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# Surveying For Petroleum Engineers

PTRL05C02 Lecture 10

Map Projections

Map Projections

## Map Scale: Representative Fraction

Map Projection: Scale Factor = Map distance Globe distance (e.g. 0.9996)

## = Globe distance Earth distance (e.g. 1:24,000)

Coordinate System
A planar coordinate system is defined by a pair of orthogonal (x,y) axes drawn through an origin

## Projected Coordinate Systems

A map projection is the systematic transformation of locations on the earth (latitude/longitude) to planar coordinates

The basis for this transformation is the geographic coordinate system (which references a datum) Map projections are designed for specific purposes

Map Projection
This process of flattening the earth will cause distortions in one or more of the following spatial properties:

Shape
Conformal map projections preserve shape

Area
Equal area map projections preserve area

Distance/Scale
Equidistant map projections preserve distance

Direction/Angle
Azimuthal map projections preserve true direction

The Globe
Advantages most accurate map Distances, Directions, Areas (sizes), and Angles Latitude & Longitude Lines Latitude are Parallel Longitude Meridians Converge at the Poles Parallels & Meridians meet at Right Angles Parallels become shorter toward the poles Disadvantages expensive to make cumbersome to handle & store difficult to measure not fully visible at once

## Flat Paper or Screen Map

Advantage has none of the Globes disadvantages Disadvantage must transform the spherical surface into a flat surface not able to maintain all forms of accuracy Area/Size OR Angles OR Distance OR Direction Projection How the Earths Spherical Surface is Transformed into a Flat Plane Surface only able to maintain one or two forms of accuracy only Correct Projection = more useful than a globe Wrong Projection = major problems & deceptions

Types of Projections
Conic: Screen is a conic surface. Lamp at the center of the earth. Examples: Albers Equal Area, Lambert Conformal Conic. Good for East-West land areas. Cylindrical: Screen is a cylindrical surface. Lamp at the center of the earth. Examples: (Transverse Mercator). Good for North-South land areas. Azimuthal: Screen is a flat surface tangent to the earth. Lamp at the center of the earth (gnomonic), at the other side of the earth (stereographic), or far from the earth (orthographic). Examples: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area. Good for global views.

Types of Projections

Types of Projections
Equal Area: maintains accurate relative sizes. Used for maps that show distributions or other phenomena where showing area accurately is important. Examples: Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area, the Albers EqualArea Conic.
Conformal: maintains angular relationships and accurate shapes over small areas. Used where angular relationships are important, such as for navigational or meteorological charts. Examples: Mercator, Lambert Conformal Conic. Equidistant: maintains accurate distances from the center of the projection or along given lines. Used for radio and seismic mapping, and for navigation. Examples: Equidistant Conic, Equirectangular. Azimuthal or Zenithal: maintains accurate directions (and therefore angular relationships) from a given central point. Used for aeronautical charts and other maps where directional relationships are important. Examples: Gnomonic projection, Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area.

## Projections Preserve Some Earth Properties

Area - correct earth surface area (Albers Equal Area) important for mass balances Shape - local angles are shown correctly (Lambert Conformal Conic) Direction - all directions are shown correctly relative to the center (Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area) Distance - preserved along particular lines Some projections preserve two properties Some projections preserve none of the above but attempt to minimize distortions in all four The degree and kinds of distortion vary with the projection used. Some projections are suited for mapping large areas that are mainly north-south in extent, others for large areas that are mainly east-west in extent.

Conic Projections

## Albers and Lambert

Lambert Projection

The Lambert projection is a conical conformal projection. The imaginary cone is placed around the earth so that the apex of the cone is on the earths axis of rotation above the north pole, for northern hemisphere projections. The location of the apex depends on the area of the ellipsoid that is being projected. Figure 3 shows that, although the east- west direction is relatively free from distortion, the north- south coverage must be restrained (to 158 miles) to maintain the integrity of the projection Lambert conformal conic projection is preferred for east- west extended land areas.

Cylindrical Projections
Mercator
Transverse

Oblique
Tangent Secant

## Transverse Mercator Projection

Transverse Mercator projection is created by placing an imaginary cylinder around the earth, with its circumference tangent to the earth along a meridian (central meridian). When the cylinder is flattened, a plane is developed that can be used for grid purposes. At the central meridian the scale becomes progressively more distorted as the distance east and west of the central meridian increases The distortion, which is always present when a spherical surface is projected onto a plane, can be minimized in two ways. First, the distortion can be minimized by keeping the zone width relatively narrow ( about 158 miles in an east- west direction). Second, the distortion can be lessened by reducing the radius of the projection cylinder (secant projection) so that, instead of being tangent to the earth's surface, the cylinder cuts through the earth's surface at an optimal distance on either side of the central meridian. The scale factor at the central meridian is less than unity (0.9999), it is unity at the line of intersection at the earth's surface and more than unity between the lines of intersection and the zone limit meridians Transverse Mercator projection is preferred for north- south extended land areas.

Azimuthal

Lambert

## Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System

Uses the Transverse Mercator projection Each zone has a Central Meridian (lo), zones are 6 wide, and go from pole to pole 60 zones cover the earth from East to West Reference Latitude (fo), is the equator (Xshift, Yshift) = false easting and northing so you never have a negative coordinate
This time in METERS!!!!!

Commonly used by federal governmental agencies such as USGS (also a few states)

## Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

Characteristics of UTM Grid system A zone is 6o wide. There is a zone overlap of 0O 30. The latitude of the origin is the equator, 0O. The easting value of each central meridian = 500,000.000 m. The northern value of the equator = 0.0000 m (10,000,000.000 m in the southern hemisphere) Zone numbering commences with 1 in the zone 180O W to 174OW and increases eastward to zone 60 at the zone 174OE to 180O E. Projection limits of latitude 80O S to 80O N.

Zone 1
Equator

Zone 18

UTM Zone 15

## Local Survey Datums of Egypt

(1) Egyptian Transverse Mercator (ETM)
Egypt was divided to three zones, considering Helmert ellipsoid representing the earth surface and latitude 30 north as the central latitude First zone (purple belt), projected on a transverse cylinder tangential to the Helmert ellipsoid at longitude 27 and covering the zone between longitudes 25 to 29 N. The origin of the coordinates was taken Eo= 700,000 m, No= 700,000 m. Second zone (red belt), projected on a transverse cylinder tangential to the Helmert ellipsoid at longitude 31 and covering the zone between longitudes 29 to 33 N. The origin of the coordinates was taken Eo= 615,000 m, No= 810,000 m. Third zone (blue belt), projected on a transverse cylinder tangential to the Helmert ellipsoid at longitude 34 and covering the zone between longitudes 33 to 36 N. The origin of the coordinates was taken Eo= 300,000 m, No= 1,000,000 m.

## Local Survey Datums of Egypt

(2) Unified Egyptian Transverse Mercator Based on the Transverse Mercator System with the following modifications: 1) Using the WGS84 ellipsoid as the reference system. 2) The base latitude angle (origin point) is zero. 3) Scale factor at the origin 0.9999. 4) False Easting= 300,000 m and False Northing is zero. 5) Egypt was divided to five zones: from longitude 24 to 27 N, from longitude 27 to 30 N, from longitude 30 to 33 N, from longitude 33 to 36 N, and from longitude 36 to 39 N.