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Chapter 1 An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology 1. Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions. 2.

Explain the principle of complementary. Levels of Structural Organization 3. Name the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships. 4. List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify their components, and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system. Maintaining Life 5. List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans. 6. List the survival needs of the body. Homeostasis 7. Define homeostasis and explain its importance. 8. Describe how negative and positive feedback maintain body homeostasis. 9. Describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease. The Language of Anatomy 10. Describe the anatomical position. 11. Use correct anatomical terminology to describe body directions, body regions, and body planes or sections. 12. Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions and associated membranes, and list the major organs contained within them. 13. Name the four quadrants or nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs they contain. Chapter 2 PART 1: BASIC CHEMISTRY Definition of Concepts: Matter and Energy 1. Differentiate between matter and energy and between potential energy and kinetic energy. 2. Describe the major energy forms.

Composition of Matter: Atoms and Elements 3. Define chemical element and list the four elements that form the bulk of body matter. 4. Define atom. List the subatomic particles; describe their relative masses, charges, and positions in the atom. 5. Define atomic number, atomic mass, atomic weight, isotope, and radioisotope. How Matter Is Combined: Molecules and Mixtures 6. Define molecule, and distinguish between a compound and a mixture. 7. Compare solutions, colloids, and suspensions. Chemical Bonds 8. Explain the role of electrons in chemical bonding and in relation to the octet rule. 9. Differentiate among ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds. 10. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar compounds. Chemical Reactions 11. Define the three major types of chemical reactions: synthesis, decomposition, and exchange. Comment on the nature of oxidation-reduction reactions and their importance. 12. Explain why chemical reactions in the body are often irreversible. 13. Describe factors that affect chemical reaction rates. PART 2: BIOCHEMISTRY Inorganic Compounds 14. Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis. 15. Define acid and base, and explain the concept of pH. Organic Compounds 16. Describe and compare the building blocks, general structures, and biological functions of carbohydrates and lipids. 17. Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in the formation and breakdown of organic molecules. 18. Describe the four levels of protein structure. 19. Indicate the function of molecular chaperones. 20. Describe enzyme action. 21. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA.

22. Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism. Chapter 3 Overview of the Cellular Basis of Life 1. Define cell. 2. List the three major regions of a generalized cell and indicate the function of each. The Plasma Membrane: Structure 3. Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane and relate it to membrane functions. 4. Compare the structure and function of tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. The Plasma Membrane: Membrane Transport 5. Relate plasma membrane structure to active and passive transport mechanisms. 6. Compare and contrast simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis relative to substances transported, direction, and mechanism. 7. Differentiate between primary and secondary active transport 8. Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis in terms of function and direction. 9. Compare and contrast pinocytosis, phagocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. 10. Define membrane potential and explain how the resting membrane potential is established and maintained. The Plasma Membrane: Cell-Environment Interactions 11. Describe the role of the glycocalyx when cells interact with their environment. 12. List several roles of membrane receptors and that of voltage-sensitive membrane channel proteins. The Cytoplasm 13. Describe the composition of the cytosol. Define inclusions and list several types. 14. Discuss the structure and function of mitochondria. 15. Discuss the structure and function of ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus, including functional interrelationships among these organelles. 16. Compare the functions of lysosomes and peroxisomes. 17. Name and describe the structure and function of cytoskeletal elements.

18. Describe the roles of centrioles in mitosis and in formation of cilia and flagella. 19. Describe how the two main types of cell extensions, cilia and microvilli, differ in structure and function. The Nucleus 20. Outline the structure, and function of the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, and chromatin. Cell Growth and Reproduction 21. List the phases of the cell life cycle and describe the events of each phase. 22. Describe the process of DNA replication. 23. Define gene and genetic code and explain the function of genes. 24. Name the two phases of protein synthesis and describe the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA in each phase. 25. Contrast triplets, codons, and anticodons. 26. Describe the importance of ubiquitin-dependent degradation of soluble proteins. Extracellular Materials 27. Name and describe the composition of extracellular materials. Developmental Aspects of Cells 28. Discuss some theories of cell differentiation and aging. 29. Indicate the value of apoptosis to the body.