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MUTHUSWAMY INTRODUCTION Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty and Industrial Security is onecritical area, which calls for unrelenting attention being bestowed upon. The fundamental concept of Security Systems or Security Servicesdenotes care or vigilance or constant watch, but its connotations,applications and dimensions have undergone perceptible changes withevery succeeding technological leap forward. Several security expertsreiterate that security both as a concept and as an activity is much morethan mere watch and ward. Contemporary circumstances havenecessitated a high degree of strategic and tactical operations in thearea of security duties if they are to be truly effective. This is morebecause of the changes in the socio-economic and corporate-industrialenvironment in India and all over the globe. The term industry is generally used in a restrictive sense to meanproduction organization (Lambert 1963). Etzioni (1969) also delimitsthe term to mean economic organization. The Industrial Disputes Act,1947 of India also defines the term industry to mean any business,trade, undertaking, manufacture, or calling of employers and includesany calling, service, employment, handicraft, or industrial occupation oravocation of workmen. Such organizations engaged in the manufactureof goods and rendering of services may be either capital-intensive orlabour-intensive or both. The growth of world into a work shop onaccount of industrialization highlights the need to take utmostprecautions and care to safeguard men and material from all kinds of hazards, losses, and threats, either internal or external or both, withoutwhich the functional pre-requisites (Parsons 1951) would remainwithout being met. This fundamental requirement is both biogenic aswell as sociogenic because the principle survival of the fittest applies toorganizations as it applies to individuals. Industrial Security may therefore be defined as the state of industrial undertakings being secure from real or potential dangers to which they are normally exposed. Itaims at securing and protecting the industrial installations fromdamages, destruction, mischief, industrial espionage, industrialsabotage, subversion and all other risks and threats which are capable of endangering the lives and properties. As Gough (1969) observes in a different context relating toentrepreneurs, a distinct class is called into being, in all industriallyadvanced communities to undertake the function of industrial securityand safety. While security services could be brought under theclassification (i) domestic, (ii) national, (iii) corporate and (iv)industrial ,the industrial security is delimited as related to (i) preventive (ii)protective, (iii) detective and (iv) punitive aspects of industrialundertakings. Industrial security depends upon a large number of factors such as the actual location of the industry, nature andcomposition of the population, nature and characteristics of personnelemployed in such an industry, influence of labour on various unions andabove all the professional standards of the industrial security personneland the types of equipments to press into service to guard against allseen as well as unseen situations. Industrial Security in its broader context includes industrial safety. Whensafety considerations are at a discount, the cost of negligence isenormous, calamitous and often immeasurable and long lasting,affecting even the future generations. The accident in Chernobyl in theerstwhile U.S.S.R, for example, rocked the entire world. The fire thatbroke out in the North Sea Oil Platform and nearer home, the Bhopal hasdisaster and

large-scale fire accident in the Indian PetrochemicalsLimited call for eternal vigilance. While wide ranging analyses andin-depth studies follow such mishaps at the national and internationallevel, recurrence of such incidences is an indicator of how ill-preparedwe are in combating or containing such events. Administratively or economically it is not essential that every type of industry should be accorded the same type of security coverage. Thethreat to any industry needs to be identified and assessed in order todetermine the degree and quantum of protection warranted. This will help devise the security measures that may actually be required for theindustry under consideration. While devising security measures, the twinprinciples of need based security and security in depth will have to beborne in mind. Industrial security management comprises of two major areas, namelysecurity services and intelligence services. The security services includeuniformed personnel or guards who perform routine activities andwhose services are nonetheless essential. The duties of such industrialsecurity service personnel include physical checking of personnel andproperty within specified parameters in accordance with set proceduresand organizational methods. The Intelligence wing is vital and involves highly sensitive areas of operations. It deploys security personnel in civilian cloths (withoutprescribed uniform) and focuses on information gathering, intelligenceactivities, and uses subtle and covert methods involving flexibleprocedures. Investigation and intelligence activities are moreinformation oriented, while security activities are situation oriented. Theintelligence aspect of security management, however, is still in nascentstages in some organizations and in totally absent in many industrialundertakings in India. But this area constitutes the very foundation of any industrial security system. THEORETICAL ISSUES Emile Durkheim (1933) considered to be one among the sociologicaltrinity and whose name is associated with functionalism waspreoccupied with gaining an insight into social order. Functionalism isinextricably intertwined with the question of social order. It enquires asto how order is maintained in society? Talcott Parsons (1951) evincing interest in the pattern of interaction andcooperation, believes that all social systems are confronted by two setsof problems. Parsons delimits the problem of the system as related tothe external environment and to the internal interactions. For him,.Adaptation and goal attainment constitute the former and integration and latency constitute the latter. Smelter (1972) suggests that in reality certain sub-systems or institutionsserve the homeostasis of a system better in the process of internaldynamics of organizations.Selznick(1948) considers the concept of organizations as cooperativesystems emanating from adaptive social structures made up of interacting individuals, sub-groups and informal plus formalrelationships.Merton (1958) applies the means-ends scheme to show the disjunctionbetween cultural goals and institutionally acceptable means of attainingthem. The discrepancy between ends and means is seen as a basicsource of frustration and recalcitrance. Social control is to be seen as a social process or mechanism thatcounteracts deviant tendencies. Though social order is thought of asconformity to norms, counteraction of deviance promotes social order.Parsons (1951) conception of social control toes the line of thinking of the old conception promoted by Ross (1896, 1901). Viewing professionsas mechanisms of social control in the sociological sense, Parsonsconsiders that professions forestall deviance.

