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Design and Development of Microcontroller Based Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency Regulated High Voltage Power Supply for

Plasma Perturbation Experiments


Nilohit Pratap Singh2, Agrajit Gahlaut1, N. Rajan Babu1, S.V. Kulkarni1, RF Group and Abhijit Sen1

1. Institute for Plasma Research, India 2. National Institute of Technology (NIT), Durgapur, India

Index
Chapter No. Abstract Preface 1. 2. 2.1 2.2 Specifications of VVVF Power Supply Design Topology Selection Design Description 2.2 (A) Power Circuit 2.2 (B) Control Circuit 2.2 (C) uC Based Low Frequency generator Design 3. 4. 5. 6. A B C D E Part list Test Results Conclusion and Future Scope References Appendices Data Sheet of SL100 Transistor Data Sheet for IRG4BC20U - IGBT Data Sheet of IC7407 Buffer Data Sheet of IC 4N35 Optical Isolation Data Sheet of ADUC 842 - Microcontroller 18 20 22 22 22 iii iv 1 2 2 4 4 11 13 Topic Page No.

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Abstract
Coulomb crystallization in dusty plasmas is of great interest in recent years. The Control of fine particle behavior in Coulomb Crystallization Experiments requires low frequency particle driving, which involves injection of alternating voltages at low frequencies. With a repetition period shorter than the particle response time, the particles feel only time-averaged force because of large mass. Also in case of dusty plasma, one needs to excite dust acoustic wave for which low frequency perturbation of higher amplitude are required, depending upon the dust size. To perform such experiments, High Voltage power supply with variable voltage and variable frequency is required. Moreover, the power supply should be highly regulated and short circuit protected. Such low frequency, high voltage pulse generator are not commercially available and hence requires special design. To satisfy the above requirements a microcontroller based variable frequency, variable amplitude, regulated high voltage power supply is designed and developed indigenously in RF Group. The paper deals with the Design, Development and Testing of 0 to1000V (p-p), 1 to 10Hz, 10mA regulated power supply.

iii

Preface
Coulomb crystallization in dusty plasmas is of great interest in recent years. The experiments generally involve a parallel plate capacitor arrangement for RF plasma generation. Plasma temperature and density is varied with the gas (typically Argon) pressure, RF frequency and power. Once the plasma is stabilized SiH4 and O2 gas are injected to generate SiO2 particles of size 2-3\mum. Occasionally 10-15 \mum sized quartz crystals are also formed. The charged particles arrange themselves in a regular geometrical array in the groove of the bottom plate of the capacitor. This array formation is known as Coulomb crystallization. The Control of fine particle behavior in Coulomb Crystallization Experiments requires low frequency particle driving, which involves injection of alternating voltages at low frequencies. With a repetition period shorter than the particle response time, the particles feel only time-averaged force because of large mass. To perform such experiments, High Voltage power supply with variable voltage and variable frequency is required. Moreover, the power supply should be highly regulated and short circuit protected. Such low frequency, high voltage pulse generator are not commercially available and hence requires special design. To satisfy the above requirements a microcontroller based variable frequency, variable amplitude, regulated high voltage power supply is designed and developed indigenously in RF Group. The report is divided in six chapters, starting with detailed specifications of the power supply in Chapter 1. The design details and schematics are given in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the list of the components used in the power supply while referencing the component nomenclature in the schematic. Test results are given in Chapter 4. The concluding remarks along with the future scope are given in Chapter 5, followed by references (Chapter 6) made while designing the power supply. A set of datasheets for the major electronic components is also included in the Appendix section. The major emphasis of the report is to give reader a description for designing and developing a cost effective VVVF regulated high voltage power supply.

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Chapter-1
Specifications of VVVF Power Supply
Specifications for VVVF power supply are given in Table 1 below.

Sr. No.

