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VoLTE roadmap of the industry

11Q1

11Q2

11Q3

11Q4

12Q1

12Q2

12Q3

12Q4

13Q1

13Q2

13Q3

13Q4

14Q1

VoLTE Roadmap of operators
VoLTE Roadmap
of operators
eSRVCC roadmap of nw vendors
eSRVCC roadmap
of nw vendors
SRVCC roadmap of chip vendor
SRVCC roadmap
of chip vendor
eSRVCC roadmap of nw vendors SRVCC roadmap of chip vendor Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1

Operator 2

of nw vendors SRVCC roadmap of chip vendor Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3

Operator 4

vendors SRVCC roadmap of chip vendor Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1

Operator 1

roadmap of chip vendor Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3
roadmap of chip vendor Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3
roadmap of chip vendor Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3

Operator 3

Vendor 1

Vendor 3

Vendor 5

Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2
Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2

Vendor 2

Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2
Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2

Vendor 4

Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2
Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2

Chip vendor 2

Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2
Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2
Operator 2 Operator 4 Operator 1 Operator 3 Vendor 1 Vendor 3 Vendor 5 Vendor 2

Chip vendor 1

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