INDUSTRIAL SECURITY AND MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Scores of issues hinge upon the process of industrialization,management thought and socio-economic development. Scientificstudies of those issues bring forth better and efficient knowledge, itsapplication in various walks of life and thus help raise the livingstandards of the people. The West has taken to industrialization, and itsconcomitants, namely, modernization and urbanization unequivocallyas a way of human progress over the two previous centuries. The Westinduces, and the developing world also volunteers to thisindustrialization process perhaps in an interactive way.the course of industrialization of a country, there exist two differingperspectives. Some consider industrialization as an evolutionaryprocess and others argue it to be an interventionist exercise without which socioeconomic advancement will come to a grinding halt. Inwhatever form industrialization takes place, it is a confluence of land,labour, capital and organization, according to Adam Smith. Necessarilythese issues of industrialization constitute what may be called industrymaking. Once industry making is completed, industry-dynamics sets inand management thought squarely focuses on it. The classical theoristsof management thought left the problem of industry making to theeconomists and assumed the existence of industries as a given forthem. Such an assumption of management process leads them toconcentrate more on the human organization of the industry than onthe material organization. Henry Fayol, the founder of managementprocess school, after his wide ranging experiences in South Africanfirms, espoused functionalism in his seminal book General andIndustrial Management. His intentions expressed therein were toinitiate a theoretical analysis appropriate to a wide range of organizations, industrial or otherwise. Fayols (1957 , p vii)) ideas aboutmanagerial activity are presented in the context of his writings onindustrial organizations. The totality of activities of an industrialorganization, big, medium, or small, can be divided into the following groups:-

Technical activities: Fayol ascribed technical activities to production,manufacture, and adaptation. These are basic to progress of theorganization and goal attainment.

Commercial activities: Just an efficient production, management of anindustry requires commercial activities pertaining to buying, selling andexchange. Fayol points to acumen and decision-making, a thoroughknowledge of the market and of the competitors, foresight and law asnecessary for ensuring the success of the organization.

Financial activities: For Fayol, capital is a pre-requisite for personnel,plant, raw material, expansion of industries and so on. He wantedsearch for and optimum use of capital.Accounting activities: Fayol maintained that efficient accountingsystem, providing an accurate idea of the organizations financialcondition, is a powerful managerial instrument.