Specification

Value

A Input Voltage 1-ph, 230V (+/-10 %) Frequency 50Hz Isolation 1.5kV B Output Voltage 0 to 1000V (p-p), settable (floating) Current 10mA O/P frequency 1 Hz to 10 Hz Regulation < 1% Ripple < 0.5% at full load Mode of operation Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency (VVVF) C Protection -Overload protection -O/P Short Circuit Protection @10mA D Control Control parameter Output Voltage Voltage setting 0-5V control signal through POT Frequency setting Pushbutton/ POT E Metering O/P Voltage 1kV (p-p) Analog Voltmeter O/P Frequency 20 Character LCD F Programmability In-Circuit Reprogrammable-ICP 16-bit Table 1 Specifications of VVVF Power Supply

Chapter-2
Design
2.1 Topology Selection
The two important requirements of the power supply are: (a) Variable Alternating Voltage (Square Wave shaped) (b) Variable Low Frequency The transformer design becomes critical if it is to be operated at very low frequencies (1 to 10Hz) as the core gets saturated and hence a special design needs to be implemented. To avert the above problem, a low frequency, transformer-less H-bridge Topology is selected. The H-bridge topology provides the following advantages: (a) It allows the current to be fed to a load in all four quadrants of voltage and current. (b) The frequency and amplitude can be easily controlled through control pulses from a low voltage circuit. Also, as the frequency and time period are inversely proportional to each other, the non-linear time period generation (1sec for 1Hz and 100ms for 10Hz) introduces another issue. Based on the above requirements it is decided to go for H-bridge topology controlled by a microcontroller-based frequency controlled driver. The reasons for using microcontroller are as follows: (a) Most of the PWM controllers available in the market generally have lower frequency range, starting from few hundreds of Hertz and hence are not fit for our requirements. Such low frequencies can be precisely generated using the inbuilt timers provided in the microcontroller. (b) Another important requirement of frequency driver is to generate Dead Time; time delay between the complimentary pairs Q and Q . A precise dead time can be easily generated through a microcontroller

Fig.1 Block Diagram of VVVF Power Supply

Fig.1 shows the block diagram of the VVVF power supply. The voltage requirement specified for the supply is 500V peak to peak. However, the total circuit has been designed with a design value of 1000V peak to peak. The H-bridge topology has been used for switching. Consequently, in the power part the input voltage is stepped up to using a step up transformer. This obtained value of AC is converted to an equivalent DC output using a full wave bridge rectifier using HV diodes. A DC filter is designed to reduce the output ripple content. The regulated output of the filter is fed to the H-bridge circuit. The regulator is a power BJT based series pass regulator, which provides closed loop control of the total power supply. The controller is fed with a reference signal, which is compared with the feedback signal at the output, the difference of which forms the error signal for the regulator. The error signal is amplified and is fed to the base of the BJT and hence the required regulation as well as variation is achieved. The amplitude of the power supply is set using a potentiometer and its value is displayed on an analog voltmeter calibrated to show peak-peak output voltage. The H-bridge is IGBT based (Fig. 1) and its switching is controlled by a buffered isolated driver card that in turn is controlled by a micro-controller. The microcontroller adjusts the timing sequence for switching requirements of IGBT including the Dead Time. This is achieved by programming its 16bit timers, to generate pulsed waveforms of desired frequency (1-10Hz). The frequency is varied using a push button interfaced to the microcontroller. An LCD is also interfaced with the microcontroller to display the online frequency.

2.2 Design Description


2.2(A) Power Circuit
The power circuit (Refer Fig.2) is divided among the following parts: (a) Step up transformer (b) Rectifier (c) DC Filter (d) Short Circuit Protected Linear Regulator (e) H-bridge (f) Snubber design 4

A brief description of the design of each part is given below. (a) Step up transformer (T1) The required voltage is 1000V peak to peak. As H-bridge topology is used, 500V DC needs to be generated which generates a requirement of 230/360V 1-phase transformer. DC current requirement at the load is 10mA, which makes the VA requirement approximately 2.5VA. 66VA transformer is used based on the availability The rectifier employed in the circuit is a full wave bridge rectifier fabricated manually using diodes. PIV requirement = 1000V, Current Requirement = 10mA DC Filter Capacitor (C1 to C10) is designed for ripple < 1% at full load (c) DC Filter (C1 to C10) (b) Rectifier (D1, D2, D3, D4)

