Sei sulla pagina 1di 5

Psych Myers Test #4: Ch. 11, 12, 13, and 14 Ch.

11: Emotion & Stress Arousal Theory: Yerkes-Dodson law; relationship between arousal and performance. Dictates that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point. Cannon-Bard Theory: Emotional expression results from the function of hypothalamic structures, and emotional feeling results from stimulations of the dorsal thalamus. James-Lange Theory: Theory that emotion is merely our perception of autonomic changes and movements evoked directly at various stimuli. Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotions: The theory that the intensity of sympathetic arousal determines the type of emotion. Alarm: The first stage of response to stress; a brief period of high arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, readying the body for vigorous activity. Aggression: behaviour that is forceful, hostile, or attacking. Approach-Avoidance Types: Three types: Approach-approach; avoidance-avoidance; and single and double approach-avoidance. Approach-approach: people are equally attracted to gals. But carrying out one means abandoning the other. Avoidance-avoidance: a person is simultaneously repelled by two goals when obliged to select one. Single ApproachAvoidance Conflict: A person is attracted to and repelled by one goal. Double ApproachAvoidance Conflict: A person has two goals to consider, each with good and bad points. Biofeedback: Biofeedback, or applied psychophysiological feedback, is a patient-guided treatment that teaches an individual to control muscle tension, pain, body temperature, brain waves, and other bodily functions and processes through relaxation, visualization, and other cognitive control techniques. Exhaustion: The third stage of response to stress, when the bodys prolonged response to stress decreases the synthesis of proteins, including the proteins necessary for activity of the immune system. Frustration: A common emotional response to opposition. G.A.S.: General Adaptation Syndrome; the bodys adaptive response to stress, consists of three phases: Alarm phase, Resistance phase, and Exhaustion phase. Alarm stress disturbs homeostasis and as a result, the brain subconsciously sets off the fight or flight response. Resistance The body reacts to the stressor and adjusts in a way that will allow a return to homeostasis. Exhaustion The physical and psychological energy used to fight the stress has been depleted. Resistance: The second stage of response to stress; a stage of prolonged but moderate arousal. Hans Seyle: A pioneering endocrinologist, conducted most important scientific work on the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors.

Stressor: Anything (physical or psychological) that produces stress (negative or positive). Type A Personality: A personality characterized by constant competitiveness, impatience, anger, and hostility.

Chapter 12: Personality Defense Mechanisms: A method employed by the ego to protect itself against anxiety caused by the conflict between the ids demands and the superegos constraints. Defense mechanisms include: o Repression: Motivated forgetting. o Denial: Refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety. o Rationalization: An attempt to prove that actions are rational and justifiable and thus worthy of approval. o Displacement: Diverting behaviour or thought away from its natural target toward a less threatening target. o Regression: Return to a more immature level of functioning. o Projection: The attribution of ones own undesirable characteristics to other people. o Reaction Formation: A method of presenting oneself as the opposite of what they really are, to hide the unpleasant truth from themselves or others. o Sublimation: Transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable, even admirable, behaviours. Ego: According to Freud, the rational, decision making aspect of personality. Freudian Theories: Sigmund Freuds most important contributions to psychology: Freuds Personality Factors (Id, Ego, Superego); Defense mechanisms; Transference; and Freuds Psychosexual Stage Theory. Id: According to Freud, the aspect of personality that consists of all our biological drives and demands for immediate gratification. Internal Locus of Control: The belief that one is largely in control of the events of ones life. External Locus of Control: The belief that external forces are largely in control of the events of ones life. Introversion: The term Introvert refers to a person who is focused on (often preoccupied) with his or her private mental experiences, feelings, and thoughts. The term was developed by Carl Jung in his theory of personality. Learned Helplessness: When an organism (person, animal, etc.) is prevented from avoiding some aversive stimulus repeatedly (e.g., continuous electric shocks) the organism will reach a state in which it becomes passive and depressed because it believes that there are no actions it can take to avoid the aversive stimulus.

