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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSMISSION LINE WITH PROTECTION BY STATIC IMPEDANCE RELAY

A Major Project Report


Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

By Palak N Petigara (08BEE039) Parth P Shah (08BEE046)

Under the Guidance of "Dr. J. G. Jamnani"

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIRMA UNIVERSITY


Ahmedabad 382 481 May 2012

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NIRMA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AHMEDABAD 382481

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Major Project report entitled Design and Development of Transmission Line Model with Protection by Static Impedance Relay submitted by Mr.Palak Petigara (08BEE039) & Mr.Parth Shah (08BEE046) towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree in Bachelor of Technology (Electrical Engineering) of Nirma University is the record of work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

Date:
Place: Ahmedabad

Name and Signature of Guide

Section Head (EE)

HOD (EE)

CONTENTS
Acknowledgement Abstract List of Figures Contents Chapter 1: Circuit Design 1.1 Block Diagram of Static Impedance Relay 1.2 Circuit Diagram Chapter 2: Simulation on PSIM 2.1 Simulation Under Normal Condition 2.1.1 Power Circuit 2.1.2 Comparator Circuit 2.2 Simulation Under Faulty Condition 2.2.1 Power Circuit 2.2.2 Comparator Circuit Chapter 3 Circuit Diagram and Calculation 3.1 Detailed Circuit Diagram 3.1.1 Circuit Explanation 3.2 Impedance Calculation 3.2.1 Under Normal Condition 3.2.2 Under Faulty Condition Chapter 4 Fabrication of Transmission Line Model and Relaying System 4.1 Assembling of Transmission Line Model 4 1 (i) (ii) (iii)

4.2 Fabrication of Relaying System 4.3 List of Components Used

4.4 Components Description 4.4.1 Current Transformer (CT) 4.4.2 Potential Transformer (PT) 4.4.3 Rheostat 4.4.4 Rectifier Circuit 4.4.5 Fault Switch 4.4.6 DC Contactor 4.4.7 IC LM 741 4.4.8 Thyristor 4.4.8.1 Static V-I Characteristics and Operation 4.4.8.2 Applications

References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The MAJOR PROJECT work that we carry out during sem-VIII is the part of our curriculum. We learn theory concepts at ample but the fact of practical implications is necessary for understanding it more clearly. Hereby, we are greatly thankful to the board, designing the curriculum for us. We would like to express our gratitude to all those who gave us the possibility for this project. We are thankful to Institute of Technology for including Major Project for our fruitful knowledge gain. We extend our thanks to Dr. S. C. Vora and Prof. T. H. Panchal Course coordinator for inclusion of beneficial and recommended topics basic for us. Our sincere regards to our guide Dr. J. G. Jamnani for being so co-operative and imparting us the required knowledge for the project and guiding us the pathways for a successful project without loopholes.

Palak Petigara (08BEE039)

Parth Shah (08BEE046)

(i)

ABSTRACT
The Impedance relay is distance relay which used to protect the medium and long transmission line. Firstly the electromagnetic type distance relays were used in which the operating time of the relay is much higher than conventional relays. The electromagnetic relays operation is quite good but due to some major disadvantages the static relay has completely eliminated it. The static relay often referred as electronic relay in which no moving parts are there. The static relay just senses the abnormal condition and operates according to the provision. In the static relay no moving parts are there and it operates with the help of electronic components. In this there is least possibility of malfunctioning. The impedance relays basically measures the impedance from the relay location to the fault point and compare it with the reference or set value, if the impedance measured by relay is less than the set value than relay will operate. The static impedance relay consists of comparator, level detector, CT, PT, and electronic components. The electronic impedance relay is used for the protection for the medium and long transmission line because of its flexibility of characteristics, fastness, compact, less maintenance etc.

(ii)

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.1: Block Diagram of Static Impedance Relay Fig.2: Circuit Diagram of Static Impedance Relay

(iii)