C=

( I f Vr ) 2

where Vr = ripple voltage (V), f = frequency (Hz), I = Current (A) Since, Vr =1%, i.e.10V, f = 50 Hz, I = 10 mA (refer table-1) The effective value needed for achieving ripple figure is 20uF. Hence, C1 to C10, all series connected capacitors are chosen with a value of 220 uF. Resistors (R37 to R46) are put across each capacitor s for voltage equalization. (d) Short Circuit Protected Regulator (Q5, Q6 and R2) To perform voltage regulation, variation as well as ripple rejection a series regulator (using BJT) is used in the power supply. A regulator uses a linear device (called pass device) as a variable voltage reservoir, which keeps the output voltage constant. The control device is biased at a point where the reference voltage is equal to the feedback voltage (sampled voltage), tapped through a potential divider at the load. A 'series pass' transistor, placed in series with the current path, is used for the control arrangement. It functions as an emitter follower, with the load resistor completing the emitter circuit.

Fig. 2 Power Circuit

The error signal is applied to the base input of the series pass transistor. Adjusting the sampling potentiometer changes the quiescent setting of the pass transistor base voltage; thereafter fluctuations in the output voltage produce amplified corrective changes in the base voltage. The difference between the voltage reference and a sample of the output voltage is applied to the emitter follower base through an amplifier; the phase of the amplified signal is such that it mitigates changes in the output voltage. Fig. 3 shows the circuit diagram of regulator used. Fig. 4 shows the equivalent circuit of the regulator design. The Combination of OPAMP and Transistor can be figured as an equivalent OPAMP connected in Voltage-Shunt Feed Back Mode.

Iin = If + Ib
Where, Ib is the input bias current.
U8 IN GND 1 OUT 2 VCC6 +15v R36

+
D25 18v 0v 18v D27 D28 D26

C24

C25

D34 LED R34

R35 U9 IN GND 3 OUT 2 VCC7 -15v R27 R33 R32 3 + 8 V+

R31

From T7

FB1 FB2

OUT V2 -

V+

1 R29

U1

R30

R28

U2 1

C26

C27

LED

V-

D35

OUT 2 -

B1
R47

4 R27

Fig. 3 Circuit Diagram of Regulator


Rf

+Vcc If Ri Iin v2 v1 + Vref -Vcc Vo + Ib1 + Ib2 A1 hfe Vdc

Fig. 4 Equivalent Circuit of Regulator

Since the input resistance of an OPAMP is very large, the input bias current is negligibly small. Iin If

(Vref v 2) (v 2 V 0) = Ri Rf
Also, for the above equivalent circuit,
(v1 v 2) = Since v1 = 0; v2 = Substituting (iii) in (ii) we get Vo ( A hfe) Vo ( A hfe)

(ii)

(iii)

Vref +

Vo Vo Vo ( A hfe) ( A hfe) = Ri Rf ( A hfe) Rf [( Ri + Rf + ( A hfe) Ri ]

Rearranging for Vo, Vo = (iv)

The negative signal indicates that the input and output signals are out of phase by 180 degree i.e. of opposite polarities. As ( A hfe) Ri >> ( Ri + Rf ) , we get
Vo Rf Ri

As in our case, the total gain is compounded as the product of the open loop gain of the OPAMP and the forward current gain of the transistor Q5 (hfe), it turns out that (A x hfe) >> 1. This fact also ensures that a good regulation and ripple rejection of the output voltage is achieved. The maximum dissipation possible in the series pass device in the power supply is 5W (500V*10mA). A High Voltage BU208 transistor is used as the pass device. Table 2 gives the absolute maximum ratings of the device. As seen from the SOA characteristics (Fig. 5) of the transistor, a single device is able to carry the rated voltage 1000V as well as the rated current of 10mA continuously. Q6 (Fig. 2), in case of overload or a short circuit at O/P, provides protection by conducting (and hence bypassing Q5) as drop across sensing resistor R2 exceeds the cut-off voltage.
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Table 2 Absolute Maximum Ratings of pass device