Security activities: Fayol was insistent that it was necessary tosafeguard the property and persons against theft, fire, flood and allsocial disturbances including strikes in industries. Managerial activities: For Fayol, (1957, 19) Planning, organizations,command, coordination and control constituted the essentials of managerial functionalism. It can be seen from Fayols enumeration that the first four activitiespertained to material relations of production in industry-making andindustry maintenance. The sixth activity, for Fayol, pertained to humanrelations of production in industry-making and industry maintenance. The linkage between material relations of production and humanrelations of production was sought to be achieved by Fayol (1957, 41)by ensuring the security activities of the organization.However, neither Taylor nor Weber, the other two classical theorists of management, looked into security activities seriously. It is not that theyignored, sidestepped or bypassed that question. It is possible to assumethat despite the importance of security activities having beenrecognized by them, they would have bestowed more attention on theimportant issue of managerial functionalism. Similarly, laterorganizational schools of thought, human relations school, DecisionMaking School, Systems School, Socio-Psychological School-had allassumed the imperatives of security in industries and did not elaborateon it (Gager 1960, 72-80). In Motivation and Personality, AbrahamMaslow (1954), hinted at the psychological dimension of security of anindividual as an industrial worker, but not upon the security of theindustry itself. Even the more recent advocates of developmentdynamics and policy dynamics had not spent their time on the theme of industrial security (George 1972).In developing countries, the size, quantum, shape, complexity andproblem of both industries and industrialization vary. It is necessary herenot merely to look upon material relations of production and humanrelations of production as a whole or in individual industries, but also todeal at some length on physical security of the industrial system as awhole as well as in individual industries. However, an individualindustrial making and industry maintenance in developing countriesvary enormously, it is better to do case studies in a preliminary way inorder to theories upon industrial security at macro level. Industrial security system that is in its embryonic stage in India has thedual function of promoting order by repelling deviance emanating fromthe internal as well as external environment of the organization. Thevarious theoretical issues and problems enumerated above, amongothers, are germane to the subject under consideration. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The major aim of the study is to have an understanding of industrialsecurity pattern in India. The objectives of the study are as follows:

1. To trace the evolution of the industrial security system in thepre-independence period of India.2.

2. To narrate the problems of industrial security system in thepost independence era.3.

3. To describe the industrial security systems brought about bythe Central Industrial Security Force.4.

4. To identify the different types of security system in operationin industrial undertakings.5.

5. To evaluate the effectiveness of the industrial security systemobtaining in India and to suggest measures for theimprovement of the same. METHOD AND PROCEDURE In keeping with the objectives of the study, the primary data aregenerated through responses from the personnel in managementand rank and file and from the personnel engaged in security dutiesin four industrial undertakings located in and around Chennai(Madras) to set structured questions from an interview schedule. Theinterview schedule consisted of fourteen parts dealing with severalaspects of security arrangements available in those four industrialundertakings. Data with regard to the attitudes of the securitypersonnel towards security management by the respectivemanagement of the undertakings are also collected by way of informal discussions. The data for the present study are also obtainedfrom officially published reports touching upon industrial securityaspects. In addition periodicals and records maintained by the respective industrial undertakings are also consulted. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Insofar as the method of deployment of security personnel isconcerned, it can be broadly categorized as under:1.

Proprietary system, by which it is meant that the securitypersonnel deployed are on the pay rolls of the employingorganization.2.

Contract System which refers to a scheme in which servicesof security personnel are lent for a consideration to anindustrial organization by an outside agency specializing in allaspects of industrial security.3.

Mixed System, which refers to method of deployment of industrial security personnel partly on the direct pay rolls of the employing industrial organization and partly on the payrolls of an outside security agency from whom services areborrowed for a consideration. The findings are analyzed relying on relative frequencies. Out of four institutions selected for field investigation, three are in theprivate

sector and the last one is in the public sector. Whileidentifying the industrial undertakings, care is taken to ensure thatthere is no overlapping of the types of industrial security system invogue in such industrial undertakings. DATA ANALYSIS Sociological research with its various approaches has brought outcertain methods such as descriptive, analytical and experimental. The present study is a combination of both historical and analyticalaccount based on empirical facts. The study is carried out in historical perspective along with the studyof a cross section of the respondents in the employ of theorganization coming under its coverage. The historical perspectiveof industrial security system covers the pre-independence period of India as well as the post independence period. CHAPTERIZATION The introductory chapter brings out the importance of the study of industrial security in the context of phenomenal industrial advancementafter the advent of Indias independence. This chapter also includes areview of literature on industrial security, and a description of the overallresearch design. Chapter two traces the evolution of the industrial security system inpre-independence period of India. Chapter three restricts itself to consider the post independenceindustrial scenario in India leading to the establishment of CentralIndustrial Security Force. Chapter four discusses the salient features of the Central IndustrialSecurity Force and its association with the industrial organization understudy. Critical evaluation of the main activities and achievements of Central Industrial Security Force are made in this chapter. Chapter five is concerned with the proprietary, contract and mixedforms of industrial security system currently in vogue, especially in Tamilnadu. Chapter six brings the curtain down by making a summary of thefindings. Besides this, keeping the future in mind, the implications of thestudy are presented for the design and management of industrialsecurity in India.

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