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This experiment was conducted based on some objectives. They are to prepare the sodium hydroxide solution, to standardise the base against potassium hydrogen phthalate and to analyse the unknown acetic acid solution. There three parts of this experiment that should be done in order to get the accurate result. The first part is that we have to prepare 1.0 L of approximately 0.25 M sodium hydroxide solution. This part was done by diluting the stock solution into an amount of distilled water as the solvent. The second part is to standardise the NaOH , which is the base with the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). This part is important due to its usage to determine the exact amount of the base needed to neutralize the unknown acetic acid. The final part is to determine how much NaOH needed to neutralize the acid. Therefore, the ph of the acid can be identified. These two parts, the second and the third were done by the method called titrating. The solution to be titrated was first mix with the indicator as it was dropped into the solution before the titration was done. The result obtained by finding the difference between the initial and the final reading of the burette used.

There are three major objectives while conducting this experiment. They are 1. To dilute a concentrated stock solution of the NaOH. 2. To prepare the standardised of the base against the acid. 3. To determine the volume of NaoH needed to neutralize the unknown acid.

Titration is the process to determine the molarities of an acid or a base. In titration, one solution is added into the second solution to perform chemical reaction until they achieve the completion point. The solution to be added is called as the titrant as it is used to titrate the other solution. A typical titration is set up where the solution to be titrated is filled to a volume in the conical flask while the titrant is being filled in the burette. The titrant is added into the flask in a manner so that the reaction can take place efficiently.

An indicator is added first into the solution to be titrated so that we can identify whenever the reaction is completed by the colour change of the solution. In this experiment, we used the phenolphthalein as the indicator as it will change from colourless to pale pink when the reaction is done. As the titration finished, we can determine the volume of titrant needed to neutralize the other solution. This can be known by finding the difference of the final and the initial volume of the burette.

A. Preparation 1.0 L approximately 0.25 M Sodium Hydroxide Solution. Using 50mL beaker, the empty beaker was weighed, (w1). 10mL of NaOH solution was pipette out and transferred into the beaker. The beaker was weighed again, (w2). The density was then calculated. The volume of NaOH needed was also calculated. Using a measuring cylinder, 400mL of distilled water was measured and transferred out into a clean plastic bottle. The measuring cylinder was then rinsed with another 200mL of distilled water and the rinse was then added into the bottle. The cap of the bottle was screwed and the bottle was carefully inverted. Another 400mL of distilled water was then added into the bottle. The bottle then was shaken at least 20 times to mix it well.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

B. Standardisation of NaOH against potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). 3 replicate samples of 1g of primary-grade of KHP were weighed. They were all transferred into their respective conical flasks. The boats were rinsed with a small amount of distilled water from the wash bottle. 35mL of distilled water was then added into each flask and they were swirled to mix until the solid dissolved. A 50mL burette was rinsed with a small amount of NaOH solution. (Watch out for the bubbles). 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator was then added into each flasks containing KHP solution. The titration process was done to the three flasks. The process was stopped when the solution turned into faint pink. The final burette reading was then recorded to the nearest 0.02mL. The burette was refilled and then the titration process for the other 2 samples were continued.

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C. Analysis of the unknown vinegar solution. The density of the vinegar was determined first by weighing 10mL of the solution. Then 40mL of the vinegar solution was then transferred into a clean dry 50mL beaker. 10mL of the solution in the beaker was then transferred into 250mL conical flask. 2 more samples were prepared. The sides of the flasks were washed out using 25mL of distilled water. 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added into each flasks. Then they were titrated using the standardised NaOH solution prepared earlier. The titration was repeated for the other 2 samples.

Part A: Preparation 1.0 L approximately 0.25 M Sodium Hydroxide Solution. Volume of NaOH taken from the stock solution = 13.8308 mL

Part B: Standardisation of NaOH against potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). Rough 1.0003 27.00 48.00 21.00 20.9937 1 1.0035 17.25 38.00 20.75 20.6776 2 1.0011 27.00 50.00 23.00 22.9747 3 1.0036 21.80 44.00 22.20 22.1204

Weight of KHP (g) Final volume of NaOH (mL) Initial volume of NaOH (mL) Volume of NaOH used (mL) Ratio volume of NaOH/weight of KHP

Part C: Analysis of the unknown vinegar solution. Rough 10 1 10 2 10 3 10

Volume of the unknown acetic acid (mL) Final volume of standard NaOH (mL) Initial volume of standard NaOH (mL) Volume of standard NaOH used (mL)













W2 W1 = 46.6056 32.1452 = 14.4604 Density, = m/v = 14.4604 g / 10 mL = 1.44604 g/mL Mol of NaOH = desired molarity x desired volume = 0.25 x 1 = 0.25 mol Mass of NaOH used = no. of mol of NaOH x molar mass of NaOH = 0.25 mol x 40 g/mol = 10 g Volume of 50% by mass NaOH used (V1) = mass of NaOH used (g) /density (g/mL) = 10 g / 1.44604 g/mL = 6.9154 mL Actual volume of NaOH used = volume of 50% by mass x 2 = 6.9154 mL x 2 = 13.8308 mL

Based on the experiment done, the volume of the standardized NaOH solution to be taken is as twice the calculated one. This is due to the molarity of the solution itself. We used the 50% by mass solution, which makes the half of the actual mass needed for the titration. From the experiment also we can figure that the weight of the KHP used affect the volume of NaOH used to neutralise it. From the result, the ratio of volume NaOH/weight of KHP for the rough, sample 1, 2, 3 were 20.9937, 20.6776, 22.9747, 22.1204 mL respectively for the weighs of 1.0003, 1.0035, 1.0011, 1.0036 g of the KHP. Based on the result we can find that the volume of standard NaOH solution needed to titrate with the unknown acetic acid were 25.00, 24.80, 25.00 and 25.70 respectively for the rough, sample 1, 2, 3.

The objectives of this experiment were to prepare the standard NaOH solution, standardize the solution with the appropriate acid and to acquire the knowledge of analyzing the unknown solution using the titration method. Based on the result obtained, the objectives of the experiment can be said as achieved.

1. 2. 3. 4. Lab manual. Lecturer prof. madya zainuddin hashim 3&sqi=2&ved=0CFQQFjAC& uickreview%2Fa%2Ftitrationcalc.htm&ei=s35oTzqAZDkrAenxp2GBg&usg=AFQjCNHRrTrzXwHU79x4xXxE1FhE8O9uQ&sig2=UqGMohrxb1dKT1gNE57SOQ 5. 1&sqi=2&ved=0CEIQFjAA& on.htm&ei=s35oT-zqAZDkrAenxp2GBg&usg=AFQjCNGixqp5hzSmMKpeqCg-C5tR65lOg&sig2=nB8__svW-p7trUgab1LIrA 6.

1. Explain how weighing by difference eliminates systematic balance errors? Because we can know the exact weight of the substance we wanted to weigh by sustracting the weight of the dish, weight bottle or the Petri dish used. 2. Why does it not matter how much water you added when dissolving the acid (KHP) or when you carrying out the experiment? Because we did use the distilled water and the water does have no effects on acids or base, so it will not harm the experiment.