Operating point

Fig. 5 SOA Characteristics of BU208 The regulator provides the following functions:

Voltage regulation <1% Ripple reduction <0.5% Short Circuit Protection - set to 10mA To perform controlled DC to AC conversion, IGBT based H-bridge is used. As in a H-bridge, two IGBTs are in series, the maximum-shared voltage across each device will be half of the input voltage. As the maximum input voltage is 500V DC, a voltage rating of 250V would be enough. IGBT IRG4BC20U is used as a solid-state switch, having voltage rating of 600V and current rating of 6.5A.

(e) H-bridge (Q1 to Q4)

From the SOA characteristics of the IGBT (Fig. 6), the required power consumption is within SOA, no paralleling of the devices is required. 9

Operating Point

Fig. 6 SOA of IRG4BC20U Table 3 gives the typical design values used for H-bridge design.
PARAMETER Voltage Current di/dt dv/dt RATED VALUE 600V 6.5A 1500V/us 190 A/us DESIGNED VALUE 250V 10mA ~ 750V/us ~ 0.3A/us

Table 3 Design Values for H-bridge


(f) Snubber Design (R4 to R7, C11 to C14)

Snubbers are an essential part of power electronics. They are small networks of parts in the power switching circuits whose function is to control the effects of circuit reactance. They not only protect the power semiconductor devices but also enhance their performance by: 1. Limiting device voltages during turn-off transients 2. Limiting device currents during turn-on transients 3. Limiting the rate-of-rise (di/dt) of currents through the Semiconductor device at device turn-on 4. Limiting the rate-of-rise (dv/dt) of voltages across the Semiconductor device at device turn-off 5. Shaping the switching trajectory of the device as it turns on/off Snubbers enhance the performance of the switching circuits and result in higher reliability, higher efficiency, higher switching frequency, smaller size, lower weight, and lower EMI.

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By absorbing energy from the reactive elements in the circuit a snubber helps in circuit damping, controlling the rate of change of voltage or current, or clamping voltage overshoot. A snubber limits the amount of stress, which the switch must endure, and this increases the reliability of the switch. When a snubber is properly designed and implemented the switch will have lower average power dissipation, much lower peak power dissipation, lower peak operating voltage and lower peak operating current.

Four RC snubbers are designed for the protection of the four IGBT switches. RCD snubber is not used since the voltage stresses on the semiconductor devices at this load are less.

2.2 (B) Control Circuit


A dedicated driver (developed for low power IGBTs used in inverter section) with inbuilt isolation (through opto-couplers) is designed and developed for the power supply. For the purpose of safety and low voltage control, the driver part is isolated from the power part. While the driver part works at a maximum voltage of 15 volts, the power part works at a maximum voltage of 1000 volts peak to peak and hence the isolation is a must. The block diagram of the driver and control card is given in Fig. 7. The basic function of the driver part is to periodically, as determined by the operator, generate triggering pulses Q and Q through the microcontroller to govern the ON and OFF switching of the IGBT switches that constitute the H-bridge. The separate 15V power supplies needed to run the 4N35 ICs is also mounted on the driver card. The function of the driver and control is categorized into four levels as: (refer Fig. 7, Fig. 8) (a) Buffering (b) Isolation (c) Conditioning (d) Level translation

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Fig. 7 Block Diagram of Driver and Isolation Card


U7 GND 1 D21 D22 IN OUT 2 VCC5 +5v 14 R26 R8 U1A 2 7407 Q14 7 Q13 Q1E U3 GND R9 R11 VCC1 +15v R22 3 Q1G D29 LED D7 D8 C16 2 OUT IN 1 D5 D6

