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INSTRUMENTATION FOR PC BASED VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS

Lecture #1 Basic modules of the instrumentation

A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

THE FIRST MODULE

FrontSignal Transducers: Front-end of any measurement system

A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

! Most crucial component (module) of a measurement system. ! Accuracy, reliability and reproducibility of a measurement depend on the characteristics of the transducer. ! Transducers with electrical output are preferred. ! Selecting an appropriate transducer depends on 1. Physical quantity to be measured 2. Transducer principle best suited for this measurement 3. Accuracy required a) Basic electrical an mechanical characteristics.
- type & range, sensitivity, excitation, physical nature

b) Ambient and environmental conditions.


- intrinsic nature, temperature effects, vibration,

c) Compatibility of the associated equipment.


- zero balance provision, impedence matching, .
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

Classification of Transducers
Based on physical principle involved Active & Passive Primary & Secondary Analog & Digital

Based on electrical parameter measured R potentiometric (P, x), strain gage (F, , x), pirani gage (P, flow),
resistance thermometer (RTD) (T), thermistor (T), . var. C pressure gage (x, P), microphone (sound),

C L

LVDT (P, F, x), eddy current (x), magnetostriction (P, F, sound), thermocouple (T, heat fl.), piezoelectric (sound, a, P), photovoltaic (light), PMT (light), Hall effect (Mag. Flux), electrochemical sensors (ions, gases),
Department of Physics

V, I

A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

THE SECOND MODULE

FrontFront-End Signal Conditioner (FSC)


RealReal-world transducers require signal conditioning. Includes signal amplification,attenuation,filtering, electrical isolation, simultaneous sampling, and multiplexing. Many transducers require excitation currents or linearization. voltages, bridge completion or linearization.

Signal conditioning requirements are specific to each type of transducer.


Let us consider the specific cases of FSC required for a thermocouple, RTD, thermistor and strain gage.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

Strain gages for force, torque & displacement measurements


* Strain (): Amount of deformation of a body due to an applied force. * Expressed in 10-6 in./in. or 10-6mm/mm. * Fine wire / metallic foil in a grid form. * Gage Factor (GF) = (R / R) / (L / L) = (R / R) /

Characteristics FSC Requirement


* Low resistance * V or I excitation * Low sensitivity * High amplification * Nonlinear output * Bridge Completion * Linearization * Shunt calibration
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

# Strain gage measurements require accurate measurement of very small resistance values. 500 Consider a specimen with a strain of 500. The corresponding R = GF (500 10-6). Now, if GF = 2, then R = 0.1%. For a 120 gage, this R = 0.12 !!!! Hence strain gages are used in a bridge configuration with a voltage or current source. excitation source. For the Wheatstone bridge shown in figure, the output voltage,

When R1/R2=R3/R4, Vo = 0 = BALANCED!


A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

If R4 is replaced with a strain gage, then R= RG GF . If R1=R2 and R3=RG, then for the quarter -bridge circuit,

Sensitivity is doubled the half-bridge circuit (R3 and R4 are replace by two active gages). S Vo/VEX = - GF /2 In the full-bridge circuit, R1, R2, R3 and R4 of the general Wheatstone bridge is made of four active strain gages (two in tension and two in compression mode). For this circuit, Vo/VEX = - GF
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

The FSC for a strain gage should take care following: of the following Bridge completion: If full-bridge circuit is not used, the bridge has to be completed with two or more highprecision (matched) reference resistors. Bridge excitation: Normally a constant voltage source is used. There is no standard voltage level (3V and 10V are commonly used). Signal amplification: Typical strain gage outputs are < 10 mV/V. So if VEX = 10V, V0=100 mV. A good voltage amplifier with gain up to 2000 is required. Shunt calibration: A calibrated shunt resistance is used across an arm of the bridge to get a known R.Vo generated is then compared with expected value. Others: Lead wire R compensation & bridge balancing.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

Thermocouple, thermistor and RTD for temperature measurements


Thermocouple: Two dissimilar metals joined together.Seebeck together.Seebeck coefficient, S = V / T.

J1, J2 and J3 are three metal-metal junctions. To get the temperature of J1, contribution from J2 and J3 should be subtracted. For this, J2 & J3 temperatures and their V-to-T relationship should be known. Cold Junction and isothermal J2 and J3 eliminates parasitic effects.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

10

Types of thermocouple
Type B C E J K N R S T Size:

Composition Useful T (0C) Abs. Ac Pt30%Rh (+) , Pt6%Rh (-) 1370 1700 --W5%Re (+) , W26%Re (-), 1650 2315 --Chromel (+) , Constantan (-) 95 900 1.7 Iron (+) , Constantan (-) 95 760 1.5 Chromel (+) , Alumel (-) 95 1260 1.5 Nicrosil (+) , Nisil (-) 650 1260 1.5 Pt13%Rh (+) , Pt (-) 870 1450 1.0 Pt10%Rh (+) , Pt (-) 980 1450 1.0 Cu (+) , Constantan (-) -200 - 350 0.8 Larger diameter wire means longer life at higher temperatures. But thinner wire gives higher sensitivity. Length: Minimum immersed length should be four times the diameter o the outer (protective) tubing.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

11

Characteristics FSC Requirement


* Low voltage OP * Low sensitivity * Nonlinear output * TREF sensor * High amplification * Linearization

TREF sensor and cold junction compensation: H/W method: A variable voltage source (voltage source with a potentiometer) with a pre-calibrated setting for variations in J2 (and J3) temperature is used. The reference emf TREF sensor. S/W method: Reference junction temperature TREF is measured and converted in to voltage. This value is added to measured voltage of J1. High amplification: Thermo emf changes only 7 to 50V for 1oC. Low-noise mV amplifier is required. Linearization: Thermo emf is non-linear. S can vary by a factor of 3 V vs. T curves are fit to T = a0 + a1V + a2V2 +
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

12

A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

13

Thermistor: Thermistor: This is a semiconductor composed of metallic oxides such as nickel, manganese, cobalt, copper, iron, and titanium. Thermistors in wafer, disk, bead, and other shapes. Two basic types of thermistors - negative temperature coefficient (NTC) and positive temperature coefficient (PTC). * Large change in resistance for 1OC change. Compact shape and size enables temperature measurement of small areas. High resistance minimizes contribution from lead wires.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

14

Characteristics FSC Requirement


* High resistance * I or V excitation with * High sensitivity reference resistor * Highly NL output * Linearization Linearization: Linearization The Stainhart-Hart equation expresses the relationship between resistance of a thermistor and temperature, namely,

1/T = a + b(lnR) + c(lnR)3


where T is temperature, R is resistance and a, b, c are coefficients derived from measurements.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

15

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) * Consists of a wire coil or deposited film of pure metal whose resistance increases with temperature. * Usually made of platinum and has a nominal resistance of 100 at 0C [PT 100]. Other variants are PT 500, PT 1000, etc. * High stability and accuracy over a wide T. * RTDs are passive resistive devices.
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

16

In the 2-wire RTD (RT) measurement, the voltage drops due to IEXC, passing through the lead resistance, RL, add to the measured voltage, VO. In the 4-wire RTD, one pair of wires carries the excitation current through the RTD; the other pair senses the voltage across the RTD. Since negligible current flows through the sensing wires, the lead resistance error is very small.

Characteristics FSC Requirement


* High resistance * I or V excitation with * High sensitivity reference resistor * Highly NL output * Linearization
A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

17

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

A.Srinivasan
QIP-STC on VI (Nov., 1-7,2004), IITG

Department of Physics

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