Abraham Maslow: Psychologist that developed the Hierarchy of Needs; is also the Father of Humanistic Psychology. MMPI-2: First revised version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Personality: A persons unique behavioural and cognitive patterns. Psychoanalysis: An approach to personality and psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud, based on identifying unconscious thoughts and emotions and bringing them to consciousness. Carl Rogers: An influential psychologist, one of the founders of Humanistic Psychology. He is considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research. Rorschach Test: A projective personality technique; people are show 10 inkblots and asked what each might be depicting. Self-Serving Bias: Attributions that people adopt to maximize their credit for their successes and to minimize their blame for their failures. Social-learning Theory: The view that people learn by observing and imitating the behaviour of others and by imagining the consequences of their own behaviour. Super Ego: According to Freud, the aspect of personality that consists of memories of rules put forth by ones parents. TAT Test: A projective personality technique; a person is asked to tell a story about 20 pictures. Temperament: Peoples tendency to be either active or inactive, outgoing or reserved, and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli. Trait Theory: An approach to the study of human personality. Gordon Allport was an early pioneer in the study of traits. Unconditional Positive Regard: Coined by Carl Rogers, it is basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does. Chapter 13: Specific Disorders and Treatments

Agoraphobia: An excessive fear of open or public places. Antisocial Personality: Characterised by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Anxiety Disorders: Anxiety disorders include Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD; constant plaguing by exaggerated worries) and Panic Disorder (PD; frequent periods of anxiety and occasional attacks of panic). Bipolar Disorder: A condition in which a person alternates between periods of depression and periods of mania. Characterized as Bipolar I (Characterized by at least one episode of mania) and Bipolar II (Characterized by major depression and hypomania (a milder form of mania))

Delusions: An unfounded belief that is strongly held despite evidence against it, these include Delusions of grandeur, Delusions of persecution, and Delusions of reference. Denial: The refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety. Depression: A mood or emotional state marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life. Displacement: The diversion of a thought of behaviour away from its natural target toward a less threatening target. Dissociative Reaction: Altered state of consciousness characterized by partial or complete disruption of the normal integration of a persons normal conscious or psychological functioning. DSM IV: A book that lists the acceptable labels for all psychological disorders, with a description of each and guidelines on how to distinguish it from similar disorders. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A treatment using a brief electrical shock that is administered across the patients head to induce a convulsion similar to epilepsy, sometimes used as a treatment for certain types of depression. Endogenous Depression: A type of depression caused by intrinsic biological or somatic processes rather than an environmental influence, in contrast to a reactive depression. Hypochondria: A somatoform disorder in which a person misinterprets their normal physical experiences with symptoms of some type of disease. Insanity: A spectrum of behaviours characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioural patterns; typically violations of societal norms. Lithium: Or Lithium Carbonate, is a chemical compound that is useful in treating bipolar disorder. Mania: Opposite of being depressed, it is a mood disorder in which people feel incredibly excited, hyperactive, and overly optimistic. Manic-Depression: Another way of saying bipolar disorder. Multiple Personality: A personality disorder where an individual seems to possess more than one personality. Neurosis: A general term applied to a variety of mild disorders or conditions that are characterized by anxiety and phobias that dont involve any altered senses of reality and dont affect the entire personality. Phobias: Unsound or illogical fears of objects or events. Psychotic Disorders: Conditions that reflect a persons inability to discern or function in reality. Reactive Depression: A form of depression in response to an external cause (a family members death, etc.). Seasonal Affective Disorder: A condition in which people become seriously depressed in one season of the year, such as Winter.

Schizophrenia: A condition marked by deterioration of daily activities over a period of at least 6 months, plus hallucinations, delusions, flat or inappropriate emotions, certain movement disorders, or thought disorders. The different types are: o Catatonic: Prominent movement disorder, including rigid inactivity or excessive activity. o Paranoid: Elaborate hallucinations and delusions, especially delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur. o Disorganised (or Hebephrenic): Incoherent speech, extreme lack of social relationships, and silly or odd behaviour. o Undifferentiated: Characterised by the basic symptoms. o Residual: People who have had an episode of schizophrenia and who are partly, but not fully, recovered. Ch. 14: Therapies

Behaviour Therapy: Treatment that begins with clear, well-defined behavioural goals, such as eliminating test anxiety, and then attempts to achieve those goals through learning. Flooding (Implosion): A treatment for phobia in which the person is suddenly exposed to the object of the phobia. Free Association: A procedure where a client lies on a couch, starts thinking about a particular symptom or problem, and then reports everything that comes to mind. Psychoanalysis: An approach to personality and psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud, based on identifying unconscious thoughts and emotions and brinigng them ton consciousness. Rogerian Client-Centered Therapy: A form of talk-psychotherapy developed by Carl Rogers. The goal of RCCT is to provide patients with an opportunity to develop a sense of self wherein they can realize how their attitudes, feelings, and behaviour are being negatively affected and make an effort to find their true positive potential. Systematic Desensitization (or Desynthesis): A method of reducing fear by gradually exposing people to the object of their fear.