D33

~ ~ D23

+
D24

3 C22 C23

Q -

U2A

R10

+
C15

~ ~ FROM T2

LED

FROM T6

From ADUC842 G

GND

R12 R14

VCC2 +15v R23

OUT

IN

U4 1 D10 D9

U2B

R13 Q8 Q7

Q2G D30 Q2E LED

C18

+
C17

~ ~ FROM T3 D12 D11

U5 GND R16 R15 U1B R18 4 7407 Q10 Q9 Q3E LED VCC3 +15v R24 3 Q3G D31 C20 2 OUT IN 1 D14 D13

U2C

R17

C19

~ ~ FROM T4 D16 D15

From ADUC842

U6 GND R19 R21 VCC4 +15v R25 Q4G Q12 Q11 Q4E D32 LED D20 D19 2 OUT IN 1 D18 D17

U2D

R20

C21

+
C28

~ ~ FROM T5

Fig. 8 Driver and Isolation Card

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(a) Buffering (U1A, U1B)

The buffers used in the system are two of the six in built buffers of a 7407 IC. The need for a buffer arises because during the driver operation by the microcontroller the current generated by it is not sufficient enough to feed the primary of optical isolator.. Refer Appendix A and B for Data Sheets of 7407 and 4n35.
(b) Isolation (U2A, U2B, U2C, U2D)

The isolation function is desired to separate the L.V and the H.V circuits. In an Hbridge circuit for turning on the diagonally opposite switching devices would lead current flow through the load and lead to its reversal of direction of flow alternately. This method requires that each of the four switches receive its own control input. Since our voltage requirement at the load is high we need to provide electrical isolation and a level shifter to match the micro controllers output voltage/current requirements, as a standard practice. IC 4n35 is used for both the purposes.
(c) Conditioning (Q7, Q9, Q11, Q13)

The SL 100 transistors provide the signal conditioning. The provision of inversion is a control measure. Inversion of the waveform is necessary because during input from the microcontroller all the pulses are high just a moment before switching starts happening, this can create a short circuit within the switching circuit.
(d) Level Translation (Q6, Q8, Q10, Q12)

The level translation is required because up to the isolators in the driving circuit the operating voltage is 5 volts, however in order to drive the IGBT gates in hard saturation 15V supply is used. The output of 4n35 drives the Conditioning and level translation circuits, which finally drives the gates of the IGBTs.

2.2 (C) MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED LOW FREQUENCY GENERATOR DESIGN


Microcontroller (ADUC842)
For generating programmable low frequency switching pulses, Micro-converter ADUC842 from Analog Devices is used (Refer Appendix d for Data sheet). This controller is a part of the Micro-controller Kit developed at RF Group (Fig. 9), and is provided with all the features to interface LCD, Keypads and external peripherals. The kit size is around 5.5 x 4 and is in-circuit programmable (ICP). The powerful features of this microcontroller are listed below.

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Fig. 9 Micro-Converter Kit Developed at RF Group Features of ADUC842:


Single cycle 20 MIPS 8052 core 8-channel 12 bit High speed 420 KSPS ADC Two 12-bit voltage output DAC Programmable PWM starting from 400Hz, 3 Timers @ 16bit Time Interval Counter, Inbuilt Ambient Temperature sensor Supports SPI, UART, I2C Protocols 62 kB on chip flash program memory, 4 kB on chip flash data memory Inbuilt PLL based clock core clock generation In-circuit Reprogrammable

External Device Interfacing


A 2 line, 20Character LCD is interfaced with the ADUC842 kit using a FRC connector and cable.

Fig. 10 Interface of LCD with Microcontroller 14

The connection diagram of LCD to Microcontroller is given in Fig. 10. Port 2 of the microcontroller is used as the Data Bus for the LCD. Port pins p0.1, p0.2 and p0.3 are used for controlling the data flow and Display on the LCD. The Connection between ADUC842 and LCD is through 14-wire FRC cable. The LCD is housed in a separate control box of the power supply. A push button is connected to the port P0.5 and is used for frequency selection. The pin P0.5 is polled for active low (when the push button is pressed) and causes change in the output frequency with simultaneous display over the LCD.

Flow Chart
The program flow is shown in Fig. 11. The default frequency of the output pulse is set to 1Hz. As soon as the system is started, the output generates 1Hz. This is simultaneously displayed over the LCD. The frequency is generated using Timer 1 in 16-bit mode. The program then waits for the push-button to be pressed (for a change in frequency). Once the push button is pressed, the program counter increments to the new value in the look up table (LUT) and collects the data and starts generating the new frequency with the simultaneous display over LCD. A circular programming loop is used for frequency increments i.e. after reaching 10Hz the frequency rolls back 1Hz.

Fig. 11 Flow Chart

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Software

The software used is divided in three categories: (a) Assembler (b) Simulator (c) Downloader
(a) Assembler

The program is written in an ASCII text editor in assembly format. Once the code is written it is assembled using an assembler. The assembler used is 2-pass (cross) assembler from Metalink Corporation (Fig. 12). Once the code is assembled, Intel compatible hex file is generated. Fig. 13 gives a screen shot of the Intel Compatible hex file for the program used.

Fig. 12 Cross Assembler

Fig. 13 Intel-Compatible Hex Code file


(b) Simulator

Before downloading the program, the hex file is loaded in a simulator. The simulator used is ADSim Simulator from Analog Devices. Fig.14 shows the screen shot of the ADSim simulator with different simulation windows like RAM Simulation, Port simulation, Timer Simulation etc. The simulator provided the facility of stepped simulation and facilities like external simulated interrupts.

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Fig. 14 ADSim Simulator


(c) Downloader

Fig. 15 Screen Shot of the Configuration Menu of Serial Downloader For downloading the hex code into the flash of microcontroller, Serial Downloader v6.06 from Analog Devices is used. Some of the configuration capabilities (Fig. 15) of the downloaded are listed as follows: (a) Downloading Port Selection facility (b) Crystal frequency selection (c) Baud rate selection for both PC and microcontroller (d) Erase Modes for Code and data (e) Download Modes for Code and data, Verification and Bootload options 17

Chapter-3
Part list
Sr. No. Part Value Quantity

T1 1-ph, 66VA, 230/360V, Xmer T2, T3, T4, T5, 1-ph, 500mA, 230/18V, Xmer T6 1-ph, 500mA, 230/9V, Xmer T7 1-ph, 500mA, 230/18-0-18, Xmer D1, D2, D3, D4 1N5048, 1000V PIV, 3A D5D28 1N4007 D29D35 LED, 5mm C1C10 220MFD, 100V, Electrolytic Capacitor C11...C14 20pF, 1000V, Ceramic capacitor C15, C17, C19, C20, 100MFD, 63V, Electrolytic Capacitor C22, C24, C25, C28 C16, C18, C20, C21, 104, 63V, CERAMIC CAPACITOR C23, C25, C27 F1 75mA, Micro Fuse CB1 1A, 1-pole, MCB VM1 0-1kV pk-pk calibrated to 0-1mA Q5, Q6 BU208 Power BJT Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 IGBT IRG4BC20U Q7Q14 SL100 Transistor R1 50k, 100W R2 POT 100E R3 500kE R9R14, R16R21 1kE, 1/2W R27, R34 Multi turn POT, 50kE R8, R15 500E, 1/2W R28, R29, R30, R31 10k, 1/2W, resistor R22, R23, R24, R25, 4.7kE, 1/2W R28, R36, R27 18

1 4 1 1 4 19 5 10 4 7 7 1 1 1 1 4 7 1 1 1 12 1 2 4 7

R26 1kE, 1/2W R32 820k, 1/2W, resistor R33, R34 Multi turn POT 100kE R35 Multi turn POT, 10kE R37R46 50kE, 1W U1, U2 LM741 U2A to U2D 4N35 U1A, U1B IC7407 U3, U4, U5, U6, U8 LM7815 U7 LM7805 U9 LM7915

1 1 2 1 10 2 4 1 5 1 1

Part list ADUC842 Microcontroller Kit


Micro-converter Analog devices ADC842 Micro-converter Card ADUC842_RF_KIT port header. Serial down loader Analog Devices, Windows serial 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 21 1 2 download V 6.06. Assembler Metalink asm51. Simulator Analog Devices simulator Operating system Windows Xp professional. LCD HD44780U microcontroller chip. CRYSTAL 32 KHz ARRAY 9 pin, 10 K POT Miniature 10 K RESISTOR 1 K, 10 K CAPACITOR 0.01 F CERAMIC PUSH BUTTON Micro push button 2 PIN CONNECTOR MALE & FEMALE 3 PIN CONNECTOR MALE & FEMALE 4 PIN CONNECTOR MALE & FEMALE 1 1

Serial Data Cable Analog Devices, 4 pin header to serial 1

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Chapter-4
Test Results
(A) Testing of Driver Card

The IGBT driver is tested for its maximum operating frequency range. It works well up to 4 kHz, which is well above the requirement. (Ref Fig. 16)

Fig. 16(a) Input Through Function Generator

Fig. 16(b) Input Through Function Generator

Ch 2 Driver Pulse Output at 1Hz (QIG of Fig 8) Ch 2 Driver Pulse Output at 10Hz (Q1G of Fig 8)

Fig. 16(c) Input Through Function Generator Fig.

16(d) Input Through Function Generator

Ch 2 Driver Pulse Output at 1kHz (QIG of Fig 8) Ch 2 Driver Pulse Output at 4kHz (Q1G of Fig 8)

(B) Testing of Power Supply

The Power Supply is tested on a resistive dummy load for a load current of 10mA. Fig. 17 is a test result measured between OUT1 and OUT2 of Fig 2.

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Fig 17(a) Ch 3 Voltage Output at 1Hz, 1kVp-p @ 10mA,measured betn OUT1 and OUT2 of Fig. 2

Fig 17(b) Ch 3 Voltage Output at 10Hz, 1kVp-p @ 10mA, measured betn OUT1 and OUT2 of Fig. 2

Fig 17 (c) Ch 3 Ch2

Voltage Output at 5Hz, 500V p-p @

Fig 17(d) Ch 3 Ch2

Voltage Output at 10Hz, 500V p-p @

10mA, measured between OUT1 and OUT2 of Fig. 2, Driver Output (Q1G of Fig 8)

10mA, measured between OUT1 and OUT2 of Fig. 2, Driver Output (Q1G of Fig 8)

Fig. 18(e) shows the power supply doing transition in CC mode at the time of short circuit and it recovers normally once the short is removed.
Short Applied Short Removed

Control and Monitoring Unit

Power Unit

Fig 17(e) Ch 3

Voltage Output at 1Hz, 500V p-p @

Fig. 17(f) shows a view of the assembled power supply.

10mA, measured between OUT1 and OUT2 of Fig. 2, with a Short Circuit applied to the load followed by Short Circuit Recovery

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Chapter-5
Conclusion and Future Scope

The power supply is designed and tested successfully as per the given requirements on a resistive dummy load. The power supply is made indigenously with the available components in a time scale of ~ 25 days The estimated cost of the power supply is ~ Rs10,000/The power supply can be optimized for the components, size and power density as most of the components used are over rated. The program can be modified for higher frequency resolution. Features like remote programmability can be incorporated in future designs. Owing to the constraint of time the wiring layout can be optimized in future by designing a planned wiring layout to avoid any interference between power and control circuits

Chapter-6
References
Power Electronics by P.S. Bhimbra 2) 8051 Micro-controller programming by Mike Predko 3) 8051 Micro-controller by Kenneth Ayala 4) Wikipedia Encyclopedia 5) www.analog.com, www.fairchild.com

APPENDICES
(A) Data Sheet for SL100 Transistor (B) Data Sheet for IRG4BC20U - IGBT (C) Data Sheet for IC7407 Buffer (D) Data Sheet for IC4N35 Optical Isolation (E) Data Sheet for ADUC 842 - Microcontroller

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